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  • role
  • It is to be noted that premature trypsinogen activation has only been observed during acute pancreatitis, and that no definitive proof exits for a causal role of trypsinogen activation in the pathogenesis of pancreatitis. (bmj.com)
  • cysteine
  • Cells make glutathione in two adenosine triphosphate-dependent steps: First, gamma-glutamylcysteine is synthesized from L-glutamate and cysteine via the enzyme gamma-glutamylcysteine synthetase (glutamate cysteine ligase, GCL). (wikipedia.org)
  • Animal glutamate cysteine ligase (GCL) is a heterodimeric enzyme composed of a catalytic and a modulatory subunit. (wikipedia.org)
  • The plant glutamate cysteine ligase (GCL) is a redox-sensitive homodimeric enzyme, conserved in the plant kingdom. (wikipedia.org)
  • Papain, also known as papaya proteinase I, is a cysteine protease (EC 3.4.22.2) enzyme present in papaya (Carica papaya) and mountain papaya (Vasconcellea cundinamarcensis). (wikipedia.org)
  • pyruvate
  • The PPM family, which includes PP2C and pyruvate dehydrogenase phosphatase, are enzymes with Mn2+/Mg2+ metal ions that are resistant to classic inhibitors and toxins of the PPP family. (wikipedia.org)
  • reaction
  • An enzyme acts as a biological catalyst, increasing the rate of the reaction without being changed into a different molecule, and without raising the temperature. (biology-online.org)
  • By providing an alternative reaction route and by stabilizing intermediates the enzyme reduces the energy required to reach the highest energy transition state of the reaction. (biology-online.org)
  • 5) I'm not going to get into how an inorganic catalyst reduces activation energy, except to say that it provides an alternative reaction mechanism with a lower peak potential energy profile. (biology-online.org)
  • Enzymes increase the rate of reaction by lowering activation energy. (study.com)
  • However, the metal ions are unable to interact with the water until an enzyme-catalyzed reaction takes place. (wikipedia.org)
  • The result of the enzyme-catalyzed reaction is a free galactose molecule and an activated contrast agent. (wikipedia.org)
  • The process of photorespiration, also known as C2 cycle, is also coupled to the dark reactions, as it results from an alternative reaction of the RuBisCO enzyme, and its final byproduct is also another glyceraldehyde-3-P. The Calvin cycle, Calvin-Benson-Bassham (CBB) cycle, reductive pentose phosphate cycle or C3 cycle is a series of biochemical redox reactions that take place in the stroma of chloroplast in photosynthetic organisms. (wikipedia.org)
  • Under physiological conditions, 4a-BH4 is dehydrated to quinonoid-dihydrobiopterin (q-BH2) by the enzyme pterin-4a-carbinolamine dehydrase (PCD) and a water molecule is released in this reaction. (wikipedia.org)
  • The product of the enzymatic reaction, L-DOPA, can be transformed to dopamine by the enzyme DOPA decarboxylase. (wikipedia.org)
  • peptidase
  • The enzyme was previously thought be an aspartic protease, but it was later shown to be a glutamic protease with a catalytic Glu residue at the active site, and was therefore renamed aspergilloglutamic peptidase. (wikipedia.org)
  • Papain belongs to a family of related proteins with a wide variety of activities, including endopeptidases, aminopeptidases, dipeptidyl peptidases and enzymes with both exo- and endo-peptidase activity. (wikipedia.org)
  • The pro-region is required for the proper folding of the newly synthesised enzyme, the inactivation of the peptidase domain and stabilisation of the enzyme against denaturing at neutral to alkaline pH conditions. (wikipedia.org)
  • inactivation
  • We now report a combined kinetic and X-ray crystallographic study to unveil the enzyme modification responsible for the inactivation and the chemistry that occurs at the Mo site when Dg AOR is activated. (conicet.gov.ar)
  • In contrast to XO, which is activated by resulfuration of the Mo site, DgAOR activation/inactivation is governed by the oxidation state of the dithiolene moiety of the pyranopterin cofactor, which demonstrates the non-innocent behavior of the pyranopterin in enzyme activity. (conicet.gov.ar)
  • amino
  • Tyrosine hydroxylase or tyrosine 3-monooxygenase is the enzyme responsible for catalyzing the conversion of the amino acid L-tyrosine to L-3,4-dihydroxyphenylalanine (L-DOPA). (wikipedia.org)
  • gene
  • cAMP-specific 3',5'-cyclic phosphodiesterase 4D is an enzyme that in humans is encoded by the PDE4D gene. (wikipedia.org)
  • D-dopachrome decarboxylase is an enzyme that in humans is encoded by the DDT gene. (wikipedia.org)
  • In humans, tyrosine hydroxylase is encoded by the TH gene, and the enzyme is present in the central nervous system (CNS), peripheral sympathetic neurons and the adrenal medulla. (wikipedia.org)
  • acid
  • Pantothenic acid in the form of CoA is also required for acylation and acetylation, which, for example, are involved in signal transduction and enzyme activation and deactivation, respectively. (wikipedia.org)
  • substrates
  • We studied the effects of such enzymatic activation on their substrates P53, E2F1, BRCA1 and γ-H2AX and examined its outcome on cell survival. (aacrjournals.org)
  • Enzymes bind to their substrates to perform all kinds of important and essential cellular processes, as well as processes that help you enjoy a slice of pizza! (study.com)
  • bacterial
  • This enzyme may be involved in the processing of bacterial peptides and endogenous proteins for MHC class II presentation in the lysosomal/endosomal systems. (wikipedia.org)
  • kinases
  • A variety of enzymes take part in this complex signalling network that decides cellular fate after DNA damage, and is comprised of kinases, phosphatases and glycosylases. (aacrjournals.org)
  • We exposed normal (MCF10A, HaCat) and breast cancer cell lines (MCF7, MDA MB231, MDA MB468) to different combinations of radiomimetic drugs, UV radiation and enzyme inhibitors in a time and dose dependent manner and looked at the resulting enzyme activation rates of DDR kinases such as ATM, ATR, Chk1, Chk2, and DDR phosphatases PP2A and WIP1. (aacrjournals.org)
  • temperature
  • Papain is a relatively heat-resistant enzyme, with an optimal temperature range of 60 and 70 °C. Papain prefers to cleave at: (hydrophobic)-(Arg or Lys)- cleaves here -(not Val). (wikipedia.org)
  • metabolic
  • The enzymes in the Calvin cycle are functionally equivalent to most enzymes used in other metabolic pathways such as gluconeogenesis and the pentose phosphate pathway, but they are found in the chloroplast stroma instead of the cell cytosol, separating the reactions. (wikipedia.org)
  • pathway
  • Thus, we have demonstrated a link between the rate of induction of different enzyme activities in the DDR pathway, the resulting product formation and cellular sensitivity to genotoxic agents. (aacrjournals.org)
  • Since this isolation, 3 human isoforms have been found (A,B,C). This enzyme (all isoforms) plays a vital role in the calcium signalling pathway by terminating the propagation of the signal caused by IP3 by converting it to IP4. (wikipedia.org)
  • sequence
  • In addition, PP2C does not seem to be evolutionarily related to the major family of Ser/Thr PPs and has no sequence homology to ancient PPP enzymes. (wikipedia.org)
  • form
  • Using a red pushpin, Thomas Hurley of the Indiana University School of Medicine demonstrates how a the compound Alda-1 works to restore functionality to a mutated form of the enzyme ALDH2, which plays an important role in metabolizing alcohol and other toxins in the body. (phys.org)
  • However some people, including about 40 percent of people of East Asian descent, carry a mutated form of the ALDH2 enzyme that does not carry out its intended functions well. (phys.org)
  • People with the mutated form of the enzyme are at increased risk of cardiovascular damage. (phys.org)
  • The reduction of activation energy (ΔG) increases the number of reactant molecules with enough energy to reach the activation energy and form the product. (biology-online.org)
  • Spätzle-processing enzyme (SPE) is the only enzyme identified to date that functions in converting Spätzle to an active form during the immune response. (go.jp)
  • Enzyme-activated MR contrast agents are compounds that cause a detectable change in image intensity when in the presence of the active form of a certain enzyme. (wikipedia.org)
  • The enzyme can then further catalyze L-tyrosine to form L-DOPA. (wikipedia.org)
  • bonds
  • This enzyme belongs to the family of lyases, specifically the carboxy-lyases, which cleave carbon-carbon bonds. (wikipedia.org)
  • carbon
  • There is no evidence that the stereochemical orientation of the methyl-bearing carbon affects the either the enzyme-catalyzed cleavage or the ability of the sugar to exclude water from the gadolinium ion. (wikipedia.org)
  • cleave
  • LF was previously shown to cleave NLRP1B at its N terminus, leading to activation of a multiprotein complex called an inflammasome. (sciencemag.org)
  • Thus
  • In humans there are thought to be four different versions of this regulatory domain, and thus four versions of the enzyme, depending on alternative splicing, though none of their structures have yet been properly determined. (wikipedia.org)
  • compounds
  • Mononuclear Mo-containing enzymes of the xanthine oxidase (XO) family catalyze the oxidative hydroxylation of aldehydes and heterocyclic compounds. (conicet.gov.ar)
  • One group of compounds that has shown particular promise is enzyme-activated MR contrast agents. (wikipedia.org)
  • residues
  • The iron is held in place by two histidine residues and one glutamate residue, making it a non-heme, non-iron-sulfur iron-containing enzyme. (wikipedia.org)
  • family
  • This enzyme belongs to the family of transferases, specifically those transferring phosphorus-containing groups (phosphotransferases) with an alcohol group as acceptor. (wikipedia.org)
  • rate
  • We identified a relationship between aging of human vascular smooth muscle cells (SMCs) and nicotinamide phosphoribosyltransferase (Nampt/PBEF/Visfatin), the rate-limiting enzyme for NAD+ salvage from nicotinamide. (isharonline.org)
  • structure
  • Alda-1 reactivates the enzyme by propping up those parts of the structure so they regain normal function," said Dr. Hurley, director of the Center for Structural Biology on the Indiana University-Purdue University Indianapolis campus. (phys.org)
  • Determination of its molecular structure showed it to be a unique two-chain enzyme with a light chain and a heavy chain bound non-covalently with each other. (wikipedia.org)
  • process
  • Their current paper describes how Alda-1 activates the ALDH2 enzyme in a process that Dr. Hurley likens to a woodworking procedure in which Alda-1 attaches to the ALDH2 enzyme at a crucial spot and acts like a shim or wedge to prop it up. (phys.org)
  • The activation process of these enzymes includes the removal of propeptide regions, which serve a variety of functions in vivo and in vitro. (wikipedia.org)
  • present
  • In the present study, Toll activation induced by immune challenge was almost suppressed in spätzle mutant larvae and adults, whereas it was present in SPE mutant larvae challenged with Micrococcus luteus and adults challenged with Bacillus subtilis . (go.jp)
  • water
  • In general, enzyme-activated agents contain a paramagnetic metal ion which can affect the T1 or T2 relaxation times for nearby water molecules. (wikipedia.org)
  • amino acids
  • As well as helping rid the body of toxins, glutathione is also involved in making and repairing DNA, activating enzymes, transporting amino acids around the body and helping the immune system function. (bioceuticals.com.au)
  • For example, the tripeptide glutathione is synthesized in two steps from free amino acids, by two enzymes: gamma-glutamylcysteine synthetase and glutathione synthetase. (wikipedia.org)
  • cell
  • Activities of some enzymes of pyrimidine and DNA synthesis in a rat transplantable hepatoma and human primary hepatomas, in cell lines derived from these tissues, and in human fetal liver. (semanticscholar.org)
  • J.-M. Li and A. M. Shah, "Mechanism of endothelial cell NADPH oxidase activation by angiotensin II. (hindawi.com)
  • Cells can also be induced to senesce via DNA damage in response to elevated reactive oxygen species (ROS), activation of oncogenes and cell-cell fusion, independent of telomere length. (wikipedia.org)
  • Sequential activation of caspases plays a central role in the execution-phase of cell apoptosis. (wikipedia.org)
  • allow
  • Enzymes also allow the regulation of metabolic pathways in response to changes in the cell's environment or to signals from other cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • chain
  • Has no action on insulin B chain This enzyme is present in the venom of Russell's viper (Vipera russelli). (wikipedia.org)
  • another
  • Another branch of Gilmour's research involves the role of the blood-clotting enzyme thrombin in tumor growth and metastasis. (wikipedia.org)
  • cells
  • 2000 ). Because GadA and GadB are intracellular enzymes, and most MSG are out of the cells, the recombinant E. coli cells have to be specially treated by sonication, ethyl acetate, toluene, and thermal activation to increase the permeability (Zhao et al. (springeropen.com)
  • small
  • Restriction Enzymes Restriction enzymes are endonucleases produced by bacteria that typically recognize small base pair sequences (called restriction sites) and then cleave both strands of DNA at this site. (wikipedia.org)
  • several
  • Several sampling and analytical methods including thin-layer chromatography (TLC), high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC), mass spectrometry, and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA), among others, have been used to test for aflatoxin B1 contamination in foods. (wikipedia.org)
  • Most of the enzymes have not been characterized and there may be several more intermediates that are still unknown. (wikipedia.org)