###### bits of entropy

- The roll of a die has approximately 2.6 bits of entropy. (cisco.com)
- with two coins there are four possible outcomes, and two bits of entropy. (wikipedia.org)

###### decrease in entropy

- This is the spontaneous DECREASE in entropy. (tripod.com)
- I have heard people say that entropy can not decrease, but just look around and there are many examples of a spontaneous decrease in entropy. (tripod.com)
- The gravitational collapse to form planets and the sun represents a decrease in entropy. (tripod.com)
- A friend of mine always argued that 'we' are evidence of significant decrease in entropy. (physicsforums.com)

###### calculates the entropy

- The Java plugin I am going to present calculates the entropy of files according to the method presented on Ero Carrera's blog . (the-interweb.com)

###### applications of entropy

- Finally, we will cover some practical applications of entropy calculation and analysis. (cisco.com)
- This work will be of value to physicists, chemists, biologists and engineers interested in the theory and applications of entropy and its generation. (springer.com)

###### total entropy

- If your system includes the particle + the rest of the liquid, then in this closed system the total entropy would not decrease. (physicsforums.com)
- As time goes by, a quantity known as the total entropy of every system increases. (ldolphin.org)

###### base 2 logarithm

- The entropy H of a random variable X with possible outcomes of { X1 … X n } is the product of the probability of outcome i times the base 2 logarithm of one over the probability of outcome i . (cisco.com)
- The base 2 logarithm (also known as the binary logarithm ) is most often used to compute entropy because of its close connection with the binary numbering system, and this has become the standard unit of measure when discussing information entropy. (cisco.com)

###### considering all possible outcomes

- Entropy gives us a way to quantify the average number of bits needed to convey a message when considering all possible outcomes. (cisco.com)
- Generally, information entropy is the average amount of information conveyed by an event, when considering all possible outcomes. (wikipedia.org)

###### system's

- No matter how large the number of particles is, at equilibrium there is an equal chance that the system's entropy will increase and decrease/ system will heat or cool. (physicsforums.com)
- In statistical mechanics , configuration entropy is the portion of a system's entropy that is related to the position of its constituent particles rather than to their velocity or momentum . (wikipedia.org)

###### Boltzmann's

- which in the perfect disorder limit (all P n = 1/ W ) leads to Boltzmann's formula, while in the opposite limit (one configuration with probability 1), the entropy vanishes. (wikipedia.org)
- In statistical mechanics, we can recover Boltzmann's formula by maximizing entropy subject to a constraint on the expected energy. (mdpi.com)

###### Shannon's

- Shannon's classic formula for computing entropy is shown below. (cisco.com)
- This formulation is called the Gibbs entropy formula and is analogous to that of Shannon's information entropy . (wikipedia.org)

###### stochastic

- Information entropy is defined as the average amount of information produced by a stochastic source of data. (wikipedia.org)

###### compute

- You will learn what entropy is and how to compute it. (cisco.com)
- We can easily compute the entropy of any fair, untampered die. (cisco.com)

###### macroscopic

- Therefore, a change in configuration entropy corresponds to the same change in macroscopic entropy. (wikipedia.org)

###### decreases

- The entropy of the system remains the same or the entropy decreases. (tripod.com)
- The 2nd law is statistical in nature and so there can be small, local fluctuations where entropy momentarily decreases. (physicsforums.com)
- Another notion (not by myself) along these lines can be stated that if the entropy in one part of the universe decreases (say the Earth) the entropy in another part must increase. (physicsforums.com)

###### probability distribution

- The logarithm of the probability distribution is useful as a measure of entropy because it is additive for independent sources. (wikipedia.org)
- The entropy quantifies these considerations when a probability distribution of the source data is known. (wikipedia.org)
- Entropy only takes into account the probability of observing a specific event, so the information it encapsulates is information about the underlying probability distribution, not the meaning of the events themselves. (wikipedia.org)

###### Gibbs

- Maximum entropy (ME) models, variously known as log-linear, Gibbs, exponential, and multinomial logit models, provide a general purpose machine learning technique for classification and prediction which has been successfully applied to fields as diverse as computer vision and econometrics. (repec.org)

###### calculation

- The mathematical field of combinatorics , and in particular the mathematics of combinations and permutations is highly important in the calculation of configurational entropy. (wikipedia.org)

###### typically measured

- Entropy, which is typically measured in bits, is actually a measurement of how much information is NOT available when we don't know the outcome of an information source. (cisco.com)

###### plugin

- For the Entropy Calculator plugin we only need the line chart and the button. (the-interweb.com)
- If you do not want to extend the File Statistics dialog but prefer to have your own Entropy dialog you can simply modify the plugin. (the-interweb.com)
- Now when I start Hexer I get the following error message, Hexer will go onto Load however there is no entropy plugin. (the-interweb.com)
- 3ds Max destruction toolset adds new Entropy Bullet plugin and even more new fragmentation options. (cgchannel.com)

###### calculate

- The remaining methods are used to calculate and display the entropy. (the-interweb.com)
- Now that we have a slightly better than comic book understanding of what entropy is , let's look at how to calculate it. (cisco.com)
- Moreover, attempts to calculate entropy contributions by computer simulations have mostly focused only on substrate entropies, which do not provide the full picture. (diva-portal.org)

###### analogous

- Generally, entropy refers to disorder or uncertainty, and the definition of entropy used in information theory is directly analogous to the definition used in statistical thermodynamics . (wikipedia.org)

###### increases

- This argument is even more controversial as the implication is that the state of entropy in the universe is somewhat constant, and when entropy increases in one part of the universe, it must decrease in another part. (physicsforums.com)
- Again the efficiency is always less than 100% and the overall 'entropy' of the universe increases. (ldolphin.org)

###### computational

- It turns out that the large entropy contributions to catalysis in these cases can now be rationalized by our computational approach. (diva-portal.org)
- Finally, we address the problem of cold adaptation of enzyme reaction rates and prove by computational experiments that the universal activation enthalpy entropy phenomenon originates from mechanical properties of the outer protein surface. (diva-portal.org)
- Because we make no computational assumptions, the entropy in R can come only from w. (microsoft.com)

###### 1971

- However, in 1971, Romanian economist Nicholas Georgescu-Roegen published The Entropy Law and Economic Process, formulating what he called ' Bioeconomics ', exposing certain errors in conventional economic theory. (greenpeace.org)

###### Neumann

- Von Neumann told him he should call it the "entropy" because nobody really knows what entropy is (indeed it does appear to be a loaded term ) and thus Shannon would have an advantage when debating his burgeoning field with pundits. (cisco.com)

###### system

- Once you have given the box a good shake, you have pretty much maximized the entropy of the system. (tripod.com)
- Note that the collapse of the proto-solar system did not cause an increase in the entropy of some larger system as we would find in the classic refrigerator example. (tripod.com)
- The entropy inside the icebox is lower than that of the surrounding kitchen, but in running the motors of the fridge we have heated up the kitchen and the entropy of a larger system was increased in order to lower the entropy around our cold cuts and beer. (tripod.com)
- Entropy CAN in fact be reduced in a closed system, and this happens spontaneously according to the fluctuation theorem. (physicsforums.com)
- In either case, entropy of a closed system does not decrease. (physicsforums.com)
- For a many-body system in local equilibrium a stronger version of the second law applies which says that the entropy production at each spacetime point should be non-negative. (colorado.edu)
- Topological entropy is a nonnegative number which measures the complexity of the system. (scholarpedia.org)

###### physics

- Their work, entitled "Influence of temperature and diffusive entropy on the capture radius of fly-casting binding", was published in SCIENCE CHINA Physics, Mechanics & Astronomy, 2011, 54(12). (redorbit.com)
- In the meantime, Callisto reflects on the concept of entropy, on the possibility that the universe will ultimately suffer heat death and cease to act at all (the first sign of which is the constant thermometer reading outside his window), and on the possible implications of the laws of thermodynamics for social existence (this with some help from those investigators who had appropriated the term "entropy" from physics to information theory). (enotes.com)

###### biology

- Entropy and entropy generation play essential roles in our understanding of many diverse phenomena ranging from cosmology to biology. (springer.com)
- Erwin Schrodinger applied the concept of entropy to biology in 1944, concluding that hereditary carriers had to be small in size and permanent in form. (conservapedia.com)

###### equally

- For example, the entropy of a coin flip with 2 equally likely outcomes is less than that of the roll of die with 6 equally likely outcomes. (cisco.com)
- If these values are equally probable, the entropy (in bits) is equal to this number. (wikipedia.org)

###### time

- Another thing you can demonstrate with the shoebox entropy machine, is something that some people say can not happen, but in fact happens all of the time. (tripod.com)

###### experiment

- Juola, P., Baayen, H.: A controlled-corpus experiment in authorship identification by cross-entropy. (springer.com)

###### complexity

- The second law of thermodynamics allows higher order (lower entropy) to appear locally, but it still disallows organized complexity. (talkorigins.org)

###### term

- In this context the term "entropy" was first proposed in 1865, by Rudolf Clausius . (conservapedia.com)
- Entropy is the physicist's term. (ldolphin.org)

###### chapter

- This chapter returns to the subject of the entropy of a training set. (springer.com)

###### maximum

- In the state of maximum entropy we would expect to find about 50 cents showing heads and fifty cents showing tails. (tripod.com)
- Maximum entropy is a powerful method for constructing statistical models of classification tasks, such as part of speech tagging in Natural Language Processing. (sourceforge.net)

###### main

- You have probably heard that the main statement of entropy is that systems always tend to become more disordered. (tripod.com)

###### higher

- The entropy was higher when it was a cloud of gas. (tripod.com)
- So that's what sets the probability of exciting the atom, the fact that the reservoir has a higher probability of being in a state of higher entropy. (physicsforums.com)

###### make

- The only difference is that I averaged the entropies of larger files to make sure that the dataset is small enough for the line chart component to handle. (the-interweb.com)
- It is important to make the distinction that entropy is not information. (cisco.com)
- I would like to make a stand regarding the topic of entropy reversal. (physicsforums.com)

###### subject

- Subject: What is negative entropy of photosynthesis? (madsci.org)

###### negative

- What is negative entropy of photosynthesis? (madsci.org)
- Recently one of my friends read about negative entropy of photosynthesis. (madsci.org)

###### important

- The purpose of this volume is to present some of these recent and important results in a manner that not only appeals to the entropy specialist but also makes them accessible to the nonspecialist looking for an overview of the field. (springer.com)

###### state

- The all heads condition is just one possible state for the entropy machine of 2^100 possible states. (tripod.com)
- Once you have achieved this state, entropy can not increase any further so it must stay the same or decrease. (tripod.com)

###### Data

- Our direct analysis of the experimental data from the staggered herringbone mixer mixer demonstrates the adaptability of the entropy and multifractal dimensions to both simulations and experiments. (nsti.org)

###### overall

- The overall result is the entropy measured in bits. (cisco.com)
- This is done at less than 100% efficiency and the overall 'entropy' of the universe is increased. (ldolphin.org)

###### Rate

- CONSPECTUS: The role played by entropy for the enormous rate enhancement achieved by enzymes has been debated for many decades. (diva-portal.org)

###### possible

- Thus such a protocol must minimize the entropy loss during its execution, so that R is as long as possible. (microsoft.com)