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  • stabilization
  • Understanding how rigidity in the active site affects protein kinetic stability will provide new insight into enzyme stabilization. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • Exploring novel stabilization mechanisms and strategies for guiding enzyme design are therefore necessary. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • Stabilization of the His 6 -OPH activity was observed in the presence of antibiotics at a concentration of 0.2 g·L −1 during exposure at 25-41 °C. Molecular docking of antibiotics to the surface of His 6 -OPH dimer revealed the antibiotics binding both to the area near active centers of the enzyme subunits and to the region of contact between subunits of the dimer. (mdpi.com)
  • In addition, the team was the first to describe the use of pressure to control enzyme activity in supercritical fluids, the first stabilization of enzymes for chemical weapon defense and the first use of ATRP to grow polymers from the surface of proteins. (wikipedia.org)
  • Russell's enzyme stabilization technology was singled out for the U.S. Army's Top Ten Greatest Invention Award and products containing the core chemistry are now used to monitor activities in countries suspected of developing and using chemical weapons. (wikipedia.org)
  • Reaction
  • In enzymology, a lipid-phosphate phosphatase (EC 3.1.3.76) is an enzyme that catalyzes the chemical reaction (9S,10S)-10-hydroxy-9-(phosphonooxy)octadecanoate + H2O ⇌ {\displaystyle \rightleftharpoons } (9S,10S)-9,10-dihydroxyoctadecanoate + phosphate Thus, the two substrates of this enzyme are (9S,10S)-10-hydroxy-9-(phosphonooxy)octadecanoate and H2O, whereas its two products are (9S,10S)-9,10-dihydroxyoctadecanoate and phosphate. (wikipedia.org)
  • Under physiological conditions, 4a-BH4 is dehydrated to quinonoid-dihydrobiopterin (q-BH2) by the enzyme pterin-4a-carbinolamine dehydrase (PCD) and a water molecule is released in this reaction. (wikipedia.org)
  • The product of the enzymatic reaction, L-DOPA, can be transformed to dopamine by the enzyme DOPA decarboxylase. (wikipedia.org)
  • In enzymology, a hydrogen:quinone oxidoreductase (EC 1.12.5.1) is an enzyme that catalyzes the chemical reaction H2 + quinone ⇌ {\displaystyle \rightleftharpoons } quinol Thus, the two substrates of this enzyme are H2 and quinone, whereas its product is quinol. (wikipedia.org)
  • In the reaction, sucrose binds to the enzyme, at which point fructose is released by the enzyme-substrate complex. (wikipedia.org)
  • Myrosinase catalyzes the chemical reaction a thioglucoside + H2O ⇌ {\displaystyle \rightleftharpoons } a sugar + a thiol Thus, the two substrates of this enzyme are thioglucoside and H2O, whereas its two products are sugar and thiol. (wikipedia.org)
  • However, even after millions of years of evolution, exploring many sequences with similar function, no mutation might exist that gives this enzyme the ability to catalyze a different reaction. (wikipedia.org)
  • After immobilization is complete, the enzymes are introduced into a reaction vessel for biocatalysis. (wikipedia.org)
  • An enzyme must be selected based upon the desired reaction. (wikipedia.org)
  • Proteins
  • Protein ubiquitination is a reversible process and several families of enzymes have been described which possess deubiquitinating activity, including the ubiquitin‐specific proteases (USPs), ubiquitin C‐terminal hydrolases (UCHs), ovarian tumour proteases (OTU), Machado‐Joseph disease proteins (MJD) and the Jab1/MPN/Mov34 metalloenzymes (JAMM) ( Nijman et al , 2005 ). (embopress.org)
  • In the 1970s, researchers were able to introduce enzymes, proteins and hormones to biodegradable microcapsules, later leading to clinical use in diseases such as Lesch-Nyhan syndrome. (wikipedia.org)
  • The artificial binding proteins are much smaller than antibodies (usually less than 100 amino-acid residues), have a strong stability, lack disulfide bonds and can be expressed in high yield in reducing cellular environments like the bacterial cytoplasm, contrary to antibodies and their derivatives. (wikipedia.org)
  • substrates
  • A novel ACAD enzyme architecture in some species of steroid-utilizing bacteria (Actinobacteria and Proteobacteria) was discovered, and is involved in the utilization of ubiquitous steroid substrates like cholesterol by pathogenic organisms like Mycobacterium tuberculosis. (wikipedia.org)
  • However, PON1 has evolved to be a highly promiscuous enzyme capable of hydrolysing a wide variety of substrates such as lactones (including a number of important pharmaceutical agents such as statins), glucuronide drugs, thiolactones, arylesters, cyclic carbonates, organophosphorus pesticides and nerve gases such as sarin, soman and VX, oestrogen esters and lipid-peroxides(oxidised lipids). (wikipedia.org)
  • The enzyme is an oxygenase which means it uses molecular oxygen to hydroxylate its substrates. (wikipedia.org)
  • gene
  • Polymorphisms in the PON1 gene significantly affect the catalytic ability of the enzyme. (wikipedia.org)
  • The PON1 gene is activated by PPAR-γ, which increases synthesis and release of paraoxonase 1 enzyme from the liver, reducing atherosclerosis. (wikipedia.org)
  • In humans, tyrosine hydroxylase is encoded by the TH gene, and the enzyme is present in the central nervous system (CNS), peripheral sympathetic neurons and the adrenal medulla. (wikipedia.org)
  • This gene encodes a 100-kDa, 917-residue enzyme with highly similar N- and C-terminal domains that each form half of the protein. (wikipedia.org)
  • Once the source of the enzyme is selected, genetic modifications may be performed to increase the expression of the gene responsible for producing the enzyme. (wikipedia.org)
  • long-term stab
  • The latter property raises the possibility of using standard hydrogenases that are not O 2 -tolerant: however, experiments with such an enzyme reveal good short-term performance due to restricted O 2 access, but low long-term stability because the root cause of O 2 sensitivity has not been addressed. (rsc.org)
  • membranes
  • In this review, factors that contribute to enhancing the stability of immobilized enzyme membranes have been indicated, and the solutions to each factor, based on examples, are discussed. (mdpi.com)
  • Myrosinase is stored largely as myrosin grains in the vacuoles of particular idioblasts called myrosin cells, but have also been reported in protein bodies or vacuoles, and as cytosolic enzymes that tend to bind to membranes. (wikipedia.org)
  • ACAD
  • ACAD enzymes have been identified in animals (of which there are 9 major eukaryotic classes), as well as plants, nematodes, fungi, and bacteria. (wikipedia.org)
  • residues
  • The iron is held in place by two histidine residues and one glutamate residue, making it a non-heme, non-iron-sulfur iron-containing enzyme. (wikipedia.org)
  • In addition, 2-F-2-deoxybenzylglucosinolate, which was synthesized specifically to study the mechanism of myrosinase, inhibits the enzyme by trapping one of the glutamic acid residues in the active site, Glu 409. (wikipedia.org)
  • catalyzes
  • It has been shown in multiple experiments that the enzyme catalyzes this conversion by a double displacement mechanism. (wikipedia.org)
  • amino
  • Differences in the enzyme occur based on the location of the active site along the amino acid sequence. (wikipedia.org)
  • Tyrosine hydroxylase or tyrosine 3-monooxygenase is the enzyme responsible for catalyzing the conversion of the amino acid L-tyrosine to L-3,4-dihydroxyphenylalanine (L-DOPA). (wikipedia.org)
  • 2004). The size of the enzyme, as determined by sedimentation centrifugation, was found to be 55 KDa, consisting of 488 amino acids (Koga et al. (wikipedia.org)
  • temperature
  • Also, if we look at dishwashers liquid, all enzymes are kept at room temperature and stay active! (protocol-online.org)
  • Taq and many other enzymes do degrade quite quickly at room temperature, a few minutes are probably OK, but certainly hours are not. (protocol-online.org)
  • SPLA2 stability in the presence of organic solvents, as well as in acidic and alkaline pH and at high temperature makes it a good candidate for its application in food industry. (biomedsearch.com)
  • Dramatically increased pH and temperature stability of chymotrypsin using dual block polymer-based protein engineering. (wikipedia.org)
  • Immobilization
  • This may be accomplished through immobilization of enzymes on a solid material, such as a porous support. (wikipedia.org)
  • Immobilization of enzymes greatly simplifies the recovery process, enhances process control, and reduces operational costs. (wikipedia.org)
  • Ideal immobilization processes should not use highly toxic reagents in the immobilization technique to ensure stability of the enzymes. (wikipedia.org)
  • These immobilization techniques occur at ambient temperatures in mild conditions, which have limited potential to modify the structure and function of the enzyme. (wikipedia.org)
  • Immobilization using affinity relies on the specificity of an enzyme to couple an affinity ligand to an enzyme to form a covalently bound enzyme-ligand complex. (wikipedia.org)
  • mechanisms
  • Offers an understanding of the behavior of enzyme systems and the diagnostic tools used to characterize them and determine kinetic mechanisms. (ecampus.com)
  • dependent
  • The factors are divided into two categories: one is dependent on the improvement of enzyme properties, and the other, on the development of supporting materials. (mdpi.com)
  • The stability of p53 is tightly regulated by ubiquitin‐dependent degradation, driven mainly by the ubiquitin ligase MDM2. (embopress.org)
  • Then, the NAD(P)H dependent enzyme dihydropteridine reductase (DHPR) converts q-BH2 back to BH4. (wikipedia.org)
  • Methods
  • The known methods of regulation are transcriptional, affecting the amount of enzyme present at any given time. (wikipedia.org)
  • commonly
  • The medium chain acyl-CoA dehydrogenase (MCAD) is the best known structure of all ACADs, and is the most commonly deficient enzyme within the class that leads to metabolic disorders in animals. (wikipedia.org)
  • Enzymes are most commonly sourced through bacteria, fungi, and yeast. (wikipedia.org)
  • belongs
  • This enzyme belongs to the family of hydrolases, specifically those acting on phosphoric monoester bonds. (wikipedia.org)
  • This enzyme belongs to the family of oxidoreductases, specifically those acting on hydrogen as donor with a quinone or similar compound as acceptor. (wikipedia.org)
  • genetic
  • Deficiencies in these enzymes are linked to genetic disorders involving fatty acid oxidation (i.e. metabolic disorders). (wikipedia.org)
  • FUNCTION
  • Flavin adenine dinucleotide (FAD) is a required co-factor in addition to the presence of an active site glutamate in order for the enzyme to function. (wikipedia.org)
  • bacteria
  • The enzyme cytochrome c oxidase or Complex IV, EC 1.9.3.1 is a large transmembrane protein complex found in bacteria and the mitochondrion of eukaryotes. (wikipedia.org)
  • typically
  • Enzymes typically constitute a significant operational cost for industrial processes, and in many cases, must be recovered and reused to ensure economic feasibility of a process. (wikipedia.org)
  • biological
  • Industrial biological catalysis through enzymes has experienced rapid growth in recent years due to their ability to operate at mild conditions, and exceptional chiral and positional specificity, things that traditional chemical processes lack. (wikipedia.org)
  • glucose
  • A covalent glucose-enzyme complex results, with beta-linkage between an oxygen atom in the carboxyl group of an aspartyl residue and C-1 of glucose. (wikipedia.org)
  • However, myrosinase is the only known enzyme found in nature that can cleave a thio-linked glucose. (wikipedia.org)
  • role
  • ACADs are an important class of enzymes in mammalian cells because of their role in metabolizing fatty acids present in ingested food materials. (wikipedia.org)
  • It is common to examine the role of enzymes in nature, and how they relate to the desired industrial process. (wikipedia.org)
  • degradation
  • The enzymes in dishwashers etc are all stabilised or are forms that are resistant to degradation. (protocol-online.org)
  • Regulation of p53 stability occurs predominantly through polyubiquitination and degradation by the 26S proteasome and many E3 ubiquitin ligases have now been described for p53 ( Horn and Vousden, 2007 ). (embopress.org)
  • Chemical
  • Commercialization of lignocellulosic biomass as a feedstock for bio-based chemical production is problematic due to the high processing costs of pretreatment and saccharifying enzymes combined with low product yields. (springer.com)
  • Stability of SPLA2 in the presence of organic solvents, and its tolerance to high temperatures, basic and acidic pH, makes it a good candidate for application in food industry to treat phospholipid-rich industrial effluents, or to synthesize useful chemical compounds. (biomedsearch.com)
  • Industrial enzymes are enzymes that are commercially used in a variety of industries such as pharmaceuticals, chemical production, biofuels, food & beverage, and consumer products. (wikipedia.org)
  • active
  • I am wondering about the 'strict caution' about enzyme storing at -20°C. Manufacturers often say that we have to keep enzymes (e.g Taq) upon reception at -20°C. Yet, this enzyme is used in PCR at 95°C for at least 2 h and stay active after alternative cycles of 95/55°C! (protocol-online.org)
  • These results indicate that enhancing the rigidity of the flexible segment within the active site may provide an efficient method for improving enzyme kinetic stability. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • The enzyme consists of four major domains, namely A, B, B', and C. Domains A, B' and C exist as dimers around the active site (Sprogoe et al. (wikipedia.org)
  • Thus
  • In humans there are thought to be four different versions of this regulatory domain, and thus four versions of the enzyme, depending on alternative splicing, though none of their structures have yet been properly determined. (wikipedia.org)
  • analysis
  • an innovative approach to the field of enzyme kinetic modeling, model transformation, and model analysis. (wiley.com)
  • complexes
  • This enzyme is required for the complete reaction of at least five different multi-enzyme complexes. (wikipedia.org)
  • DLD deficiency manifests itself in a great degree of variability, which has been attributed to varying effects of different DLD mutations on the stability of the protein and its ability to dimerize or interact with other components of the three α-ketoacid dehydrogenase complexes. (wikipedia.org)
  • reaction
  • GABA is usually synthesized from glutamic acid or glutamate in a reaction catalyzed by pyridoxal 5′-phosphate (PLP)-dependent enzyme glutamate decarboxylase (Gad, EC: 4.1.1.15). (springeropen.com)
  • In a general sense, the principal chemical reaction in bioluminescence involves some light-emitting molecule and an enzyme, generally called the luciferin and the luciferase, respectively. (wikipedia.org)
  • Glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD or G6PDH) (EC 1.1.1.49) is a cytosolic enzyme that catalyzes the chemical reaction D-glucose 6-phosphate + NADP+ ⇌ {\displaystyle \rightleftharpoons } 6-phospho-D-glucono-1,5-lactone + NADPH + H+ This enzyme participates in the pentose phosphate pathway (see image), a metabolic pathway that supplies reducing energy to cells (such as erythrocytes) by maintaining the level of the co-enzyme nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate (NADPH). (wikipedia.org)
  • Its purpose in the enzyme catalyzed reaction has been unclear for many years. (wikipedia.org)
  • bacterial
  • These polypeptides are less digestible by peptidases and are synthesized by bacterial enzymes instead of mRNA translation which would normally produce L-amino acids. (wikipedia.org)
  • The functional parallels between nanoparticles and biomacromolecules were established using pyramidal nanoparticles that inhibit the bacterial enzyme β-galactosidase by fitting in a lock-and-key manner into the groove of the enzyme. (wikipedia.org)
  • 2000
  • 2000 ). Because GadA and GadB are intracellular enzymes, and most MSG are out of the cells, the recombinant E. coli cells have to be specially treated by sonication, ethyl acetate, toluene, and thermal activation to increase the permeability (Zhao et al. (springeropen.com)
  • 2000) Physical stability of nonviral plasmid- based therapeutics.177, 430 Venter, J. (imbc-med.ru)
  • repair
  • As an example, they described a study showing that centenarians of 100 to 107 years of age had higher levels of two DNA repair enzymes, PARP1 and Ku70, than general-population old individuals of 69 to 75 years of age. (wikipedia.org)
  • high
  • First to enter the ring is DuPont's Pioneer subsidiary with Plenish, a high oleic soybean boasting a fry-life two to three times longer than conventional soybean oil, superior stability to high oleic canola or sunflower oil, zero trans fat and less saturated fat. (foodnavigator-usa.com)
  • As an alternative to guar gum powder, Mühlenchemie offers EMCEbest WA Pure to ensure stability, high yield, freshness and economy in industrial production. (world-grain.com)
  • An example of this is shown below, using PNGase F. It is imperative to hold these enzymes to a high quality standard, as they must be compatible with the needs of regulated applications and standardized procedures, as well being free of contaminants and side activities. (neb.com)
  • If interpretation is required, refer to Pain Management Drug Screen with Interpretation by High-Resolution Time-of-Flight or Tandem Mass Spectrometry and Enzyme Immunoassay, Urine ( 2009288 ). (aruplab.com)
  • Youngner demonstrated the separation of monkey kidney cells using the pancreatic enzyme trypsin, a technique previously proven by the Rockefeller Institute could be applied to high titer virus stocks. (wikipedia.org)
  • various
  • Activities of various enzymes of pyrimidine nucleotide and DNA syntheses in normal and neoplastic human tissues. (semanticscholar.org)
  • The use of biodegradable NPs in drug delivery systems arises from their unique and various properties including biocompatibility, versatility, better drug stability, encapsulation and controlled release. (scirp.org)
  • known
  • Unlike the SET domain, which targets the lysine tail region of the histone, Dot1 methylates a lysine residue in the globular core of the histone, and is the only enzyme known to do so. (wikipedia.org)
  • present
  • AHRENSBURG, GERMANY - At Food Ingredients Europe 2013 (Stand 8H30), Mühlenchemie GmbH & Co. KG will present new enzyme compositions as active ingredients for the milling and baking industries. (world-grain.com)
  • A mutation cannot be recognized by enzymes once the base change is present in both DNA strands, and thus a mutation cannot be repaired. (wikipedia.org)
  • water
  • The use of EMCEgluten Enhancer also increases water absorption, optimizes the stability of the dough and enhances the structure of the crumb. (world-grain.com)
  • specific
  • Fran many specific atherosclerosis heart ways, cialis at walgreens aquacompound een stability drugs. (baysidemustangs.com)
  • As the enzyme is quite specific for monocytes and macrophages, determination of the presence of factor XIII may be used to identify and classify malignant diseases involving these cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • However
  • However, many did not deliver on the flavor or stability front, required changes to recipes or manufacturing processes, or involved an unwelcome increase in saturated fat (eg. (foodnavigator-usa.com)
  • However, due to its relative simplicity and stability, orlistat was chosen over lipstatin for development as an anti-obesity drug. (wikipedia.org)
  • cannot
  • The next generation of soybean oils will give the food industry a cost-effective and healthier alternative to partially hydrogenated vegetable oils (HVOs) with flavor and stability current alternatives cannot deliver, according to biotech giants Monsanto and DuPont. (foodnavigator-usa.com)
  • damage
  • DNA damage can be recognized by enzymes, and thus can be correctly repaired using the complementary undamaged sequence in a homologous chromosome if it is available for copying. (wikipedia.org)
  • ensure
  • The new flour improvers in the EMCEgluten Enhancer series, based on special enzymes and vegetable fibers, compensate for raw material deficiencies in the flour and ensure excellent baked products even when low-gluten or non-bread flours are used. (world-grain.com)
  • All of NEB's enzymes undergo extensive quality controls to ensure purity and lot-to-lot consistency. (neb.com)
  • less
  • The enzyme compounds of the Pastazym Plus series enable pasta and noodle manufacturers to keep their raw material costs down by using less expensive wheat varieties. (world-grain.com)
  • properties
  • Researches on a stability of obtained syrup showed that properties of syrup remained unalterable during 6 months (proclamation time). (theihe.org)
  • thus
  • In humans there are thought to be four different versions of this regulatory domain, and thus four versions of the enzyme, depending on alternative splicing, though none of their structures have yet been properly determined. (wikipedia.org)