• Also described in step-by-step detail are co-culture techniques valuable in developing models for investigating many different in vitro systems, including the blood-brain barrier, drug uptake, and the interaction of epithelial cells with bacteria. (springer.com)
  • Airway epithelial cells (AECs) are part of the frontline defense against infection of pathogens by providing both a physical barrier and immunological function. (hindawi.com)
  • The air-blood barrier is mainly formed by two epithelial cell types: alveolar type I (ATI) and alveolar type II (ATII) cells. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • As the barrier between the outside world's contaminants and the body, these cells replicate often to replace damaged or dead cells. (davidson.edu)
  • Our primary study includes identifying key molecules which regulate CEC/microorganism interaction, CEC/lamina propria cell interaction and intestinal epithelial cell barrier function. (massgeneral.org)
  • The epithelial layer within the colon represents a physical barrier between the luminal contents and its underlying mucosa. (dovepress.com)
  • Recently, the links between epithelial barrier loss and disease were extended to include initiation and propagation. (bioportfolio.com)
  • Thus, GC causes disruption of the epithelial barrier by inducing Ca2+-dependent activation of NMII, and Opa phase variation modifies infection mechanisms by regulating perijunctional actomyosin remodeling. (umd.edu)
  • Since endothelial cell layers, which line blood vessels, have similar barrier functions and polar organisation as epithelial cell layers, we also discuss biochips for culturing endothelial cell layers. (rsc.org)
  • Epithelial cells represent the first barrier of the upper and lower respiratory tracts and thus are logical targets for a comprehensive integrated therapeutic approach. (bmj.com)
  • Adaptive and innate immune systems play a major role in these functions, which are centrally orchestrated within the epithelial barrier. (bmj.com)
  • Once thought to function exclusively by providing a crucial barrier, mucosal epithelial cells are now known to function as sentinels that recognize antigens, respond in ways that lead to bacterial and viral killing, as well as signal to underlying immune cells when pathogenic challenge exceeds their protective capacity. (wiley.com)
  • Elemental analysis of vapour was done by mass spectrometry, and oxidative potential of vapour assessed by antioxidant depletion in vitro There was no difference in baseline nasal epithelial PAFR expression between vapers (n=11) and controls (n=6). (nih.gov)
  • Our studies have demonstrated it is possible to culture both human nasal and bronchial epithelial cells to confluency under similar conditions in vitro . (ingentaconnect.com)
  • Using human RPE-derived ARPE-19 cells as an in vitro model, we exposed RPE cells to various concentrations of the specific carotenoids, followed by either graded hypoxia or oxidative stress using tert -butyl hydroperoxide (tBHP). (mdpi.com)
  • Arsenic can cause malignant transformation of human prostate epithelial cells in vitro, and these CAsE-PE (chronic-arsenic-exposed prostate epithelial) cells produce aggressive, carcinoma-like rumors when inoculated into nude mice (Achanzar et al. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • The in vitro specific cell binding, cellular uptake, and cytotoxicity of Apt-CUR-NPs were also studied. (dovepress.com)
  • Therefore, this study was undertaken as follows: 1) to determine S. aureus supernatant modulation of cytokine generation and cytokine signaling in an in vitro cell culture system of primary nasal epithelial cells, and 2) to elucidate the role of S. aureus -derived serine proteases in initiating and maintaining inflammatory mechanisms in nasal epithelial cells. (jimmunol.org)
  • Epithelial cells infected with various H . pylori clinical isolates resulted in generation of tyrosine-phosphorylated proteins ranging from 130 to 145 kD in size that were also induced in vitro by mixing host cell lysate with bacterial lysate. (rupress.org)
  • In summary, we describe a defined in vitro assay system to quantify cells with regenerative potential and systematically investigate their interaction with the physical environment at distinct steps of morphogenesis. (biologists.org)
  • To investigate if NGF can alter epithelial ion transport, we established human primary cultured epithelial cells in air-interface that demonstrates desirable in situ morphology and ion transport function. (cdc.gov)
  • The cells exhibit epithelial morphology and produce the protease plasminogen activator that typically initiates the process of fibrinolysis by converting plasminogen to plasmin. (microscopyu.com)
  • Cells were staining according to Feulgen method and nuclear morphology was analyzed to detect possible damage. (isciii.es)
  • This differential actin remodeling is dependent on the activation and redistribution of NMII and leads to different changes in the morphology and functionality of epithelial cells. (umd.edu)
  • The absence of the second gH/gL complex causes the loss of epithelial and endothelial cell tropism in HCMV laboratory strains ( 19 - 22 ). (pnas.org)
  • I did not expect that spindle orientation defects could be sufficient to cause loss of epithelial identity," explains Yu-ichiro Nakajima, Ph.D., a postdoctoral fellow in the Gibson lab and the study's first author. (medindia.net)
  • Next, we will review and critically discuss how dys-regulation of cell volume or given ion transporters can lead to loss of epithelial architecture, altered cell survival, tumor progression, and drug resistance. (frontiersin.org)
  • In particular, Ashwell and colleagues found that thymic epithelial cells express the entire enzyme cascade required for GC synthesis, enabling the release of bioactive GCs ( 12 - 14 ). (rupress.org)
  • We investigate the basic cellular and molecular mechanisms involved in the functional modulation of colonic epithelial cells (CEC) during the development of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). (massgeneral.org)
  • This demonstrates the importance of sample choice when investigating functions directly affecting the colonic epithelial layer. (dovepress.com)
  • Fascinating biology occurs at epithelial interfaces, whether between organism and environment or within body compartments, and many diseases inflicting huge personal and societal burdens result from dysfunction of epithelial systems, e.g., carcinomas. (springer.com)
  • Basic research using cell culture models has markedly contributed to our understanding of airway epithelial cell biology. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • In other words, if you pointed a tiny camera in your gut toward dividing epithelial cells of its lining, you would "see" the mitotic spindle looking like a symmetrical web, exactly like it did in your high school biology textbook. (medindia.net)
  • The findings derived from epithelial biology often lead to a better understanding of cancer development," says Nakajima. (medindia.net)
  • To adequately defend against microbial colonisation and infection, epithelial cells are endowed with the complete armamentarium of innate immune defence. (els.net)
  • The epidermal growth factor receptor and its endogenous ligands provide a formidable mechanism to enhance innate immunity, while they oppose activation of adaptive immunity in epithelial cells. (els.net)
  • Patients with atopic dermatitis are more susceptible to cutaneous fungal, viral and bacterial pathogens because of an articulate defect in the innate immunity mechanisms of the epithelial cell. (els.net)
  • Furthermore, these epithelial cells are capable of not only regulating innate immunity but also producing functional molecules that physically interacted with immunocytes to activate adaptive immunity [ 1 , 2 ]. (hindawi.com)
  • These epithelial cell-derived antimicrobial molecules and/or peptides were multifunctional agents capable of linking the innate and adaptive immune responses [ 3 ]. (hindawi.com)
  • Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb) is an extremely dangerous pathogen that primarily infects the lung and is known for its capability to escape innate immune effector cells (such as macrophages and airway epithelial cells) causing tuberculosis in humans and animals [ 5 ]. (hindawi.com)
  • The AECs are one of the first host cells encountering invaded mycobacterial pathogens, despite increasing evidence, which demonstrates the potential roles of these cells in the tuberculosis (TB) pathogenesis, as well as the innate and adaptive immune responses against the infection [ 6 - 9 ]. (hindawi.com)
  • An emphasis was placed on the recently recognized functions of epithelial cells in innate and adaptive immunity against mycobacteria, particularly the pathogen recognition and host defense of AECs to Mtb. (hindawi.com)
  • Acting both directly and indirectly through underlying stromal cells, estradiol and progesterone regulate epithelial cell innate and adaptive immune functions to protect against potential pathogens while providing an environment that supports an allogeneic fetus. (wiley.com)
  • These are required for the normal processes of cell physiology There may also be some specialised structures, as described for endothelial cells below. (google.com)
  • Epithelial cells are joined together by junctions, of which there are four types: Tight junctions or zona occludens are where the membranes of the adjacent cells become fused together. (google.com)
  • For example, although epithelial cells in Drosophila do not develop TJs, a distinct region apical to the ZA, the subapical region (SAR), harbors protein complexes that colocalize with tight junctions in vertebrate cells. (sciencemag.org)
  • Physiologically functional and morphologically recognizable tight junctions can thus be established within 30 min, demonstrating a mechanism for the rapid restoration of epithelial integrity after cell loss. (caltech.edu)
  • Resolvins decrease oxidative stress mediated macrophage and epithelial cell interaction through decreased cytokine secretion," PLoS One, vol. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • Airborne agricultural particulate matter induces inflammatory cytokine secretion by respiratory epithelial cells: mechanisms of regulation by eicosanoid lipid signal mediators. (cdc.gov)
  • The study was based on the hypothesis that poultry PM would induce the release of inflammatory cytokine interleukin-8 (IL-8) by respiratory epithelial cells under the upstream regulation by cytosolic phospholipase A2 (cPLA2) activation and subsequent formation of cyclooxygenase (COX)- and lipoxygenase (LOX)-catalyzed arachidonic acid (AA) metabolites (eicosanoids). (cdc.gov)
  • Previous studies have shown that CD4+ T cells and the production of the cytokine IFN- × are important components of the immune response to H. pylori in humans. (dissertations.se)
  • The aim of this study was to determine whether T. foetus and T. vaginalis stimulated the release of the cytokine interleukin (IL)-10 from cultured bovine epithelial cells. (scielo.br)
  • Far from simply representing passive targets of environmental or immunological attack, epithelial cells play an active role in the generation and expression of protective immune responses. (els.net)
  • Epithelial cell-generated virions had higher intrinsic "fusion-from-without" activity than fibroblast-generated particles, and the two virus preparations triggered different cellular signaling responses, as evidenced by markedly different transcriptional profiles. (pnas.org)
  • The exact mechanism of epithelial mediated host defense and the clinical relevance of the epithelial cell-mediated immune responses remain poorly understood. (hindawi.com)
  • In response to damage, epithelial wounds repair by a series of events that integrate epithelial responses with those of resident and infiltrating immune cells including neutrophils and monocytes/macrophages. (jci.org)
  • These cells were placed in an Ussing chamber to obtain transepithelial voltage (Vt), short-circuit current (Isc), transepithelial resistance (Rt), and to measure responses to known ion transport inhibitors. (cdc.gov)
  • Identifying signals of inflammation initiation and responses to stimuli from within the epithelial layer is critical to understanding the molecular pathways underlying disease pathology. (dovepress.com)
  • Attachment of Helicobacter pylori to gastric epithelial cells induces various cellular responses, including the tyrosine phosphorylation of an unknown 145-kD protein and interleukin 8 production. (rupress.org)
  • 2009). There are few studies that address the responses of host cells to T. vaginalis and T. foetus infection. (scielo.br)
  • Conclusion: These results represent some of the first data documenting alterations in profiles of oral epithelial cell responses to multispecies biofilms. (umich.edu)
  • These epithelial cell‐driven molecular events are also involved in the pathogenesis of chronic inflammatory disorders, with the amplification of the inflammatory reactions because of a sustained crosstalk with infiltrating leucocytes. (els.net)
  • In particular, T‐cell‐derived cytokines have been identified as the most effective inducers of pro‐inflammatory signals in epithelial cells, in turn responsible for further recruitment and local activation of immune cells, leading to the eventual amplification of the inflammatory reaction. (els.net)
  • Dysregulated expression of cytokines and chemokines in skin keratinocytes leads to sustained skin infiltration and local activation of a variety of immune cell populations in chronic skin inflammatory disorders including atopic dermatitis. (els.net)
  • Epithelial cells possess a number of effective regulatory mechanisms to control intensity and duration of inflammatory events. (els.net)
  • The objective of this study was to elucidate the anti-inflammatory potential of Lactobacillus plantarum Lp62, isolated from cocoa fermentation, in a cell culture model. (hindawi.com)
  • L. plantarum Lp62 was able to inhibit inflammatory stimulation in epithelial cells and macrophages and activated a tolerogenic profile in mononuclear cells of healthy donors. (hindawi.com)
  • Improved understanding of crosstalk between epithelial and immune cells during wound repair is necessary for development of better pro-resolving strategies to treat debilitating complications of disorders ranging from inflammatory bowel disease to diabetes. (jci.org)
  • 6 Challenging the nose with allergens will induce the influx of inflammatory cells in the lower airways and vice versa. (bmj.com)
  • Asthma is defined as a chronic inflammatory disorder of the airways in which many cells and cellular elements play a role-in particular, mast cells, eosinophils, T cells, macrophages, neutrophils and epithelial cells. (bmj.com)
  • Thus, the inflammatory response of the host cell is species-specific. (scielo.br)
  • Objective: This study used a novel model of multispecies bacterial biofilms to stimulate oral epithelial cells and profile select cytokines and chemokines that contribute to the local inflammatory environment in the periodontium. (umich.edu)
  • Wide-ranging and highly practical, Epithelial Cell Culture Protocols offers both novices and expert investigators alike a step-by-step guide toward a deeper understanding of cellular and molecular mechanisms in general, as well as a set of robust techniques for specifically evaluating the nature and behavior of epithelial cells. (springer.com)
  • Cellular senescence describes a type of arrested growth during which the cells no longer divide. (eurekalert.org)
  • Animal cells contain several structures not common to plants as well, including lysosomes, or sacs of enzymes that digest cellular material. (reference.com)
  • One prospective use of these cells includes cellular therapies aimed at dropping inflammation and scarring. (wikipedia.org)
  • Epithelial cell transforming 2 (Ect2) protein activates Rho GTPases and controls cytokinesis and many other cellular processes. (rcsb.org)
  • Kern, "Role of Smad2/3 and p38 MAP kinase in TGF-[beta]1-induced epithelial-mesenchymal transition of pulmonary epithelial cells ," Journal of Cellular Physiology, vol. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • Together, our data confirm that miR-30 family microRNAs form a part of the regulatory signaling events involved in cellular response of pancreatic epithelial cells during mesenchymal transition. (biomedsearch.com)
  • Phase connectivity was assessed by measuring long-range diffusion of several membrane proteins by fluorescence recovery after photobleaching in two polarized epithelial cell lines and one fibroblast cell line. (pnas.org)
  • Here we show that ivermectin also inhibits infection of epithelial cells by the bacterial pathogen, Chlamydia trachomatis, at doses that could be envisioned clinically for sexually-transmitted or ocular infections by Chlamydia. (harvard.edu)
  • Epidermal keratinocytes respond to a variety of exogenous stimuli with the release of a plethora of cytokines, chemokines and antimicrobial peptides implicated in the attraction and local activation of immune cells, including polymorphonucleates (PMN), macrophages (Mφ), dendritic cells (DC) and T cells. (els.net)
  • Human lung epithelial cells (A549) in culture were treated with the poultry PM (0.1-1.0 mg) for different lengths of time, following which PLA2 activity, release of eicosanoids and secretion of IL-8 in cells were determined. (cdc.gov)
  • These cells also produce proinflammatory cytokines, growth factors, and chemokines that recruit and activate phagocytes to the site of infection eliminating pathogens by phagocytosis. (hindawi.com)
  • The endocervical cell line, but not the others, also produced the lymphopoietic cytokines IL-6, IL-7, and consistently detectable levels of the chemokine known as "regulated-upon-activation, normal T cell expressed and secreted" (RANTES). (nih.gov)
  • These data provide further evidence that epithelial cells in the lower human female genital tract participate in immunological functions, that their activity is up-regulated by proinflammatory/immune cytokines, and that epithelial cell immunological functions vary at different anatomical sites in the genital tract. (nih.gov)
  • The intestinal mucosa contains high levels of the immunosuppressive cytokines TGFβ and IL-10 produced by the regulatory T cell subsets, DCs, and even epithelial cells ( 2 , 3 ). (rupress.org)
  • Some reports have shown that the cytokines interleukin (IL)-8 and tumour necrosis factor (TNF)- α are secreted when host cells are exposed to specific molecules from T. vaginalis (Bastida-Corcuera et al. (scielo.br)
  • 2006). Even HeLa cells cultured with this parasite have been reported to secrete some cytokines (Chang et al. (scielo.br)
  • Immunohistochemistry confirmed the presence of the keratin pair 4 and 13 and keratin 3 in the cultivated oral epithelial cells. (ovid.com)
  • Corneas that were grafted with rabbit and human cultivated oral epithelial cells on an AM carrier were clear and were epithelialized 10 and 2 days after surgery, respectively. (ovid.com)
  • OKF4 oral epithelial cells were cultured in 48 well plates at 10 5 cells/well, which were challenged with the biofilms for 24 hrs. (umich.edu)
  • The culture of pig kidney epithelial cells featured in the digital image above was immunofluorescently labeled with anti-cytokeratin (pan) mouse monoclonal primary antibodies followed by goat anti-mouse Fab fragments conjugated to Pacific Blue. (fsu.edu)
  • For instance, Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) enters primary B cells via endocytosis ( 1 , 2 ), yet it infects epithelial cells or transformed B cells by fusion of its envelope with the plasma membrane ( 1 ). (pnas.org)
  • Neisseria gonorrhoeae (GC) infects epithelial cells lining the female reproductive tract. (umd.edu)
  • The current study for the first time revealed that the poultry PM-induced IL-8 release from the respiratory epithelial cells was regulated upstream by reactive oxygen species, cPLA2-, COX- and LOX-derived eicosanoid lipid signal mediators. (cdc.gov)
  • We propose that the cell type in which a human cytomegalovirus particle is produced likely influences its subsequent spread and its contribution to pathogenesis. (pnas.org)
  • Taken together, these results confirm our previous observations in CHO cells and suggest that MUC1 serves as a binding site for PA on the surface of airway epithelial cells, which may have important consequences in the pathogenesis of PA lung infections. (nih.gov)
  • Taken together, these findings indicate that the ability of selected probiotics to prevent C. jejuni-mediated disease pathogenesis depends on the pathogen strain, probiotic strain and the epithelial cell type selected. (ei-resource.org)
  • The interaction between epithelial cells and conidia is multifaceted and complex, and has implications for later steps in pathogenesis. (frontiersin.org)
  • The adherence of H . pylori to the gastric epithelial cells is an important determinant of pathogenesis. (rupress.org)