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  • proteins
  • Although epitopes are usually non-self proteins, sequences derived from the host that can be recognized (as in the case of autoimmune diseases) are also epitopes. (wikipedia.org)
  • Peptides can also be bound by proteins that form covalent bonds to the peptide, allowing irreversible immobilisation These strategies have also been successfully applied to the development of "epitope-focused" vaccine design. (wikipedia.org)
  • We illustrate the method by designing six single-domain antibodies to bind different epitopes within three disease-related intrinsically disordered proteins and peptides (α-synuclein, Aβ42, and IAPP). (pnas.org)
  • Taken together, these results indicate that the design strategy that we propose makes it possible to obtain antibodies targeting given epitopes in disordered proteins or protein regions. (pnas.org)
  • In this work, we introduce a computational method of rational design of complementarity determining regions (CDRs) that makes it possible to obtain antibody against virtually any target epitope within intrinsically disordered peptides and proteins or within disordered regions in structured proteins. (pnas.org)
  • Although epitopes are usually thought to be derived from nonself proteins, sequences derived from the host that can be recognized are also classified as epitopes. (thefullwiki.org)
  • Intensive research is currently taking place to design reliable tools that will predict epitopes on proteins. (thefullwiki.org)
  • If the topology of a cell membrane has yet to be determined, epitope insertion into proteins can be used in conjunction with immunofluorescence to determine structures. (wikipedia.org)
  • immune response
  • Epitopes that are not targeted or targeted to a lower degree during an immune response are known as subdominant epitopes. (wikipedia.org)
  • Having the immune response focused on a specific immunodominant epitope is useful because it allows the strongest immune response against a certain pathogen to dominate, thus eliminating the pathogen fast and effectively. (wikipedia.org)
  • The immunodominant epitope can be mutated in the virus, thus allowing HIV to avoid the adaptive immune response when reintroduced from latency. (wikipedia.org)
  • immunology
  • In immunology, cryptic self epitopes are a source of autoimmunity. (wikipedia.org)
  • The Immune Epitope Database and Analysis Resource (IEDB) is a project hosted by scientists at the La Jolla Institute for Allergy and Immunology (LIAI), with support from the National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases (NIAID), a part of the National Institutes of Health (NIH), and Department of Health and Human Services (HHS). (wikipedia.org)
  • CTLs
  • Of particular importance is that the ARF epitope-specific CTLs eliminated AAV2/F9-transduced hepatocytes but not AAV2/F9 codon-optimized (AAV2/F9-opt)-transduced liver cells in which p18 epitope was deleted. (nih.gov)
  • mAbs
  • Epitope mapping is an important component in the development of therapeutic monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) and vaccines. (wikipedia.org)
  • Specifically, epitope mapping can allow determination of the therapeutic mechanism of action of individual mAbs e.g. blocking ligand binding or trapping a protein in a non-functional state. (wikipedia.org)
  • cell
  • However, self epitopes which appear in very low concentration on APC are termed cryptic in the sense that they do not delete autoreactive T-cells which will then join the peripheral adult T cell repertoire. (wikipedia.org)
  • Epitope binning Mimotope Odotope Polyclonal B cell response Protein tag Huang, J. (wikipedia.org)
  • The IEDB contains data related to antibody and T cell epitopes for humans, non-human primates, rodents, and other animal species. (wikipedia.org)
  • Recognition of oligonucleotide-encoded T cell epitopes indtroduce dinto a gene unrelated to the original antigen. (springer.com)
  • This can be in concordance with an additional theory which states that immunodominance may be dependent on the affinity of the T-cell receptor (TCR) to the immunodominant epitope. (wikipedia.org)
  • The mechanism of immunodominance in B cell activation focuses on the affinity of epitope binding to the B-cell receptor (BCR). (wikipedia.org)
  • These antibodies then out-compete the BCR for the epitope, and thus that B cell lineage will be unavailable for subsequent stimulation. (wikipedia.org)
  • The IEDB is groundbreaking because it contains antibody and T cell epitope data curated from scientific literature, presented collectively to facilitate basic research. (wikipedia.org)
  • IEDB
  • In addition to the database, the IEDB website hosts an Analysis Resource, which contains a collection of tools to predict and analyze epitopes. (wikipedia.org)
  • The Center for Infectious Disease is home to the world's largest database on how the immune system responds to infectious diseases, the Immune Epitope Database and Analysis Resource (IEDB). (wikipedia.org)
  • hypothesis
  • In particular, we tested the hypothesis that antigenic epitopes derived from an ARF in coagulation factor IX (F9) cDNA can induce CTL reactivity, subsequently killing F9-expressing hepatocytes. (nih.gov)
  • plural
  • Still, because of the two possible epitopes and the different carrier structures, the plural CCDs is in frequent use even though core α1,3-fucose appears to be the single culprit. (wikipedia.org)
  • peptides
  • The epitope mapping resolution here depends on the number of overlapping peptides that are used. (wikipedia.org)
  • The procedure consists in the sequence-based design of one or more complementary peptides targeting a selected disordered epitope and the subsequent grafting of such peptides on an antibody scaffold. (pnas.org)
  • Ligand
  • Use the Find motif, Ligand or epitope option. (dtu.dk)
  • The database also contains MHC binding data from a variety of different antigenic sources and immune epitope data from the FIMM (Brusic), HLA Ligand (Hildebrand), TopBank (Sette), and MHC binding (Buus) databases. (wikipedia.org)
  • recognize
  • This leads to a greater expansion of the T cells that recognize a high affinity epitope and is favoured since these cells are likely to clear the infection much more quickly and effectively than their subdominant counterparts. (wikipedia.org)
  • gene
  • Epitopes are often used in proteomics and the study of other gene products. (wikipedia.org)
  • Such as categorization of allergen cross-reactivity information, identification of cancer-associated gene variants and the classification of immune epitopes. (wikipedia.org)
  • affinity
  • On the opposite end of the scale where BCRs have low affinity for the epitopes, these B cells are outcompeted for stimulation by B cells with BCRs that have higher affinities for their respective epitopes. (wikipedia.org)
  • The immunodominant epitope will be a BCR that has a particular 'goldilocks' amount of affinity for its epitope determined by equilibrium binding affinity. (wikipedia.org)
  • That is, those within the 'goldilocks zone' for affinity will be available for subsequent T helper stimulation, allowing for class switching, affinity maturation and thus, resulting in immunodominance to that particular epitope. (wikipedia.org)
  • specific
  • In addition, such techniques can be relatively time-consuming and costly, especially if the screening for a specific epitope is required. (pnas.org)
  • In this work we describe a rational design method that enables one to obtain antibodies targeting any specific epitope within a disordered protein or disordered region. (pnas.org)
  • The specific region an antibody recognizes on an antigen is called an epitope. (wikipedia.org)
  • mechanism
  • The mechanism of increased breadth of neutralizing antibody response is unknown, but believed to be due to increased exposure and stabilization of epitopes in the CD4 binding site (CD4bs). (cavd.org)
  • concentrations
  • As an example of an application, we show that one of these antibodies inhibits the aggregation of α-synuclein at substoichiometric concentrations and that binding occurs at the selected epitope. (pnas.org)
  • data
  • In addition to verifying antibody patentability, epitope mapping data has also been used to support broad antibody claims submitted to the United States Patent and Trademark Office. (wikipedia.org)
  • Common
  • Common epitopes used for this purpose are Myc-tag, HA-tag, FLAG-tag, GST-tag, 6xHis and OLLAS. (wikipedia.org)
  • 1991, Japanese researchers determined the structure of the epitope common to horseradish peroxidase and Drosophila neurons as being an asparagine-linked oligosaccharide (N-glycan) containing a xylose and a core-linked α1,3-linked fucose residue. (wikipedia.org)
  • cells
  • A ) The activation of spleen cells from OT-1 mice by OVA epitope presentation. (nih.gov)
  • After 30 days, mice were killed, and spleen cells were harvested and analyzed for OVA epitope tetramer and CD8 staining by flow cytometry. (nih.gov)