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  • aromatic
  • Six species of free-living nitrogen fixing bacteria, Azomonas agilis, Azospirillum brasilense, Azospirillum lipoferum, Azotobacter chroococcum, Azotobacter vinelandii , and Beijerinckia mobilis , were surveyed for their ability to grow and fix N 2 using aromatic compounds as sole carbon and energy source. (springer.com)
  • Nitrogen
  • A 4-aminopyridine-degrading enrichment culture utilized 4-aminopyridine as a carbon, nitrogen, and energy source, generating 4-amino-3-hydroxypyridine, 3,4-dihydroxypyridine, and formate as intermediates. (biomedcentral.com)
  • pathways
  • in the degradative pathways of 2-aminobenzenesulphonic, benzenesulphonic and 4-toluenesulphonic acids in Alcaligenes sp. (wikipedia.org)
  • To address the decontamination of (1) toxic organic compounds such as naphthene and catechol found in the tailings ponds, natural pathways that can break down the toxic chemicals can be utilized. (igem.org)
  • They have a wide variety of catabolic pathways and many unique enzyme functions. (wikipedia.org)
  • oxidation
  • XylE is inefficient on its own, especially in vitro , due to instability caused by oxygen sensitivity, and oxidation of the active site iron molecule during it's functional cycle rendering the enzyme inactive 8 . (igem.org)
  • The ability to quench singlet oxygen seems to be in relation with the chemical structure of catechin, with the presence of the catechol moiety on ring B and the presence of a hydroxyl group activating the double bond on ring C. Electrochemical experiments show that (+)-catechin oxidation mechanism proceeds in sequential steps, related with the catechol and resorcinol groups and the oxidation is pH-dependent. (wikipedia.org)
  • The oxidation of the catechol 3',4'-dihydroxyl electron-donating groups occurs first, at very low positive potentials, and is a reversible reaction. (wikipedia.org)
  • lipoxygenase
  • Arachidonate 5-lipoxygenase , also known as ALOX5 , 5-lipoxygenase , 5-LOX , or 5-LO , is a non- heme iron-containing enzyme (EC 1.13.11.34) that in humans is encoded by the ALOX5 gene . (wikipedia.org)
  • Arachidonate 5-lipoxygenase is a member of the lipoxygenase family of enzymes. (wikipedia.org)
  • inhibit
  • Exposure to toxics such as mercury have been found to inhibit enzymes needed to digest wheat gluten and milk casein, resulting in symptoms of autism, ADHD, diabetes, etc. after chronic exposure to gluten or casein. (amalgam.org)
  • These drugs, entacapone and tolcapone, are predicted to bind to the enzyme InhA and directly inhibit substrate binding. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • gene
  • Structurally, the enzyme is a domain-swapped dimer in many species, although the two subunits have merged into a monomer in yeast, through gene duplication. (wikipedia.org)
  • The human gene for this enzyme is called GLO1. (wikipedia.org)
  • Changes in the bacterial populations of 4-aminopyridine, 3,4-dihydroxypyridine, or formate/ammonium chloride enrichment cultures were monitored by denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) profiling of PCR-amplified 16S rRNA gene fragments. (biomedcentral.com)
  • microorganisms
  • 2. The method of claim 1, wherein the liquid is exposed to siderophores by passing the liquid over at least one surface on which are immobilized microorganisms that produce and secrete the siderophores. (patentsencyclopedia.com)
  • 9. The method of claim 2, wherein the microorganisms are halophilic bacteria. (patentsencyclopedia.com)
  • acids
  • The byproducts are stored in the form of tailings ponds where the water contains (1) toxic organic compounds such as naphthenic acids and catechol, (2) heavy metals, and (3) fine clay sediment 1 . (igem.org)
  • hydrogen
  • Rather, the enzyme shifts two hydrogen atoms from one carbon atom of the methylglyoxal to the adjacent carbon atom. (wikipedia.org)
  • Fenton's reaction enzymes (iron homeostasis, reduction, hydrogen peroxide generation) were significantly expressed among all the datasets under lignocellulolytic conditions. (ijbs.com)
  • Thus
  • Collectively these fungi are major inhabitants of forest biomass thus, playing a major role in carbon cycling and recycling of nutrients [ 1 , 2 ]. (ijbs.com)
  • catalyzes
  • In enzymology, a lactoylglutathione lyase (EC 4.4.1.5) (also known as glyoxalase I) is an enzyme that catalyzes the isomerization of hemithioacetal adducts, which are formed in a spontaneous reaction between a glutathionyl group and aldehydes such as methylglyoxal. (wikipedia.org)
  • dialdehyde
  • strain Z1 directly cleaves the pyridine ring between N and position C-2 and further metabolizes the product via glutaric dialdehyde, and Bacillus sp. (biomedcentral.com)
  • belongs
  • This enzyme belongs to the family of oxidoreductases, specifically those acting on paired donors, with O2 as oxidant and incorporation or reduction of oxygen. (wikipedia.org)
  • It belongs to the group of flavan-3-ols (or simply flavanols), part of the chemical family of flavonoids. (wikipedia.org)
  • toxic
  • In 2010, the Lethbridge iGEM team confirmed that xylE when introduce to E. coli hydrolyzes catechol to 2-HMS demonstrating and that this critical step can successfully be performed to convert toxic chemicals to metabolic intermediates 7 . (igem.org)
  • carbon
  • Glyoxalase I is classified as a carbon-sulfur lyase although, strictly speaking, the enzyme does not form or break a carbon-sulfur bond. (wikipedia.org)
  • Catechin possesses two benzene rings (called the A- and B-rings) and a dihydropyran heterocycle (the C-ring) with a hydroxyl group on carbon 3. (wikipedia.org)
  • HO 2 ) residue to arachidonic acid (i.e. 5 Z ,8 Z ,11 Z ,14 Z -eicosatetraenoic acid) at carbon 5 of its 1,4 diene group (i.e. its 5 Z ,8 Z double bonds) to form 5 (S) -hydroperoxy-6 E ,8 Z ,11 Z ,14 Z -eicosatetraenoic acid (i.e. 5 S -HpETE). (wikipedia.org)
  • strain
  • Among the culturable strains, strain 4AP-A could utilize 3,4-dihydroxypyridine as a growth substrate. (biomedcentral.com)
  • detoxification
  • The principal physiological function of glyoxalase I is the detoxification of methylglyoxal, a reactive 2-oxoaldehyde that is cytostatic at low concentrations and cytotoxic at millimolar concentrations. (wikipedia.org)
  • employs
  • Due to the evolutionary loss of genes coding for various lignocellulolytic enzymes (including several cellulases), P. placenta employs hemicellulolytic glycoside hydrolases and Fenton's reactions for the rapid depolymerization of plant cell wall components. (ijbs.com)
  • metabolites
  • Octylphenol polyethoxylates (OPEOn) are surfactants and prone to be degraded into xenoestrogenic metabolites, such as octylphenol and OPEOn (n=1-2), are estrogenic-like compounds, and persistent to be degraded by bacteria in the environments. (ncu.edu.tw)
  • family
  • High-throughput screening of a ~236,000-member collection of diverse molecules arrayed as dilution series was used to identify inhibitors of the JMJD2 (KDM4) family of 2-oxoglutarate-dependent histone demethylases. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • xylE
  • In 2010, the Lethbridge iGEM team confirmed that xylE when introduce to E. coli hydrolyzes catechol to 2-HMS demonstrating and that this critical step can successfully be performed to convert toxic chemicals to metabolic intermediates 7 . (igem.org)
  • XylE is inefficient on its own, especially in vitro , due to instability caused by oxygen sensitivity, and oxidation of the active site iron molecule during it's functional cycle rendering the enzyme inactive 8 . (igem.org)
  • reaction
  • Fenton's reaction enzymes (iron homeostasis, reduction, hydrogen peroxide generation) were significantly expressed among all the datasets under lignocellulolytic conditions. (ijbs.com)
  • In enzymology, a lactoylglutathione lyase (EC 4.4.1.5) (also known as glyoxalase I) is an enzyme that catalyzes the isomerization of hemithioacetal adducts, which are formed in a spontaneous reaction between a glutathionyl group and aldehydes such as methylglyoxal. (wikipedia.org)
  • The oxidation of the catechol 3',4'-dihydroxyl electron-donating groups occurs first, at very low positive potentials, and is a reversible reaction. (wikipedia.org)
  • deamination
  • Phase I reactions include transformation of a parent compound to more polar metabolite(s) by unmasking or de novo formation of functional groups (e.g. -, - 2, -S). Reactions include e.g. - and -dealkylation, aliphatic and aromatic hydroxylation, - and S-oxidation, and deamination. (docplayer.net)
  • Dioxygenation and spontaneous deamination of 2-aminobenzene sulphonic acid in Alcaligenes sp. (wikipedia.org)
  • genes
  • Due to the evolutionary loss of genes coding for various lignocellulolytic enzymes (including several cellulases), P. placenta employs hemicellulolytic glycoside hydrolases and Fenton's reactions for the rapid depolymerization of plant cell wall components. (ijbs.com)
  • metabolic
  • Phase II drug metabolizing enzymes play an important role in biotransformation of endogenous compounds and xenobiotics to more easily excretable forms as well as in the metabolic inactivation of pharmacologically active compounds. (docplayer.net)
  • There are also individual differences in metabolic response for both Phase I and Phase II enzymes. (docplayer.net)
  • lyase
  • Glyoxalase I is classified as a carbon-sulfur lyase although, strictly speaking, the enzyme does not form or break a carbon-sulfur bond. (wikipedia.org)
  • inhibitor
  • The knowledge of heparin binding characteristics and the key residue contributions in this study may enlighten further the inhibitor design of this enzyme and may also improve our understanding of inflammatory and allergy related diseases. (jove.com)
  • metabolite
  • Biodegradability tests and partial sequence analysis of the enrichment culture indicated that 4-aminopyridine was mainly degraded via 3,4-dihydroxypyridine and that the metabolite is probably cleaved by 3-hydroxy-4-pyridone dioxygenase. (biomedcentral.com)
  • casein
  • Exposure to toxics such as mercury have been found to inhibit enzymes needed to digest wheat gluten and milk casein, resulting in symptoms of autism, ADHD, diabetes, etc. after chronic exposure to gluten or casein. (amalgam.org)
  • mechanism
  • The ability to quench singlet oxygen seems to be in relation with the chemical structure of catechin, with the presence of the catechol moiety on ring B and the presence of a hydroxyl group activating the double bond on ring C. Electrochemical experiments show that (+)-catechin oxidation mechanism proceeds in sequential steps, related with the catechol and resorcinol groups and the oxidation is pH-dependent. (wikipedia.org)
  • processes
  • A kinetic model of NW doping, including the microscopic processes of (1) P incorporation into the liquid catalyst, (2) P evaporation from the catalyst, and (3) P crystallization in the Si NW, quantitatively explains the results and shows that suppression of the reservoir effect can be achieved when P evaporation is much faster than P crystallization. (jove.com)
  • mainly
  • Phase II drug metabolising enzymes are mainly transferases. (docplayer.net)
  • This review covers the major phase II enzymes: UDP-glucuronosyltransferases, sulfotransferases, -acetyltransferases, glutathione S-transferases and methyltransferases (mainly thiopurine S-methyl transferase and catechol -methyl transferase). (docplayer.net)
  • The main enzymes in this phase are cytochromes P450 (CYPs) performing mainly hydroxylations and hence acting as monooxygenases, dioxygenases and hydrolases. (docplayer.net)
  • various
  • The focus is on the presence of various forms, on tissue and cellular distribution, on the respective substrates, on genetic polymorphism and finally on the interspecies differences in these enzymes. (docplayer.net)