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  • CTLs
  • Binding of an appropriate epitope to an SLA class I molecule is the single most selective event in antigen presentation and the first step in the killing of infected cells by CD8+ CTLs. (frontiersin.org)
  • vitro
  • We combined several in silico prediction methods to unravel the most promising C57BL/6 mouse-restricted Hepatitis C virus (HCV) MHC class I epitopes and validated these epitopes in vitro and in vivo . (mdpi.com)
  • This study provides an up-to-date listing of currently known, well-defined viral CTL epitopes for HIV, EBV, CMV, HCV and HBV and describes an approach that overcomes some of the above limitations through the use of peptide matrices of optimally defined viral CTL epitopes in combination with anti-CD3 in vitro T cell expansion and re-use of cells from negative ELISpot wells. (harvard.edu)
  • vaccine design
  • The conceptual difference between the theories regarding the maintainance of polymorphism in CTL epitopes may have significant implication for vaccine design. (mysciencework.com)
  • The association between differential recognition of distinct CTL epitopes and protection from HIV-1 infection may have significant implications for vaccine design. (ox.ac.uk)
  • humoral
  • This causal lentivirus can be found in monocytes, lymphocytes and macrophages of infected sheep in the presence of humoral and cell mediated immune response and can also be detected by conducting several serological tests. (wikipedia.org)
  • residues
  • Although the epitopes recognized by these CTL were unaffected by changes occurring at residues 9, 43, and 95, or at residues 149, 152, and 156 alone, simultaneous changes in both of these regions acted in concert to destroy the epitopes. (jimmunol.org)
  • Both of the CTL recognized epitopes that were lost when substitutions were made at residues 9, 43, 95, 149, and 152. (jimmunol.org)
  • The epitope recognized by one of the CTL was also destroyed by the substitution of residues 9, 43, 95, 152, and 156. (jimmunol.org)
  • Overall, these results indicate that residues 9, 43, and 95, as well as residues in the alpha-helical region of the molecule, are all capable of contributing to the definition of the epitopes recognized by HLA-A2.1- and HLA-A2.2-specific CTL. (jimmunol.org)
  • They further indicate that some epitopes can be mapped to a particular region of the molecule, whereas other epitopes are formed through a complex interaction of residues in distant regions of the molecule. (jimmunol.org)
  • Vaccines
  • Inactivated whole-virus preparations are useful against some diseases, but these vaccines generally do not generate a potent major histocompatibility complex (MHC) class I-restricted cytotoxic T-lymphocyte (CTL) response necessary to clear lentiviral-infected cells and are not effective against lentivirus variants ( 15 , 29 ). (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • receptors
  • Clonal deletion is the removal through apoptosis of B cells and T cells that have expressed receptors for self before developing into fully immunocompetent lymphocytes. (wikipedia.org)
  • specific
  • The tetramer assays, however, are limited in that they are specific to one HLA-restricted epitope, and both the tetramer and ELISPOT assays serve only as surrogate markers of CTL lysis. (asm.org)
  • An alto CTL epitope of the H-2D d antigen was also localized to this stretch of amino acid sequence, as one of several H-2D d specific CTL clones reacted with the mutant molecule in which amino acids were replaced at position 63 to 70. (springer.com)
  • This antigen possesses tumor epitopes capable of inducing HLA-A24-restricted and tumor-specific cytotoxic T lymphocytes in cancer patients and may be useful for specific immunotherapy. (wikipedia.org)
  • amino
  • The epitope recognized by this CD4+ CTL clone (amino acids 140 to 148) overlaps with a CD8+ epitope and is highly conserved among all isolates of HIV type 1 that have been sequenced. (eurekamag.com)
  • A further amino acid substitution at position 70 resulted in the gain of additional H-2D d specificities, allowing to localize more than half of all the relevant H-2D d serological epitopes to position 63 to 70. (springer.com)
  • response
  • CD8-TLs recognizing this epitope were consistently detected in Mamu-B*17 + macaques and represented the immunodominant chronic phase response in one elite controller. (rupress.org)
  • The cells that carry out the adaptive immune response are white blood cells known as lymphocytes. (wikipedia.org)