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  • grown
  • Mouse Colonic Smooth Muscle Cells are grown in T25 tissue culture flasks pre-coated with gelatin-based solution for 0.5 hour and incubated in Creative Bioarray's Cell Culture Medium generally for 3-7 days. (creative-bioarray.com)
  • protein
  • RNA is important to cells because it relays information encoded in DNA to tiny organs within the cell, called ribosomes, which produce protein according to. (reference.com)
  • Signal transduction is the process by which a chemical or physical signal is transmitted through a cell as a series of molecular events, most commonly protein phosphorylation catalysed by protein kinases, which ultimately results in a cellular response. (wikipedia.org)
  • The plasma membranes of cells contain combinations of glycosphingolipids and protein receptors organised in glycolipoprotein microdomains termed lipid rafts. (wikipedia.org)
  • Applying epithelial model cells - MDCK (Madin-Darby canine kidney), he investigated lipid transport, protein sorting and their role in polarizing cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • In next years, Simons continued to work on the role of lipid rafts, and more generally lipids, in cell polarization and protein sorting. (wikipedia.org)
  • Further evidence that MUC16 can protect tumor cells from the immune system is the discovery that the heavily glycosylated tandem repeat domain of MUC16 can bind to galectin-1 (an immunosuppressive protein). (wikipedia.org)
  • In mammals, the protein makes up about 96% of the red blood cells' dry content (by weight), and around 35% of the total content (including water). (wikipedia.org)
  • In 1851, German physiologist Otto Funke published a series of articles in which he described growing hemoglobin crystals by successively diluting red blood cells with a solvent such as pure water, alcohol or ether, followed by slow evaporation of the solvent from the resulting protein solution. (wikipedia.org)
  • Barrier
  • The cells join together to create a semi-permeable barrier that protects muscles, blood vessels and organs from dirt and other debris in the environment. (reference.com)
  • In response to physical, chemical or microbial perturbation of the epithelial barrier, these cells provide a valid defensive line by the expression of an array of soluble mediators with direct antimicrobial and/or chemotactic activities towards distinct immune cell populations and also towards cytokines and adhesion molecules that affect their functional activation. (els.net)
  • Since MUC16 is highly glycosylated it creates a hydrophilic environment that acts as a lubricating barrier against foreign particles and infectious agents on the apical membrane of epithelial cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • membranes
  • Epithelial cells are joined together by junctions, of which there are four types: Tight junctions or zona occludens are where the membranes of the adjacent cells become fused together. (google.com)
  • The membranes of the adjacent cells come very close, and the tiny gap between them is bridged by tiny tubular channels which form the pores between the cells through which substances can pass. (google.com)
  • As an MGH pathology resident, he co-authored research papers on intercellular junctions, cancer cell, and red cell membranes. (wikipedia.org)
  • He continued his research on normal cell membranes and cancer cell membranes and initiated research on animal models for urinary bladder cancer. (wikipedia.org)
  • Until 1982, it was widely accepted that phospholipids and membrane proteins were randomly distributed in cell membranes, according to the Singer-Nicolson fluid mosaic model, published in 1972. (wikipedia.org)
  • In his works from 1988, together with Gerit van Meer, Simons for the first time postulated the existence of lipid microdomains in cell membranes. (wikipedia.org)
  • cytokines
  • In particular, T‐cell‐derived cytokines have been identified as the most effective inducers of pro‐inflammatory signals in epithelial cells, in turn responsible for further recruitment and local activation of immune cells, leading to the eventual amplification of the inflammatory reaction. (els.net)
  • Dysregulated expression of cytokines and chemokines in skin keratinocytes leads to sustained skin infiltration and local activation of a variety of immune cell populations in chronic skin inflammatory disorders including atopic dermatitis. (els.net)
  • Epidermal keratinocytes respond to a variety of exogenous stimuli with the release of a plethora of cytokines, chemokines and antimicrobial peptides implicated in the attraction and local activation of immune cells, including polymorphonucleates (PMN), macrophages (Mφ), dendritic cells (DC) and T cells. (els.net)
  • membrane
  • In cancer cells, EpCAM is expressed in a dispersed pattern across the cell membrane. (wikipedia.org)
  • The emphasis is on the analysis and assessment of epithelial cells, for example, by looking at apoptosis and integrins or by measuring membrane capacitance and confluence. (springer.com)
  • Terminal differentiation begins when basal cells withdraw from the cell cycle and lose their ability to adhere to the basement membrane zone. (els.net)
  • It does this by expressing a very large proportion of its genome, and expressing as many 'self' proteins on its cell membrane as possible. (wikipedia.org)
  • Each typically has a cell membrane formed of phospholipids, cytoplasm and a nucleus. (wikipedia.org)
  • Although more common in plasma membrane, lipid rafts have also been reported in other parts of the cell, such as the Golgi apparatus and lysosomes. (wikipedia.org)
  • The extraction would take advantage of lipid raft resistance to non-ionic detergents, such as Triton X-100 or Brij-98 at low temperatures (e.g., 4 °C). When such a detergent is added to cells, the fluid membrane will dissolve while the lipid rafts may remain intact and could be extracted. (wikipedia.org)
  • pluripotent
  • Much of the effects of expanding these cells are unknown and scientists are continuing to study ways to cultivate these cells without changing their pluripotent properties. (wikipedia.org)
  • Some cells, however, will remain trapped in the interior and will become the inner cell mass (ICM), and are pluripotent. (wikipedia.org)
  • days post fertilization
  • Amniotic epithelial cells start to develop around 8 days post fertilization. (wikipedia.org)
  • A morula is distinct from a blastocyst in that a morula (3-4 days post fertilization) is a 16-cell mass in a spherical shape whereas a blastocyst (4-5 days post fertilization) has a cavity inside the zona pellucida along with an inner cell mass. (wikipedia.org)
  • tumors
  • One way that MUC16 helps the growth of tumors is by suppressing the response of natural killer cells, thereby protecting cancer cells from the immune response. (wikipedia.org)
  • Biology
  • Kai Simons (born 24 May 1938) is a Finnish professor of biochemistry and cell biology living and working in Germany. (wikipedia.org)
  • In years 1982-1998 Simons was a coordinator of the Cell Biology Programm there. (wikipedia.org)
  • He was one of the initiators of establishing and building Max Planck Institute of Molecular Cell Biology and Genetics in Dresden (Germany), where he moved. (wikipedia.org)
  • extracellular
  • Scientists have found that freezing amniotic epithelial cells causes them to not function as they normally would, which have scientists thinking that the extracellular matrix is the part of the cell that controls its functions. (wikipedia.org)
  • Upon cleavage, the extracellular domain (EpEX) is released into the area surrounding the cell, and the intracellular domain (EpICD) is released into the cytoplasm of the cell. (wikipedia.org)
  • The extracellular region of MUC16 can be released from the cell surface by undergoing proteolytic cleavage. (wikipedia.org)
  • mitosis
  • Initiation of the centrosome cycle occurs early in the cell cycle, so that by the time mitosis occurs there are two centrosomes. (wikipedia.org)
  • This cell line is used for a variety of application in biomedical research but is particularly popular as a model for mitosis. (wikipedia.org)
  • This makes these cells particularly suited to studying mitosis. (wikipedia.org)
  • ions
  • Gap junctions (also called nexuses) allow communication between cells, by enabling the passage of cell messenger molecules, some hormones, ions etc from one cell to another. (google.com)
  • A cavity forms inside the morula, by the active transport of sodium ions from trophoblast cells and osmosis of water. (wikipedia.org)
  • various
  • There have been several studies conducted on the potential benefits of using Amniotic epithelial cells in various parts of the body. (wikipedia.org)
  • Additionally, EpCAM has oncogenic potential via its capacity to upregulate c-myc, e-fabp, and cyclins A & E. Since EpCAM is expressed exclusively in epithelia and epithelial-derived neoplasms, EpCAM can be used as diagnostic marker for various cancers. (wikipedia.org)
  • It is considered that these cell rests proliferate to form epithelial lining of various odontogenic cysts such as radicular cyst under the influence of various stimuli. (wikipedia.org)
  • form
  • First, procentrioles begin to form near each preexisting centriole as the cell moves from the G1 phase to the S phase. (wikipedia.org)
  • Cycle
  • The centrosome cycle is important to ensure that daughter cells receive a centrosome after cell division. (wikipedia.org)
  • The centrosome cycle consists of four phases that are synchronized to cell cycle. (wikipedia.org)
  • One centriole originates from the mother cell and the other is replicated from the mother centriole during the cell cycle. (wikipedia.org)
  • During S and G2 phase of the cell cycle, the procentrioles elongate until they reach the length of the older mother and daughter centrioles(which takes on characteristics of a mother centriole). (wikipedia.org)
  • Cell Cycle Regulation of Centrosome Duplication Centrosome duplication is heavily regulated by cell cycle controls. (wikipedia.org)
  • This link between the cell cycle and the centrosome cycle is mediated by cyclin-dependent kinase 2 (Cdk2). (wikipedia.org)
  • mechanisms
  • Wide-ranging and highly practical, Epithelial Cell Culture Protocols offers both novices and expert investigators alike a step-by-step guide toward a deeper understanding of cellular and molecular mechanisms in general, as well as a set of robust techniques for specifically evaluating the nature and behavior of epithelial cells. (springer.com)
  • Patients with atopic dermatitis are more susceptible to cutaneous fungal, viral and bacterial pathogens because of an articulate defect in the innate immunity mechanisms of the epithelial cell. (els.net)
  • Epithelial cells possess a number of effective regulatory mechanisms to control intensity and duration of inflammatory events. (els.net)
  • types
  • Expression levels are substantially higher in small intestine, and in colon EpCAM is probably expressed at the highest levels among all epithelial cell types. (wikipedia.org)
  • EpCAM expression differs between different types of renal cell carcinomas, and EpCAM expression increases during development of androgen resistance in prostate cancer. (wikipedia.org)
  • body
  • Most epithelial cells also produce mucous as a means of protecting the body. (reference.com)
  • Epithelial cells organise the physical barriers of the body, the first defensive lines against environmental, physical, chemical and microbial insults. (els.net)
  • In response to any damage to the physical barriers of the body, epithelial cells display their nature of resident components of the immune system and provide a second defensive line by the release of a plethora of active mediators. (els.net)
  • This mixture is constantly produced by the cells of the vagina and cervix and it exits the body through the vaginal opening. (wikipedia.org)
  • role
  • The epithelial cell rests of Malassez--a role in periodontal regeneration? (wikipedia.org)
  • Far from simply representing passive targets of environmental or immunological attack, epithelial cells play an active role in the generation and expression of protective immune responses. (els.net)
  • zona
  • A morula (Latin, morus: mulberry) is an early stage embryo consisting of cells (called blastomeres) in a solid ball contained within the zona pellucida. (wikipedia.org)
  • resemble
  • Once the embryo has divided into 16 cells, it begins to resemble a mulberry, hence the name morula (Latin, morus: mulberry). (wikipedia.org)
  • Thymic
  • Thymic dendritic cells and macrophages appear to be responsible for the apoptotic signals sent to autoreactive T cells in the thymic cortex. (wikipedia.org)
  • T cells also have the opportunity to undergo clonal deletion within the thymic medulla if they express high affinity for self MHC/peptide complexes. (wikipedia.org)
  • Positive selection occurs in the thymic cortex, which suggests it is possible for a cell to undergo positive selection within the cortex and then negative selection in the medulla via clonal deletion. (wikipedia.org)
  • mutations
  • This is supported by many clinical observations that cancer cells accumulate mutations in mitochondrial genes that are vital for mitochondrial function. (pvlsi.org)
  • Some cases are inherited, and these cases are often caused by mutations in the CDH1 gene, which encodes the important cell-cell adhesion glycoprotein E-cadherin. (wikipedia.org)
  • These gene products are important in determining cell fates during normal development and in maintaining homeostasis, or they can lead to de-regulated growth in disorders like cancer by responding to mutations in β-catenin, APC or Axin, each of which can lead to this de-regulated β-catenin level stabilization in cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • Germ
  • During spermatogenesis in mammals and in Drosophila melanogaster, male germ cells develop in a series of essential developmental processes. (jove.com)
  • In addition, post-meiotic germ cells undergo a dramatic morphological reshaping process as well as a global epigenetic reconfiguration of the germ line chromatin-the histone-to-protamine switch. (jove.com)
  • neurons
  • On the other hand, the TMEM16B CaCC is expressed in multiple brain regions as well as sensory neurons, like photoreceptors, and they have an inhibitory role in these cells. (ibiology.org)
  • hematopoietic
  • We developed and validated a fluorescent marking methodology for clonal tracking of hematopoietic stem and progenitor cells (HSPCs) with high spatial and temporal resolution to study in vivo hematopoiesis using the murine bone marrow transplant experimental model. (jove.com)
  • Src, Fyn and Yes are expressed ubiquitously in all cell types while the others are generally found in hematopoietic cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • growth
  • According to the medicalnewstoday cancer is a class of diseases characterized by out-of-control cell growth. (melandriaromero.net)
  • however, it explains the next step in the process of the radial growth, when individual cells start to acquire invasive potential. (thetanningguru.com)
  • It is due to the abnormal growth of cells that have the ability to invade or spread to other parts of the body. (wikipedia.org)
  • This proto-oncogene may play a role in the regulation of embryonic development and cell growth. (wikipedia.org)
  • Polyamines are ubiquitous small molecules involved in many normal cellular functions, including transcribing and translating genes, regulating ion channels and cell-to-cell interactions, and powering cell growth and replication. (wikipedia.org)
  • Constitutive action of the ErbB2/ErbB3 complex also enhances cell growth. (wikipedia.org)
  • These complexes, which help regulate cell growth in addition to creating and maintaining epithelial layers, are known as adherens junctions and they typically include at least cadherin, β-catenin, and α-catenin. (wikipedia.org)
  • While less attention is directed at α-catenin in studies involving cell adhesion, it is nonetheless an important player in cellular organization, function and growth. (wikipedia.org)
  • fates
  • Using these models, we are deciphering the mechanisms by which complex I deficiency can confer opposite cell fates in neurodegeneration and cancer. (pvlsi.org)
  • layer
  • Its function is to innervate cells in the epithelial layer and the smooth muscle of the muscularis mucosae. (wikipedia.org)
  • For instance, when an epithelial layer is complete and the adherens junctions indicate that the cell is surrounded, β-catenin may play a role in telling the cell to stop proliferating, as there is no room for more cells in the area. (wikipedia.org)
  • undergo
  • B cells demonstrating high affinity for self cells can undergo clonal deletion within the bone marrow. (wikipedia.org)
  • T cells that show a high affinity for self MHC/peptide complexes can undergo clonal deletion in the thymus. (wikipedia.org)
  • Because most autoresponsive cells undergo clonal deletion, this allows microorganisms with epitopes similar to host antigen to escape recognition and detection by T and B lymphocytes. (wikipedia.org)
  • adhesion
  • Catenins are a family of proteins found in complexes with cadherin cell adhesion molecules of animal cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • Cell-cell adhesion complexes are required for simple epithelia in higher organisms to maintain structure, function and polarity. (wikipedia.org)
  • The primary mechanical role of catenins is connecting cadherins to actin filaments, specifically in these adhesion junctions of epithelial cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • Keratinocytes engineered to not express alpha-catenin have disrupted cell adhesion and activated NF-κB. (wikipedia.org)
  • papillary
  • When the tumour cells start to move in a different direction - vertically up into the epidermis and into the papillary dermis - the behaviour of the cells changes dramatically. (thetanningguru.com)
  • gene
  • This discovery changed the current thinking about cancer from a model wherein cancer is caused by a foreign substance (a viral gene) to one where a gene that is normally present in the cell can cause cancer. (wikipedia.org)
  • mitochondrial
  • A special emphasis is given to studying mitochondrial function in intact cells. (pvlsi.org)
  • A clear difference can be seen in cancer, wherein mitochondrial dysfunction provides survival advantages to cells. (pvlsi.org)
  • For a very long time, it has been proposed that mitochondrial dysfunction may predispose some cells-for example, dividing cells-to become cancerous. (pvlsi.org)
  • The mitochondrial metabolism plays a critical role in glucose-stimulated insulin secretion from β-cells, which is essential for maintaining blood glucose homeostasis. (pvlsi.org)
  • immune
  • IFNs belong to the large class of proteins known as cytokines, molecules used for communication between cells to trigger the protective defenses of the immune system that help eradicate pathogens. (wikipedia.org)
  • transcription
  • A promoter is induced in response to changes in abundance or conformation of regulatory proteins in a cell, which enable activating transcription factors to recruit RNA polymerase. (wikipedia.org)
  • typically
  • As she explains, one family member, TMEM16A, is typically expressed in peripheral cells and is involved in the rhythmical contraction of smooth muscles in the gastrointestinal tract. (ibiology.org)
  • novel
  • Here we report a novel mouse model that allows long-term single cell imaging of many organs. (jove.com)
  • Vectors
  • Genetic combinatorial marking using lentiviral vectors encoding fluorescent proteins (FPs) enabled cell fate mapping through advanced microscopy imaging. (jove.com)
  • Vectors encoding five different FPs: Cerulean, EGFP, Venus, tdTomato, and mCherry were used to concurrently transduce HSPCs, creating a diverse palette of color marked cells. (jove.com)
  • insulin
  • The failure of β-cells to appropriately secrete insulin in response to glucose results in type 2 diabetes, which presents us with one of the biggest health challenges of this century. (pvlsi.org)
  • interactions
  • As a result, the ErbB2/ErbB3 signaling pathway becomes constitutively activated, cell-cell interactions are lost and signet carcinomas are formed. (wikipedia.org)
  • primary
  • However, for both B and T cells in the primary lymphoid organs, clonal deletion is the most common form of negative selection. (wikipedia.org)
  • host
  • This prevents recognition and destruction of self host cells, making it a type of negative selection or central tolerance. (wikipedia.org)
  • Those cells that demonstrate a high affinity for this self antigen are often subsequently deleted so they cannot create progeny, which helps protect the host against autoimmunity. (wikipedia.org)
  • inhibition
  • β-catenin acts by anchoring the actin cytoskeleton to the junctions, and may possibly aid in contact inhibition signaling within the cell. (wikipedia.org)
  • different
  • In the cell nucleus, it seems that promoters are distributed preferentially at the edge of the chromosomal territories, likely for the co-expression of genes on different chromosomes. (wikipedia.org)