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  • pathway
  • The biosynthesis of catechin begins with ma 4-hydroxycinnamoyl CoA starter unit which undergoes chain extension by the addition of three malonyl-CoAs through a PKSIII pathway. (wikipedia.org)
  • 4-hydroxycinnamoyl CoA is biosynthesized from L-phenylalanine through the Shikimate pathway. (wikipedia.org)
  • oxidation
  • The ability to quench singlet oxygen seems to be in relation with the chemical structure of catechin, with the presence of the catechol moiety on ring B and the presence of a hydroxyl group activating the double bond on ring C. Electrochemical experiments show that (+)-catechin oxidation mechanism proceeds in sequential steps, related with the catechol and resorcinol groups and the oxidation is pH-dependent. (wikipedia.org)
  • The oxidation of the catechol 3',4'-dihydroxyl electron-donating groups occurs first, at very low positive potentials, and is a reversible reaction. (wikipedia.org)
  • 2006). Plasmid pRHL3 was predicted to contain three P450 monooxygenase genes, as well as a gene cluster coding for putative aromatic ring dioxygenase, dehydrogenase, and intradiol dioxygenase enzymes that may be involved in oxidation and degradation of aromatic compounds (RHL3.277-3.281). (alpfmedical.info)
  • Annotation described in this paper also reveals evidence for several metabolic pathways that have yet to be observed experimentally, including a sulphur oxidation ( sox FCDYZAXB) gene cluster, Calvin cycle enzymes, and proteins involved in nitrogen fixation in other species (including RubisCo, ribulose-phosphate 3-epimerase, and nif gene families, respectively). (biomedcentral.com)
  • genes
  • Also, information on molecular mechanisms and pathways of hydrocarbon degradation in high salinity is scarce and only recently there have been a few reports describing genes, enzymes and breakdown steps for some hydrocarbons. (frontiersin.org)
  • With respect to the initial step of biphenyl degradation, expression of all sets of ring hydroxylating dioxygenase genes (bphA, etbAl, etbA2) likewise is induced by biphenyl, and gene disruption experiments suggested that all these genes are involved in biphenyl degradation (Takeda et al. (alpfmedical.info)
  • Nitrogen
  • All heteroatoms (N3O) of the ligand are coordinated to the iron center in complex 1 with two pyridine nitrogen atoms on the axial bonds, while one of the pyridyl arms of the ligand is left uncoordinated in complex 2. (diva-portal.org)
  • Six species of free-living nitrogen fixing bacteria, Azomonas agilis, Azospirillum brasilense, Azospirillum lipoferum, Azotobacter chroococcum, Azotobacter vinelandii , and Beijerinckia mobilis , were surveyed for their ability to grow and fix N 2 using aromatic compounds as sole carbon and energy source. (springer.com)
  • strain
  • The 16S rDNA analysis revealed 99% nucleotide similarity to that of the type strain of R.rhodochrous (Fig. 2) ( 10 ). (kenyon.edu)
  • effector
  • The first is that the binding of the terminal phospholipids alters the conformation of the active sites, implying that the tunnel acts as an effector, only allowing the enzyme to be active in certain areas of the cell. (wikipedia.org)
  • A number of proteins indicate interactions with an as yet unknown host, as indicated by the presence of predicted cell host remodeling enzymes, effector enzymes, hemolysin-like proteins, adhesins, NO reductase, and both type III and type VI secretory complexes. (biomedcentral.com)
  • ligand
  • Complex 1 displays the intradiol-cleaving dioxygenase activity, and the coordinate ethoxyl arm of the ligand is capable of accepting the proton from catechol, which mimics the function of Tyr447 in the. (diva-portal.org)
  • activity
  • The spectrop h oto metric titration experiment indicates the relatively low demand of the external base (0.8 equiv based on Fe3+) for attaining the highest dioxygenase activity of complex 1. (diva-portal.org)
  • iii) Lignin is a complex organic biopolymer mainly present in plants in close association with carbohydrates like cellulose and hemicellulose, its main activity is to provide plants with structural stability, impermeability and resistance towards microbial attack [ 3 ]. (ijbs.com)
  • The enzyme was purified about 18-fold with a specific activity of 7.42 U mg of protein−1. (semanticscholar.org)
  • catalyzes
  • Chalcone synthase then catalyzes the condensation of 4-hydroxycinnamoyl CoA and three molecules of malonyl-CoA to form chalcone. (wikipedia.org)
  • hydroxylase
  • Chalcone is then isomerized to naringenin by chalcone isomerase which is oxidized to eriodictyol by flavonoid 3'- hydroxylase and further oxidized to taxifolin by flavanone 3-hydroxylase. (wikipedia.org)
  • p-Hydroxyphenylacetate-3-hydroxylase. (iisc.ernet.in)
  • acid
  • L-phenylalanine is first deaminated by phenylalanine ammonia lyase (PAL) forming cinnamic acid which is then oxidized to 4-hydroxycinnamic acid by cinnamate 4-hydroyxylase. (wikipedia.org)
  • Glycosyl is present as the acyl type in the beta-1,4-N acetylmuramic acid. (kenyon.edu)
  • 2014). It is suggested that the transformation of naproxen by Trametes versicolor or activated sludge may occur by 2-(6-hydroxynaphthalen-2-yl)propanoic acid and 1-(6-methoxynaphthalen-2-yl)ethanone formation (Quintana et al . (pjmonline.org)