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  • Fetal
  • When principles conflict," they continued, "the preservation of fetal life…may be abandoned to maintain full and secure family life. (patheos.com)
  • a) STATEMENT OF POLICY- It is the policy of the United States that every woman has the fundamental right to choose to bear a child, to terminate a pregnancy prior to fetal viability, or to terminate a pregnancy after fetal viability when necessary to protect the life or health of the woman. (blogspot.com)
  • In humans, those defects are collectively classified as Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorders, with Fetal Alcohol Syndrome (FAS) representing the more severe defects. (asu.edu)
  • The document focuses on right to life issues including abortion, birth control, and euthanasia, but also touches on other concepts relevant to embryology, such as contraception, in vitro fertilization, sterilization, embryonic stem cell research, and fetal experimentation. (asu.edu)
  • IF there is no human BEING present until the beginning of the fetal period (9 weeks post-fertilization), and even no human PERSON there throughout the fetal period until birth -- unless God sends the Archangel Gabriel to infuse the RATIONAL SOUL (which we can't know! (lifeissues.net)
  • However, in humans Thalidomide interfered with embryonic and fetal development in ways not observed in rodent tests. (asu.edu)
  • fetus
  • Some say it takes 40 days, others say it takes 120 days, for a human soul to be breathed into a fetus," Sherine Hamdy, an associate professor of anthropology at Brown who researches cross-cultural bioethics, told Slate . (slate.com)
  • In the case of a fetus, if the mother's life is in jeopardy, it is not because the fetus is in some manner attacking the mother as in most such cases. (urbandharma.org)
  • Similarly, in his commentary on Exodus, John Calvin writes , "The fetus, though enclosed in the womb of its mother, is already a human being ( homo ), and it is almost a monstrous crime to rob it of life which it has not yet begun to enjoy. (patheos.com)
  • Historical Rabbinic teaching indicates that a fetus is not given the same moral status as a person, and that it was not until the head of the fetus had exited the womb that the child's life had equal value to that of the mother, he said. (bionews.org.uk)
  • Given that UK law does not afford a right to life to human beings until they had been born, he questioned what value was added to the fetus as it traversed down the birth canal, that it should acquire a changed moral status once it emerged at the other end? (bionews.org.uk)
  • No matter what you call it -- a fetus, a zygote, a proto-human, etc. -- it is a human being. (blogspot.com)
  • For centuries the Catholic Church believed that "ensoulment" occurred and a fetus became a person at the time of quickening or first movement, sometime during the second trimester. (alternet.org)
  • Beginning with Aristotle, quickening divided the developmental stages of embryo and fetus. (asu.edu)
  • These groundbreaking illustrations of the fetus reveal his advanced understanding of human development and demonstrate his role in the vanguard of embryology during the Renaissance. (asu.edu)
  • Abortion is stated to be Haraam, and in Islamic law, the fetus has rights and the concept of ensoulment takes place at either 40 or 120 days of gestation. (harrislam.com)
  • beings
  • 12 Genocidy vždy začaly tím, že jsme se úspěšně pokusili přesvědčit sebe sama že our fellow human beings are less than we are. (slideplayer.cz)
  • Aquinas identifies four "orders" that he thinks roughly divide up the ontological terrain that human beings inhabit: the order of nature, which exists independently of us, the logical order introduced into human intellection by thought, the practical order introduced into our actions through intelligent deliberation and choice, and the order of making introduced into the material of the world by our work. (thepublicdiscourse.com)
  • If you accept that a human embryo is a 'potential' life, whose rights are paramount: those of the potential human being, or those of the existing human beings whose lives might be improved by research on that embryo s cells? (bu.edu)
  • But Dr. Serour argues that excess early embryos (less than 14 days old) are not yet human beings. (csmonitor.com)
  • Instead of leaving them to perish, why not use them for research for the benefit of human beings? (csmonitor.com)
  • Lee Rayfield expressed the Christian belief that human beings were made in the image of God and that forms the basis for the respect and dignity accorded to them. (bionews.org.uk)
  • Lacking the facts to back their claims up, they are left with nothing but to resort to claims about spirits, gods, and the speciesist superiority of human beings, and they do, as they invariably fall back to their dubious "moral" arguments. (filipinofreethinkers.org)
  • D.N. IRVING, "When do human beings begin? (lifeissues.net)
  • While the aim of the research was good (to produce stem cells for therapies), it required an objective evil (the destruction of human beings). (ncregister.com)
  • While the aim of the research was good (to produce stem cells for therapies to treat diseases which will not be rejected by patients' bodies because they will be genetically identical) it required an evil (the killing of human beings). (ncregister.com)
  • theologians
  • From the 12th century, when the West first came to know more of Aristotle than his works on logic, mediaeval declarations by Popes and theologians on ensoulment were based on the Aristotelian hypothesis. (wikipedia.org)
  • Why did I go into and got into this whole question when I saw a religious action notice on a bulletin board at the college that said, "Philosophers and theologians have argued for centuries as to when personhood begins, but scientists know when it begins. (swarthmore.edu)
  • embryonic stem-cell
  • Iranian scientists developed human embryonic stem-cell lines in 2003 with the approval of Ayatollah Seyed Ali Khamenei, Iran's supreme religious leader, says LeRoy Walters, a professor at the Kennedy Institute of Ethics at Georgetown University in Washington. (csmonitor.com)
  • described the first process used to isolate 5 different human embryonic stem cell lines. (scribd.com)
  • Augustine
  • The writings of St. Augustine on ensoulment were referenced, but he wrote at a time of far less understanding of biology and the beginning of human life than we have currently. (ncregister.com)
  • Aristotle's epigenetic view of successive life principles ("souls") in a developing human embryo-first a vegetative and then a sensitive or animal soul, and finally an intellective or human soul, with the higher levels able to carry out the functions also of the lower levels -was the prevailing view among early Christians, including Tertullian , Augustine , and Jerome . (wikipedia.org)
  • : 9, 24 It has been commented that "the LXX could easily have been used to distinguish human from non-human fœtuses and homicidal from non-homicidal abortions, yet the early Christians, until the time of Augustine in the fifth century, did not do so. (wikipedia.org)
  • time
  • That is a debate for another time, but Ryan fairly defends the reason, science, and the Church's teaching on when life begins. (ncregister.com)
  • In the time of Aristotle , it was widely believed that the human soul entered the forming body at 40 days (male embryos) or 90 days (female embryos), and quickening was an indication of the presence of a soul. (wikipedia.org)
  • Keown does comment in an endnote that Buddhism would surely have sided with a woman seeking an abortion in order to save her own life, a position he attributes to Hindu jurists of the time. (urbandharma.org)
  • Does every individual start from material that is unformed, and the form emerges only gradually, over time? (stanford.edu)
  • The core question underlying the existence of these two competing philosophical traditions is the extent to which something is considered as being formed or organized from the "beginning" or whether organization and form arise only over time. (stanford.edu)
  • Gradually, over time, form begins to emerge from the unformed. (stanford.edu)
  • Hwang Woo-suk, a geneticist in South Korea, claimed in Science magazine in 2004 and 2005 that he and a team of researchers had for the first time cloned a human embryo and that they had derived eleven stem cell lines from it. (asu.edu)
  • The Human Development Hoax: Time To Tell The Truth! (lifeissues.net)
  • In 1934 a fourteen-day-old embryo was discovered during a postmortem examination and became famous for being the youngest known human embryo specimen at the time. (asu.edu)
  • In 1969, more than ten years after the first attempts to treat infertilities with IVF technologies, the British developmental biologist Robert Geoffrey Edwards fertilized human oocytes in a Petri dish for the first time. (asu.edu)
  • From the time of the Ancient Egyptians, inspection of the urine has been a popular place to start. (asu.edu)
  • Only time allowed if the life of the mother needs to be saved. (getrevising.co.uk)
  • Rather than presuming to do any research which is "possible, technically, to do," researchers should take the time to ask ontological questions about the nature of the human being. (ncregister.com)
  • zygote
  • In the human case the facts are as follows: A living sperm cell unites with a living egg cell, and the resultant living fertilized egg (or zygote) then goes on to divide into about 100-million-million cells. (latimes.com)
  • The DNA of a human zygote tells it to become a human being (under favorable conditions). (latimes.com)
  • euthanasia
  • Passive Euthanasia - Allowing people who are being kept alive artificially to die, by switching off a life support machine. (getrevising.co.uk)
  • The main reason for euthanasia is that the person has a very poor quality of life. (getrevising.co.uk)
  • Euthanasia - 'assisted suicide' someone helps someone else to end their life. (getrevising.co.uk)
  • In Islam, since life is a sacred gift from God, euthanasia and assisted suicide are not permitted. (harrislam.com)
  • biological
  • Before the 19th Century, before the facts of biological development were made clear, a folkish--but erroneous--view of human development supported the right to early abortions. (latimes.com)
  • Don't listen to the misinformation which Pelosi and Biden spread: the issue is not ensoulment, the issue is biological. (blogspot.com)
  • Pro-life tends to use the biological imperialism argument, and pro-choice tends to try and frame the argument as a women's rights issue. (blogspot.com)
  • stem
  • The availability of embryonic stem (ES) cells isolated from human blastocysts may open novel avenues for medical treatment of otherwise incurable diseases. (fountainmagazine.com)
  • To many, the procedure skirts ethical and moral difficulties in creating new life from fertilizing an egg to harvest stem cells. (natcath.org)
  • Some Catholic leaders, activists in the pro-life movement, and legislators oppose embryonic stem cell research, while others believe certain forms of the research present morally acceptable means of achieving long-sought medical gains. (natcath.org)
  • With the somatic, or adult cell nucleus, the egg begins to develop into a blastocyst, essentially a sphere containing a cluster of unspecialized stem cells. (natcath.org)
  • Many scientists believe that research on human embryonic stem cells, components of human embryos created in laboratories, will eventually yield cures to a number of devastating human conditions including juvenile diabetes, Parkinson s disease and spinal cord injuries. (bu.edu)
  • On August 9, 2001, President George W. Bush announced he would permit federally funded research on existing stem cells lines derived from human embryos. (bu.edu)
  • That permission was largely moot, as it was not until the fall of 1998 that the first report of a successful isolation of human embryonic stem cells done, of necessity, without federal support was published. (bu.edu)
  • Legal, ethical and economic concerns have all been voiced in the debate over the use of human embryonic stem cells, as have religious considerations. (bu.edu)
  • Human embryonic stem cells cannot sustain themselves indefinitely. (bu.edu)
  • How do we determine what God s will is with regard to human embryonic stem cell research? (bu.edu)
  • Ethical Issues in Human Stem Cell Research: Executive Summary was published in September 1999 by The US National Bioethics Advisory Commission in response to a national debate about whether or not the US federal government should fund embryonic stem cell research. (asu.edu)
  • When James Thomson of the University of Wisconsin announced in 1998 that he had derived and cultured human embryonic stem cells(hESCs), Americans widely believed-and accepted-that stem cells would one day be the basis of a multitude of regenerative medical techniques. (asu.edu)
  • Stem cell research: Some pros and cons ", UFL PRO VITA: Newsletter of the University Faculty for Life, Oct. 1999, 10:1:1-2. (lifeissues.net)
  • After becoming chief pathologist at the University of Wisconsin-Madison Wisconsin Regional Primate Center in 1995, James A. Thomson began his pioneering work in deriving embryonic stem cells from isolated embryos. (asu.edu)
  • This is the storybook future of human embryonic stem cell research. (scribd.com)
  • The major movement started in the early 1980s, when scientists derived the first embryonic stem cell line from mouse tissue. (scribd.com)
  • This finally brought the wondrous potential of stem cell research to the field of human treatment. (scribd.com)
  • Eggs from the mother, oocytes, were artificially fertilized using sperm from the father.18 Multiple copies of these fertilized embryos were created because IVF often fails on the first few attempts.20 The process of creating an embryonic stem cell line starts with preparations for IVF. (scribd.com)
  • Human stem cells are derived from humans and have the capability to differentiate into different types of cells (such as blood and organs). (blogspot.com)
  • There are two kinds of stem cells - human embryonic stem cells (hESC) and adult stem cells. (blogspot.com)
  • Human embryonic stem cells (hESCs) are derived from blastocyst, which is the inner mass of an early cell embryo. (blogspot.com)
  • PORTLAND, Ore. - The recent production of stem cells from cloned human embryos has prompted a researcher to consider the need for scientists to take other disciplines into account before engaging their work. (ncregister.com)
  • The May issue of the journal Cell included a paper from scientists at Oregon Health and Science University announcing they have produced embryonic stem cells by transferring the DNA of a human skin cell into a human egg to produce an embryo. (ncregister.com)
  • sperm
  • When a sperm and an ovum combine, there is a new human life , full of potential to be honest, but it is already human. (blogspot.com)
  • This was a miniature human being supposedly seen in the head of the sperm, through a microscope no less! (lifeissues.net)
  • In-Vitro-Fertilisation - Doctors bring a human egg and some healthy sperm together outside of the womb. (getrevising.co.uk)
  • Images of Embryos
  • In his article "Visualizing Human Embryos for Scientific American," Smith displayed three-dimensional images of embryos using combinations of Magnetic Resonance Microscopy (MRM), light microscopy, and various computer editing. (asu.edu)
  • 1995
  • In 1995, Congress banned federal funding for destructive research using human embryos. (bu.edu)
  • The encyclical entitled 'Evangelium Vitae,' meaning 'The Gospel of Life,' was promulgated on 25 March 1995 by Pope John Paul II in Rome, Italy. (asu.edu)
  • abortions
  • Duluth, MN (OpEdNews) January 1, 2011: The NEW YORK TIMES' editorial "A Matter of Life or Death" (Dec. 23, 2010) argues that Bishop Thomas Olmsted's actions in Phoenix can have a chilling effect on Catholic hospitals in the United States providing emergency abortions. (opednews.com)
  • believe
  • Buddhists, Hindus and Sikhs believe in the value of life - everyone deserves the chance to do good & build good karma. (getrevising.co.uk)
  • Unitarians are more overtly pro-choice and "believe not only in the value of life itself but also in the quality of life. (slate.com)
  • I] believe human life is a sacred gift from our creator. (bu.edu)
  • scientists
  • Many scientists would say they don't know when life begins. (slate.com)
  • And surprisingly, the promise of miraculous and almost mythological medical healing is beginning to be professed by even the most skeptical scientists and experts. (scribd.com)
  • pregnancy
  • Nilsson, a photojournalist, documented a nine-month human pregnancy using pictures and accompanying text written by doctors Axel Ingelman-Sundberg, Claes Wirsen and translated by Britt and Claes Wirsen and Annabelle MacMillian. (asu.edu)
  • regard
  • This raises the same ethical questions and conflicts that are often heard when the ethics of abortion are discussed: Most people in the pro-life movement regard an embryo to be a full human person with a soul. (fountainmagazine.com)
  • Without the perspectives of these fields, science will regard the human person as "only a mass of cells to which you can do whatever you want," which is why respect for the human person "now is falling apart. (ncregister.com)
  • moral
  • 9 person = a member of moral community the idea of restricting moral standing to only those humans with certain characteristics has led in the past to racism, sexism, and religious intolerance. (slideplayer.cz)
  • A few years ago, Richard Doerflinger , a pro-life Roman Catholic intellectual with decades of experience in the trenches of America's culture wars, was invited to debate the moral and legal status of the human embryo before a large class of Harvard undergraduates . (wdtprs.com)
  • However, the three matters are not exactly parallel, given that various figures have argued that some kind of life without a soul, in various contexts, still has a moral worth that must be considered. (wikipedia.org)
  • It lies at a difficult moral intersection, juxtaposing the need to protect life in all its phases with the prospect of saving and improving life in all its stages. (bu.edu)
  • However, other than implying that we are absolved from moral responsibility when the 'life and death' decision has already been made, the president did not elaborate on this personal theology that shaped public policy. (bu.edu)
  • Pro-life politicians have a history of doing anything in their power to make abortion as difficult, expensive and guilt-inducing as possible - and if this means harming women or distorting science, their sense of moral superiority will justify anything. (lifeethics.org)
  • But what they try to sweep under the rug is that moral concern is not based on "life" but on the capacity of brains for consciousness and cognition (which, incidentally, concerns also non-human animals). (filipinofreethinkers.org)
  • This translated to a change in the moral status of the human embryo. (lifeissues.net)
  • stages
  • The tradition holds that we enter life in stages and leave in stages," Rabbi Elliot Dorff, bioethicist and professor of Jewish theology at the American Jewish University in California, told Slate . (slate.com)
  • By extremely sophisticated methods we can identify the DNA of all human stages of development as human DNA. (latimes.com)
  • Embryonic images displayed in Life magazine during the mid-twentieth century serve as a representation of technological advances and the growing public interest in the stages of embryological development. (asu.edu)
  • Understanding the stages of embryonic development is vital to explaining how eukaryotes form and how they are related on the tree of life. (asu.edu)
  • The Multi-Dimensional Human Embryo website ( http://embryo.soad.umich.edu/ ) is a publicly accessible online database of the first three-dimensional images and animations of human embryos during different stages of development. (asu.edu)
  • ethics
  • 2 Common Morality is a product of human experience and history and is a universaly shared product is found in all cultures is not relative to cultures and individuals, because it transcends both (Beauchamp, T.L., Childress, J.F., (2009) Principles of Biomedical Ethics. (slideplayer.cz)
  • Human Ethics. (lifeethics.org)
  • Abortion is an ethical debate and the starting point of the argument above is a statement of ethics individuals have rights. (blogspot.com)
  • Catholic
  • The strongly pro-life Catholic and Republican was in her office in the state Capitol in Jefferson City preparing to attend a hearing on a bill prohibiting human cloning before the Judiciary and Civil and Criminal Jurisprudence Committee. (natcath.org)
  • She had been the subject of heavy lobbying by the Missouri Catholic Conference and Missouri Right to Life in the weeks previous to the hearing. (natcath.org)
  • He then said he is pro-life not only because of his Catholic faith, but also because of reason and science. (ncregister.com)
  • My religion defines who I am, and I've been a practicing Catholic my whole life. (ncregister.com)
  • However, he does not work with the idea of ensoulment that has been used in the Catholic tradition of thought, as I will momentarily. (opednews.com)
  • Clear, straight commentary on Catholic issues, liturgy and life by Fr. (wdtprs.com)
  • This paper was delivered by Dr. Irving, representing the Catholic Medical Association of the United States, and the International Federation of Catholic Medical Associations, at the Scientific Congress, " The Guadalupan Appeal: The Dignity and Status of the Human Embryo ", Mexico City, Mexico, October 28, 1999. (lifeissues.net)
  • The first addresses the historical and current teachings of the Catholic Church regarding abortion, and also discusses the role of conscience, the 'double effect,' the issue of ensoulment, and the disposition of the souls of aborted and miscarried preborn babies. (ewtn.com)
  • 1999
  • In March 1999 Bradley Richard Smith, a professor at the University of Michigan, unveiled the first digital magnetic resonance images of human embryos. (asu.edu)
  • beginnings
  • At its core,' Bush continued, 'this issue forces us to confront fundamental questions about the beginnings of life and the ends of science. (bu.edu)
  • womb
  • The belief underlying the Ohio measure, which never made it to the Senate floor , is that the heartbeat serves as final and irrefutable proof of the arrival of a unique human being, one who should be treated with the same respect and care as a person outside the womb. (slate.com)
  • If it is not placed in the womb it will not survive and it will not become a human being. (csmonitor.com)
  • biology
  • Howard A. Schneiderman Professor of Biology Scott Gilbert admits he can't answer the question he poses at the start of his popular talk. (swarthmore.edu)
  • Biology is the study of life (complex chemical interactions) and it gives answers to things like "how" and "what" and "when. (blogspot.com)
  • Obama
  • As you may remember, during the 2008 presidential campaign, Senator Barack Obama was asked a question regarding abortion: "When does life begin? (opednews.com)
  • Are Obama and Pelosi dodging the life-and-death question? (wdtprs.com)
  • At the Aug. 16 'Civil Forum on the Presidency' at Saddleback Church in Lake Forest, Calif., Sen. Barack Obama was asked by pastor Rick Warren , 'At what point does a baby get human rights, in your view? (wdtprs.com)
  • Obama quickly changed the subject to when life begins, and then demurred: '… whether you are looking at it from a theological perspective or a scientific perspective, answering that question with specificity … is above my pay grade. (wdtprs.com)
  • position
  • Since Yeckel was a member of his flock, his obligation was to inform her of the church s position on human cloning, he said. (natcath.org)
  • In 1968, just five years before Roe v. Wade, Christianity Today held a symposium of evangelical leaders to determine "the conservative or evangelical position within Protestantism" on "the control of human reproduction. (patheos.com)
  • The position "pro-life" is an absurd misnomer. (peoplesworld.org)
  • person
  • Thus, killing a recently fertilized embryo is not seen as the murder of a human person. (fountainmagazine.com)
  • Bartle s bill, also known as the anti-cloning bill, would make it a felony offense to for a person to participate in or use state funds or facilities in the cloning of a human being. (natcath.org)
  • Neither does the possession of 46 chromosomes mean that one is a person since human genetic diseases such as Down and Turner syndromes involve additional or missing chromosomes. (filipinofreethinkers.org)
  • If illness and disease mean that there is no happiness, then the point to life is missing and a person may be justified in taking their life. (getrevising.co.uk)
  • It goes to the point of understanding what a person is, of what is a human being," he said. (ncregister.com)
  • For instance, this one of the human being: to understand what is a human person, you need several disciplines," Bionaz said. (ncregister.com)
  • legally
  • A pro-life New York attorney, Lawrence Washburn, attempted to legally intervene in the case of Baby Jane Doe, an infant born with disorders. (asu.edu)
  • destroy
  • Can we as a society in good conscience destroy what can potentially be a seen as a human life, in order to benefit the sick and suffering? (scribd.com)
  • destruction
  • That's a shame, because there's a convincing case to be made that theses practice amount to the exploitation of women, the creation of virtual orphans, the destruction of human lives, and commercial manufacture of children. (patheos.com)
  • bioethical
  • Systematically examining all the pertinent texts and placing each in historical context, Amerini provides an accurate reconstruction of Aquinas' account of the beginning and end of human life and assesses its bioethical implications for today. (harvard.edu)
  • These are the terms of this perennial discussion, and the underlying assumptions shape debates about when life begins and have profound bioethical and policy implications. (stanford.edu)
  • rebirth
  • 3 ) The second line of argument concerns his interpretation of these sources and their connection to the basic tenets of Buddhism regarding the nature of personal identity and the skandhas , karma and rebirth, life and death. (urbandharma.org)
  • development
  • The purpose of the present study was therefore to determine when, in the course of normal development, a human being begins to exist. (fountainmagazine.com)
  • Now the first error is that the instructions for development and inheritance are all in the fertilized eggs, and we see this going back to Paul Ramsey in 1970 where he says that, "genetics teaches that we were from the very beginning what we essentially are in every cell and in every human attribute. (swarthmore.edu)
  • The material may be there from the beginning in the case of chicks, for example, but the formal cause only gradually plays out along with the efficient cause of embryonic development. (stanford.edu)
  • After gastrulation, the embryo goes through a process called neurulation, which starts the development of nervous system. (asu.edu)
  • The technologies used, which include advanced photography, computer graphics, and 4-D ultrasound imaging, help to realistically illustrate the process of development and to answer questions about the rarely seen development of a human being. (asu.edu)