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  • single molecule
  • Single molecule studies allow us to understand these subtle differences. (spie.org)
  • Single molecule experiments are usually time consuming and difficult because only a few molecules are observed in one experiment. (spie.org)
  • By combining single-molecule Foerster resonance energy transfer (smFRET) measurements with normal mode analysis and coarse grained mesoscopic simulations, we obtained results for a hinge-bending enzyme, namely phosphoglycerate kinase (PGK), which support and extend these new ideas. (fz-juelich.de)
  • A team of scientists at the University of Washington and the biotechnology company Illumina have created an innovative tool to directly detect the delicate, single-molecule interactions between DNA and enzymatic proteins. (washington.edu)
  • There are other single-molecule tools around, but our new tool is far more sensitive," said senior author and UW physics professor Jens Gundlach . (washington.edu)
  • As can happen in the scientific process, they developed this tool - the single-molecule picometer-resolution nanopore tweezers, or SPRNT - while working on a related project. (washington.edu)
  • Generally, most existing techniques to look at single-molecule movements - such as optical tweezers - have a resolution, at best, of about 300 picometers," said Gundlach. (washington.edu)
  • biological
  • A new view has recently emerged showing that multi-domain enzymes are biological machines evolved to harness stochastic kicks of solvent particles into highly directional functional motions. (fz-juelich.de)
  • New Orleans, LA Research lead by Dr. Nicolas Bazan, Boyd Professor and Director of the Neuroscience Center of Excellence at LSU Health Sciences Center New Orleans, identifying an enzyme that makes neuroprotectin D1 which specifically and selectively protects retinal cells key for vision, will be published in the June 26, 2009 issue of the Journal of Biological Chemistry . (bio-medicine.org)
  • Deacetylase enzymes: biological functions and the use of small-molecule inhibitors. (nih.gov)
  • Lipophilic indocarbocyanine anchors are a promising technology for incorporation of biomolecules and small molecules into biological membranes for in vivo applications. (deepdyve.com)
  • cellular
  • Such protein activators allow one to ignite signaling from specific nodes and thus probe the sufficiency of enzyme activity to drive a cellular response. (aacrjournals.org)
  • UT Southwestern Medical Center researchers report that a pathogen annually blamed for an estimated 90 million cases of food-borne illness defeats a host's immune response by using a fat-snipping enzyme to cut off cellular communication. (innovations-report.com)
  • The molecule that provides energy for cellular processes is a. (weegy.com)
  • interactions
  • Using automation technology at MedImmune, the team then tested each of the enzymes against each target protein in turn, allowing them to identify a significant number of so-far unknown interactions. (cam.ac.uk)
  • proteases
  • Many enzymes such as proteases and kinases are stored in dormant "off" forms that are subsequently activated through post-translational modification. (aacrjournals.org)
  • Work will be presented for discovery of small molecule activators for the apoptotic proteases known as caspases, as well a Ser-Thr kinase PDK-1. (aacrjournals.org)
  • In pre-clinical research published in the journal Chemistry & Biology , Dr Florian Hollfelder from the Department of Biochemistry at Cambridge and Dr Lutz Jermutus,Senior Director, Research and Development at MedImmune, led a study to map a list of human enzymes (proteases) against potential protein drug targets. (cam.ac.uk)
  • lipid
  • Compared to covalent chemistry or genetic expression on the cell surface, lipid painting (i.e., incorporation of lipid-conjugated molecules into the cell bilayer) is a fast, non-damaging and less expensive approach. (deepdyve.com)
  • small
  • In order to exploit the membrane stability of DiI, we synthesized an amino-DiI derivative, to which we subsequently conjugated an antibody (cetuximab), an enzyme (superoxide dismutase), and a small molecule (DyLight 800). (deepdyve.com)
  • mice
  • Following an intravenous injection into mice, the molecules were detected on circulating RBCs for several days. (deepdyve.com)
  • thus
  • Thus, cetuximab, SOD and DyLight painted on RBC showed 5.5-fold, 6.5-fold and 78-fold increase in the AUC, respectively, compared to the non-modified molecules. (deepdyve.com)
  • chemical
  • The change propagates to a key chemical bond in the middle of the molecule. (bio-medicine.org)
  • For many chemical reactions to work, molecules must be able to fit a catalyst like a hand fits a glove," RajanBabu said. (bio-medicine.org)
  • It may have something to do with the polarity of different parts of the molecule, or the chemical environment around the edges of the molecule. (bio-medicine.org)
  • Our genes are long stretches of DNA molecules, which are made up of combinations of four chemical DNA "letters. (washington.edu)
  • For example, the enzyme known as MMP8 is present in the connective tissue of most mammals, where it breaks the chemical bonds found in collagen. (cam.ac.uk)
  • The principal concept can be used with many water-soluble enzymes," said Jungbae Kim, PNNL senior scientist who described the feat here today at the national meeting of the American Chemical Society. (innovations-report.com)
  • It also has receptor molecules, which allow it to repond to chemical messengers. (getrevising.co.uk)
  • Enzymes generally modify the chemical profiles of their targets to dismantle them or to enable them to perform specific functions. (healthcanal.com)
  • nuclear
  • They confirmed the shape of the molecules at each step using techniques such as nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy. (bio-medicine.org)
  • Here, we discuss various models for the physical sources of KIEs, how experimentalists can use those models to interpret their data, and how the focus of traditional models has grown to a model that includes motion of the enzyme and quantum mechanical nuclear tunneling. (mdpi.com)
  • targets
  • Iron PDP goes after the most electron-rich C-H bond on a molecule, while the new catalyst targets the most electron-rich C-H bond that also is the least encumbered by nearby atoms. (healthcanal.com)
  • Generally
  • Generally, the activity of a single lysosomal hydrolytic enzyme is reduced or lacking altogether, usually due to inheritance of an autosomal recessive mutation. (google.com)
  • sequences
  • Restriction enzymes, also known as restriction endonucleases, recognise specific nucleotide sequences and cut the DNA at these sites. (sciencephoto.com)
  • bond
  • That bond swings like a hinge, to initiate a twist in one particular direction that spreads throughout the rest of the molecule. (bio-medicine.org)
  • We then present two case studies of enzymes, thymidylate synthase and alcohol dehydrogenase, and discuss how KIEs have shed light on the C-H bond cleavages those enzymes catalyze. (mdpi.com)
  • stable
  • Calandria developed a stable cell line to explore the role of an enzyme called 15-LOX-1 that they believed might play a key role in the process of converting DHA into NPD1. (bio-medicine.org)
  • difficult
  • Designing new enzymes has proven an extremely difficult technical challenge, hence the drive to find new uses for previously 'understood' enzymes. (cam.ac.uk)
  • role
  • Researchers at the Boyce Thompson Institute and Johns Hopkins University have discovered that salicylic acid, the primary product from aspirin breakdown, binds to and blocks an enzyme thought to play a major role in neurodegenerative diseases, including Parkinson's disease. (parkinsonsnewstoday.com)
  • treatment
  • The enoyl-ACP reductase enzyme (InhA) from M. tuberculosis is recognized as the primary target of isoniazid (INH), a first-line antibiotic for tuberculosis treatment. (mdpi.com)
  • study
  • The catalyst in this study is just a prototype for all the other molecules that the chemists hope to make, said co-author and professor of chemistry T.V. RajanBabu. (bio-medicine.org)
  • For this study, Parquette, RajanBabu, and postdoctoral researcher Jianfeng Yu synthesized batches of a hydrogenation catalyst in the lab and coaxed the molecules to change shape. (bio-medicine.org)
  • drug
  • The main cost of drugs isn't making the drug, it's actually discovering the drug, in part because there aren't good ways to diversify molecules," she said. (healthcanal.com)