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  • zebrafish
  • Using phylogenetic footprinting, epigenetic profiling, and transgenic reporters, we have identified and functionally characterized hoxD and hoxA enhancers in the genomes of zebrafish and the spotted gar, Lepisosteus oculatus, a fish lacking the whole genome duplication of teleosts. (zfin.org)
  • Gar and zebrafish "autopod" enhancers drive expression in the distal portion of developing zebrafish pectoral fins, and respond to the same functional cues as their murine orthologs. (zfin.org)
  • When tested in vivo using a transgenic zebrafish assay, 20 out of 20 selected candidate dsDMRs exhibit functional enhancer activities. (zfin.org)
  • developmental
  • Comparative molecular data may provide insight into understanding both the homology of elements and the evolutionary developmental mechanisms behind the fin to limb transition. (zfin.org)
  • Our data suggest that developmental enhancers are a major target of DNA methylation changes during embryogenesis. (zfin.org)
  • Non-coding DNA has been found to be involved in epigenetic activity and complex networks of genetic interactions, and is being explored in evolutionary developmental biology. (wikipedia.org)
  • introns
  • Enhancers can also be found within introns. (wikipedia.org)
  • Many introns appear to be mobile genetic elements. (wikipedia.org)
  • Studies of group I introns from Tetrahymena protozoans indicate that some introns appear to be selfish genetic elements, neutral to the host because they remove themselves from flanking exons during RNA processing and do not produce an expression bias between alleles with and without the intron. (wikipedia.org)
  • Complete splicing of the introns produces the transposase enzyme, while alternative partial splicing of intron 1 and 2 leaving in only intron 3 encodes the P element repressor. (wikipedia.org)
  • transgenic
  • To examine the role of nuclear factor (NF)-kappaB in T cell development and activation in vivo, we produced transgenic mice that express a superinhibitory mutant form of inhibitor kappaB-alpha (IkappaB-alphaA32/36) under the control of the T cell-specific CD2 promoter and enhancer (mutant [m]IkappaB-alpha mice). (nih.gov)
  • Rather than generating transgenic flies with the enhancer linked directly to the gene of interest (which takes about a year, if you are starting without the appropriate DNA construct), you simply mate (cross) one transgenic fly with another transgenic fly. (wikipedia.org)
  • mouse embryonic
  • The Hoxc8 early enhancer is a 200 bp region that controls the early phase of Hoxc8 expression during mouse embryonic development. (zfin.org)
  • histone
  • We observed that these promoter-interacting hotspots significantly overlap with known enhancer-associated histone modifications and DNase I hypersensitive sites. (nih.gov)
  • The movement of enhancers and promoters in and out of higher-order chromatin structures within the nucleus are associated with changes in expression and histone modifications.However, the factors responsible for mediating these changes and determining enhancer:promoter specificity are still not completely known.In this review, we summarize what is known about the patterns of epigenetic and chromatin features characteristic of elements involved in long-range interactions. (nih.gov)
  • The movement of enhancers and promoters in and out of higher-order chromatin structures within the nucleus are associated with changes in expression and histone modifications. (nih.gov)
  • Initiation
  • These observations reveal a remarkable plasticity in the Hoxc8 early enhancer, suggesting different modes of initiation and establishment of Hoxc8 expression in different species. (zfin.org)
  • interact
  • This movement allows enhancers to interact with targets that were previously held in the repressive domain. (nih.gov)
  • nucleotides
  • Transcription of the calcitonin (CT) gene in the medullary thyroid carcinoma (MTC) cell line TT is modulated by a neuroendocrine-specific enhancer fragment (nucleotides -965 to -905) containing two CANNTG motifs (E2 and E3) and an ETs-like response element. (biomedsearch.com)
  • As in DNA, mRNA genetic information is in the sequence of nucleotides, which are arranged into codons consisting of three base pairs each. (wikipedia.org)