• In root epidermis, epidermal hairs, termed root hairs are common and are specialized for absorption of water and mineral nutrients. (wikipedia.org)
  • Magnified views of spiderwort epidermis thin sections reveal two types of cell, including the tightly interlocked epidermal cells and guard cells, which always occur in pairs. (fsu.edu)
  • The epidermis usually consists of a single layer of cells, although the specialized leaves of some desert plants have epidermal layers which are several cells thick. (jrank.org)
  • In addition, cellular homologies between zebrafish epidermal ionocytes and mammalian kidney cells are presented to show the potential of zebrafish epidermis as an in vivo model to study the development and function of mammalian cells. (nih.gov)
  • Here, we show that epidermis-specific ablation of Nir impairs epidermal stratification and barrier function, resulting in perinatal lethality. (biologists.org)
  • Epidermal stratification is initiated at E12.5, when the orientation of cell division becomes perpendicular to the plane of the epidermis ( Lechler and Fuchs, 2005 ). (biologists.org)
  • In barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) leaves, differential ion accumulation commonly results in inorganic phosphate (Pi) being confined to the mesophyll and Ca(2+) to the epidermis, with preferential epidermal accumulation of Cl(-), Na(+), and some other ions. (biomedsearch.com)
  • The epidermis was stimulated to proliferate by adhesive tape stripping, and flow cytometric DNA measurements of isolated epidermal basal cells, counting of mitoses, of Colcemid arrested metaphases and of labeled mitoses among basal cells in histologic sections were made. (biomedsearch.com)
  • The epidermis was sampled from multiple body sites of whole human embryos and fetuses of 45- and 65-days, 16- and 21-weeks estimated gestation age to determine whether a regionally dependent, variable rate of interfollicular epidermal development exists. (nih.gov)
  • 2006 ). Notch activation is not required for hair follicle formation in the embryo, but blocking Notch signalling in postnatal epidermis results in conversion of hair follicles into interfollicular epidermal cysts (Yamamoto et al. (wiley.com)
  • The changes of epidermal calcium gradient and transitional cells after prolonged occlusion following tape stripping in the murine epidermis. (nih.gov)
  • Disruption of the epidermal permeability barrier causes an immediate loss of the calcium gradient, and barrier recovery is parallel with the restoration of the calcium gradient in the epidermis. (nih.gov)
  • To clarify the long-term effects of occlusion after acute barrier perturbation, we studied the calcium distribution and epidermal keratinocytes response after occlusion with a water vapor-impermeable membrane immediately following tape stripping in the murine epidermis. (nih.gov)
  • These results show that prolonged occlusion of tape-stripped epidermis induced transitional cells and delayed the restoration of the epidermal calcium gradient, the stratum corneum was then restored, transitional cells having disappeared, in parallel with normalization of the epidermal calcium gradient. (nih.gov)
  • The prospective epidermis at early stages is characterized by the expression of the homeobox gene DLX5, which remains an epidermal marker during gastrulation and neurulation. (biologists.org)
  • Finally, we demonstrate that BMP4, as well as BMP2, is capable of inducing epidermal fate by distorting the epidermis-neural plate boundary. (biologists.org)
  • To directly test this in vivo , we have generated transgenic mice expressing a dominant negative TGF-βRII (ΔβRII) in the epidermis, using a truncated mouse loricrin promoter (ML). ML.ΔβRII transgenic mice exhibited a thickened skin due to epidermal hyperproliferation. (aacrjournals.org)
  • Epidermal stem cells reside in the lower part of the epidermis (stratum basale) and are attached to the basement membrane through hemidesmosomes. (wikipedia.org)
  • Unlike the scales of lizards and snakes, which are formed from the epidermis, scutes are formed in the lower vascular layer of the skin and the epidermal element is only the top surface[citation needed]. (wikipedia.org)
  • The epidermis of a more complex invertebrate is just one layer deep, and may be protected by a non-cellular cuticle . (wikipedia.org)
  • In invertebrates the epidermis is normally only one cell thick and is covered by an impermeable cuticle . (encyclopedia.com)
  • A 72 kDa protein showed similar epitops and molecular weight to the scolexin complex and was detected in epidermis and in cuticle under both reducing and non-reducing conditions. (springer.com)
  • This hierarchical double structure is formed out of a characteristic epidermis (its outermost layer called the cuticle) and the covering waxes. (wikipedia.org)
  • The basidiam directly penetrate the cuticle and epidermis. (wikipedia.org)
  • The clear stratification of the epidermis is the result of well-defined changes in its major constituent cells-the keratinocytes, or corneocytes-as they move peripherally from the basal layer, where they are continuously formed by mitosis , to the skin surface, where they are lost. (britannica.com)
  • We generated transgenic mice in which the epidermis expresses a fluorescently labeled microtubule-binding protein and show that in epidermis and in cultured keratinocytes, microtubules stereotypically reorganize as they differentiate. (rupress.org)
  • To visualize microtubules in living epidermis and cultured keratinocytes, we engineered transgenic mice expressing the microtubule-binding domain of ensconsin fused to three copies of GFP (EMTB-3GFP). (rupress.org)
  • DNA is labeled with Topro3 in C. (E) K14-EMTB-3GFP fluorescence in living e14.5 epidermis viewed in the plane of the epidermis at the apical region of the basal keratinocytes. (rupress.org)
  • Once pathogens start to invade the upper layers of the epidermis, keratinocytes can react by producing proinflammatory mediators, particularly chemokines such as CXCL10 and CCL2 which attract leukocytes to the site of pathogen invasion. (wikipedia.org)
  • Within the epidermis keratinocytes are associated with other cell types such as melanocytes and Langerhans cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • Keratinocytes form tight junctions with the nerves of the skin and hold the Langerhans cells and intra-dermal lymphocytes in position within the epidermis. (wikipedia.org)
  • A. Delpech-Stewart, "An immunofluorescent study of antigenic structures in the development of human epidermis," Journal of Histochemistry and Cytochemistry , vol. 19, no. 10, pp. 627-629, 1971. (hindawi.com)
  • Eumetazoa have a cavity lined with a similar epithelium, the gastrodermis , which forms a boundary with the epidermis at the mouth. (wikipedia.org)
  • Sponges have no epithelium, and therefore no epidermis or gastrodermis. (wikipedia.org)
  • This pattern of staining changes completely upon metamorphosis: the PAS-positive cells, specific to the tadpole epidermis disappear, and the mitochondria-rich (MR) cells in the adult skin epithelium react with polyclonal anti-band 3 antibody. (biomedsearch.com)
  • At postnatal day (P) 0, the epidermis is composed of a pluristratified epithelium containing basal, suprabasal, granular, and cornified layers, and constitutes a functional barrier required for survival. (biologists.org)
  • 1. The observation that the glycogen content of epidermis from psoriatic lesions and from regenerating wound epithelium is increased has been confirmed by quantitative estimation. (portlandpress.com)
  • The epidermis is a stratified squamous epithelium that acts as a barrier between the internal and external environments. (rupress.org)
  • A. S. Breathnach and L. M. Wyllie, "Fine structure of cells forming the surface layer of the epidermis in human fetuses at fourteen and twelve weeks," Journal of Investigative Dermatology , vol. 45, no. 3, pp. 179-189, 1965. (hindawi.com)
  • The final layer of the epidermis is the stratum corneum, which contains dead cells flattened into scales and packed with keratin. (reference.com)
  • Based predominantly on the presence of its mRNA, human ALOX12 is distributed predominantly in blood platelets and leukocytes and at lower levels in the basal layer of the epidermis (particularly in the skin lesions of psoriasis), islets of Langerhans within the pancreas, and certain cancers. (wikipedia.org)
  • A close examination of the skin at and after 3 days following UV exposure indicates the significant removal of DNA damaged cells from the epidermis. (nih.gov)
  • By 21-24 weeks EGA, the intermediate cell layer has apparently given rise to the definitive three layers of the outer epidermis: the spinous, the granular, and the cornified cell layers. (hindawi.com)
  • The study of cytoplasmic streaming in the inner and outer epidermis of an onion bulb scale ( Allium cepa ) is a fascinating and rewarding activity. (microscopy-uk.org.uk)
  • A high abundance of high mannose type oligosaccharides was found to be characteristic of murine epidermis glycoproteins. (mcponline.org)
  • Caspase 9 is decreased in psoriatic epidermis. (biomedsearch.com)
  • Psoriatic epidermis contains little of the apoptotic marker, caspase 9. (biomedsearch.com)
  • The results of this study are indicative of decreased apoptosis in psoriatic epidermis, and no change in the perivascular area in psoriatic lesions. (biomedsearch.com)
  • It is concluded that rates of glycogen synthesis, of glycolysis and of the pentose phosphate pathway are all enhanced in vivo and in consequence the rate of glucose uptake by psoriatic epidermis must be increased. (portlandpress.com)
  • The interfollicular epidermis of the majority of the body, however, was approximately equivalent in the state of development. (nih.gov)
  • Inhibition of Wnt signalling prevents formation of hair follicles in the embryo, whereas in the adult Wnt inhibition results in conversion of follicles into cysts of interfollicular epidermis (Watt et al. (wiley.com)
  • Staphylococcus epidermidis ( S. epidermidis ) is an opportunistic pathogen with low pathogenicity and a cause of the repeated outbreak of bovine mastitis in veterinary clinical settings. (hindawi.com)
  • The chapters in Staphylococcus Epidermidis: Methods and Protocols are designed to give the new investigator a series of tools so they can ask novel and exciting questions related to the biology of this opportunistic pathogen, as many exciting and unexplored questions such as defining the interaction of S. epidermidis and other normal flora remain to be discovered. (springer.com)
  • In this review, we summarize current findings about the development of the zebrafish epidermis and demonstrate how the zebrafish regulate stress acclimation through induction of cell differentiation. (nih.gov)
  • AG showed inhibitory effects against the initial adhesion of S. epidermidis at concentrations of 1 000,100, 10 mg x L(-1), respectively,and inhibited metabolism of biofilm bacteria at the concentration of 31.25 mg x L(-1), and exhibited significantly inhibition against the biofilm morphology at the concentration of 250 mg x L(-1), while did not display inhibition against PIA formation at the concentration of 10 mg x L(-1). (sigmaaldrich.com)
  • In woody plants the functions of the shoot epidermis are taken over by the periderm tissues (see cork cambium ) and in mature roots the epidermis is sloughed off and replaced by the hypodermis . (encyclopedia.com)
  • K. A. Holbrook and G. F. Odland, "The fine structure of developing human epidermis: light, scanning, and transmission electron microscopy of the periderm," Journal of Investigative Dermatology , vol. 65, no. 1, pp. 16-38, 1975. (hindawi.com)
  • K. A. Holbrook and G. F. Odland, "Regional development of the human epidermis in the first trimester embryo and the second trimester fetus (ages related to the timing of amniocentesis and fetal biopsy)," Journal of Investigative Dermatology , vol. 74, no. 3, pp. 161-168, 1980. (hindawi.com)
  • The literature on developing human epidermis is limited, collectively not exceeding 100 cases in the reports covering the fetal age. (hindawi.com)
  • DNA-synthesizing time of the human epidermis has been determined in vitro by a double labelling autoradiographic technique using 3 H-thymidine. (springer.com)
  • Cell renewal in human epidermis. (springer.com)
  • Epidemiological studies have demonstrated that the presence of Esp-secreting S. epidermidis in the nasal cavities of human volunteers correlates with the absence of S. aureus . (nature.com)
  • The effect of sodium hydroxide and hydrochloric acid on human epidermis. (cdc.gov)
  • Electron microscopy of biopsy epidermis specimens obtained from the human forearm following the application of normal sodium-hydroxide (1310732) or normal hydrochloric-acid (7647010) reveals cellular and structural differences characteristic for each compound. (cdc.gov)
  • This by-product is a potent competitive inhibitor in the phenylalanine hydroxylase reaction with an inhibition constant of 10(-6) M. Thus, 6-BH4 seems to control melanin biosynthesis in the human epidermis, whereas 7-BH4 may initiate depigmentation in patients with vitiligo. (sciencemag.org)
  • The SkinEthic™ Reconstructed Human Epidermis (RHE) test method has been adopted within the context of OECD TG 431 for distinguishing corrosive and non-corrosive chemicals as well for identifying UN GHS subcategories 1A and 1B and 1C within the context of Organization for Economic Co-operation and Development Test Guideline 431 (OECD TG 431). (springer.com)
  • Regional development of the human epidermis in the first trimester embryo and the second trimester fetus (ages related to the timing of amniocentes. (nih.gov)
  • The epidermis-type lipoxygenases are now regarded as a distinct subclass within the multigene family of mammalian lipoxygenases with mouse Aloxe3 (also termed e-Lox-3) being the ortholog to human ALOXE3, mouse Alox12b being the ortholog to human ALOX12B (MIM 603741), and mouse Alox8 being the ortholog to human ALOX15B (MIM 603697)[supplied by OMIM]. (wikipedia.org)
  • Immunohistochemistry is an efficient means of localizing specific proteins to their relative expression compartment in the epidermis thereby providing evidence as to their functionality. (nih.gov)
  • The recognition of a number of biomarkers of cell junctions and subsequent availability of specific antibodies at 80's and 90's enabled investigation of the junctional proteins of epidermis using immunohistochemical approaches at light and electron microscopic levels. (hindawi.com)
  • Immunoblotting against S. epidermidis lysostaphin-extracted proteins showed that although incubation with inoculated group antisera produced more intense banding and reacted to a wider range of protein than did antisera from uninoculated controls, common antigenic proteins among the groups were found. (nih.gov)
  • produce a secondary covering called the periderm that replaces the epidermis as the protective covering. (wikipedia.org)
  • Growing the epidermis has proven to be highly challenging because of its complex structures, which includes a protective barrier between the body and the external environment that help prevent dehydration, as well as microbes and toxins entering the body. (cosmeticsdesign-europe.com)