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  • mitochondrial
  • The time of day determines the design of the mitochondrial network, and this, in turn, influences the cells' energy capacity," explains study leader Professor Anne Eckert from the University of Basel's Transfaculty Research Platform Molecular and Cognitive Neurosciences MCN. (medindia.net)
  • The scientists also showed that the mitochondrial network loses its rhythm if the circadian clock is impaired, which causes a decline in energy production in the cells. (medindia.net)
  • hippocampal
  • Diabetes and excessive energy intake adversely affect multiple components of hippocampal plasticity. (nih.gov)
  • Exercise and dietary energy restriction counteract the adverse effects of diabetes on hippocampal plasticity. (nih.gov)
  • To investigate whether manipulations that enhance neurotrophin levels will also restore neuronal structure and function in diabetes, we examined the effects of wheel running and dietary energy restriction on hippocampal neuron morphology and BDNF levels in db/db mice, a model of insulin resistant diabetes (59). (nih.gov)
  • redox
  • A chemoorganoheterotrophic organism is one that requires organic substrates to get its carbon for growth and development, and that produces its energy from the oxidation and reduction (redox) of an organic compound. (wikipedia.org)
  • gene
  • Cardiac-specific knock-out of lipoprotein lipase alters plasma lipoprotein triglyceride metabolism and cardiac gene expression," Journal of Biological Chemistry , vol. 279, no. 24, pp. 25050-25057, 2004. (hindawi.com)
  • oxidation
  • Recent findings suggest that chemiosmotic coupling enzymes known from their use in methylotrophic and acetoclastic methanogens-in addition to unique terminal reductases-biochemically facilitate energy conservation during complete CH 4 oxidation to CO 2 . (go.jp)
  • Loss of body lipids in freely fed sarcoma-bearing mice reflected a negative energy balance, accompanied with increased fat oxidation, while maintenance of body composition in pair-fed controls reflected a decreased metabolic rate. (aacrjournals.org)
  • In oncology, the Warburg effect is the observation that most cancer cells predominantly produce energy by a high rate of glycolysis followed by lactic acid fermentation in the cytosol, rather than by a comparatively low rate of glycolysis followed by oxidation of pyruvate in mitochondria as in most normal cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • contribution
  • And while the brain can additionally make use of ketone bodies, such as 2-hydroxybutyric acid, their low transport rate across the blood-brain barrier restricts their contribution to the production of energy (Hawkins and Biebuyck, 1979). (springer.com)
  • Torpor
  • Torpor is often used to help animals survive during periods of colder temperatures, as it allows them to save the energy that would normally be used to maintain a high body temperature. (wikipedia.org)
  • Daily torpor, on the other hand, is not seasonally dependent and can be an important part of energy conservation at any time of year. (wikipedia.org)
  • Torpor enables animals to reduce energy requirements better survive harsh conditions. (wikipedia.org)
  • inorganic
  • The important differentiation amongst this group is that chemoorganotrophs oxidize only organic compounds while chemolithotrophs instead use inorganic compounds as a source of energy. (wikipedia.org)
  • metabolic rate
  • http://physrev.physiology.org/content/87/4/1175.full http://www.discoverymedicine.com/S-J-Olshansky/2009/07/25/what-determines-longevity-metabolic-rate-or-stability http://genesdev.cshlp.org/content/19/20/2399.full http://www.immortalhumans.com/the-longevity-secret-for-tortoises-is-held-in-their-low-metabolism-rate/ http://www.asiaone.com/Health/News/Story/A1Story20090613-148261.html Speakman JR, Selman C, McLaren JS, Harper EJ (2002). (wikipedia.org)
  • molecules
  • But a huge question remained -namely, how is the bulk of the energy of food molecules converted to ATP? (visionlearning.com)
  • Since electrons can move between different molecules , that energy can travel as well. (visionlearning.com)
  • This causes an exclusion of water molecules that brings the substrates in proximity to each other, lowering the energy barrier for the nucleophilic attack by the γ-phosphoryl group of ATP on the α-phosphoryl of AMP. (wikipedia.org)
  • observation
  • The theory was originally created by Max Rubner in 1908 after his observation that larger animals outlived smaller ones, and that the larger animals had slower metabolisms. (wikipedia.org)
  • Outlined in his book, The Rate of Living published in 1928, Pearl conducted a series of experiments in drosophilia and cantaloupe seeds that corroborated Rubner's initial observation that a slowing of metabolism increased lifespan. (wikipedia.org)
  • body
  • A new research has found that how exactly the 24 hour circadian rhythm regulates energy metabolism in the body. (medindia.net)
  • Slow body metabolism can be the culprit in a rigorous diet and exercise program. (medindia.net)
  • the primary form of sugar stored in the human body for energy. (visionlearning.com)
  • The time course of energy dynamics was related to the end-state changes in body composition. (aacrjournals.org)
  • Although homeothermy lends an advantage such as increased activity levels, small mammals and birds maintaining an internal body temperature spend up to 100 times more energy in low ambient temperatures compared to ectotherms. (wikipedia.org)
  • Its main role is to store energy in the form of lipids, although it also cushions and insulates the body. (wikipedia.org)
  • The two types of adipose tissue are white adipose tissue (WAT), which stores energy, and brown adipose tissue (BAT), which generates body heat. (wikipedia.org)
  • bacteria
  • All animals are chemoheterotrophs (meaning they oxidize chemical compounds as a source of energy and carbon), as are fungi, protozoa, and some bacteria. (wikipedia.org)
  • bonds
  • Chemoorganotrophs are organisms which oxidize the chemical bonds in organic compounds as their energy source. (wikipedia.org)
  • These compounds are linear polymers containing a few to several hundred residues of orthophosphate linked by energy-rich phosphoanhydride bonds. (wikipedia.org)
  • study
  • The study is published in the journal Cell Metabolism and involved scientists from the University of Basel, University of Zurich and University Psychiatric Clinics Basel (UPK Basel). (medindia.net)
  • This study will examine how two thyroid preparations-levothyroxine (T4) and liothyronine (T3)-affect fat and cholesterol metabolism, blood sugar regulation, and thyrotropin secretion in patients who have had their thyroid gland removed. (clinicaltrials.gov)
  • Chemical
  • The apparent enzyme modularity of these organisms highlights how microbes can arrange their energy metabolisms to accommodate diverse chemical potentials in various ecological niches, even in the extreme case of utilizing "reverse" thermodynamic potentials. (go.jp)
  • Phototrophs: Light is absorbed in photo receptors and transformed into chemical energy. (wikipedia.org)
  • Chemotrophs: Bond energy is released from a chemical compound. (wikipedia.org)
  • occur
  • The dephosphorylation of ATP and rephosphorylation of ADP and AMP occur repeatedly in the course of aerobic metabolism. (wikipedia.org)
  • journal
  • Y.-G. Niu and R. D. Evans, "Metabolism of very-low-density lipoprotein and chylomicrons by streptozotocin-induced diabetic rat heart: effects of diabetes and lipoprotein preference," American Journal of Physiology , vol. 295, no. 5, pp. (hindawi.com)
  • brain
  • Researchers from Mount Sinai School of Medicine have discovered that decaffeinated coffee may improve brain energy metabolism associated with type 2 diabetes. (prweb.com)
  • Impaired energy metabolism in the brain is known to be tightly correlated with cognitive decline during aging and in subjects at high risk for developing neurodegenerative disorders," said Dr. Pasinetti. (prweb.com)
  • Accera, Inc., the company that makes Axona, states that during digestion, caprylic triglyceride is broken down into ketones, which provide an alternative energy source for the brain. (wikipedia.org)
  • reproduction
  • Primary nutritional groups are groups of organisms, divided in relation to the nutrition mode according to the sources of energy and carbon, needed for living, growth and reproduction. (wikipedia.org)
  • This would be an energetic cost towards both genders for the reason that instead of using the energy for reproduction, they are redirecting it towards ridding themselves of this illness. (wikipedia.org)
  • Project
  • This translational research project uses sophisticated animal models of HF to evaluate novel mechanisms that link various aspects of cardiac metabolism to clinically relevant outcomes. (nih.gov)
  • size
  • By making many spermatozoa, males can buy more "raffle tickets", and it is thought that selection for numerous sperm has contributed to the evolution of anisogamy with very small sperm (because of the energy trade-off between sperm size and number). (wikipedia.org)
  • source
  • For example, most cyanobacteria are photoautotrophic, since they use light as an energy source, water as electron donor, and CO2 as a carbon source. (wikipedia.org)
  • Previously, it was considered either as "molecular fossil" or as only a phosphorus and energy source providing the survival of microorganisms under extreme conditions. (wikipedia.org)
  • effects
  • This application will investigate fundamental questions about the pathophysiology of HF, and the effects of manipulating energy metabolism on cardiac function and HF progression. (nih.gov)
  • molecular
  • Found in all forms of life, ATP is often referred to as the "molecular unit of currency" of intracellular energy transfer. (wikipedia.org)
  • role
  • T3 administration bypasses peripheral metabolism and therefore will allow us to assess the role of the peripheral thyroid hormone conversion in the regulation of the hormone action at the end-organ level. (clinicaltrials.gov)
  • synthesis
  • The electrons from reducing equivalents (electron donors) are needed by both phototrophs and chemotrophs, to keep running reduction-oxidation reactions that transfer energy in the anabolic processes of ATP synthesis (in heterotrophs) or biosynthesis (in autotrophs). (wikipedia.org)
  • However, its main function is to be a reserve of lipids, which can be oxidised to meet the energy needs of the body and to protect it from excess glucose by storing triglycerides produced by the liver from sugars, although some evidence suggests that most lipid synthesis from carbohydrates occurs in the adipose tissue itself. (wikipedia.org)
  • metabolic
  • http://physrev.physiology.org/content/87/4/1175.full http://www.discoverymedicine.com/S-J-Olshansky/2009/07/25/what-determines-longevity-metabolic-rate-or-stability http://genesdev.cshlp.org/content/19/20/2399.full http://www.immortalhumans.com/the-longevity-secret-for-tortoises-is-held-in-their-low-metabolism-rate/ http://www.asiaone.com/Health/News/Story/A1Story20090613-148261.html Speakman JR, Selman C, McLaren JS, Harper EJ (2002). (wikipedia.org)
  • organic
  • A chemoorganoheterotrophic organism is one that requires organic substrates to get its carbon for growth and development, and that produces its energy from the oxidation and reduction (redox) of an organic compound. (wikipedia.org)
  • water
  • This causes an exclusion of water molecules that brings the substrates in proximity to each other, lowering the energy barrier for the nucleophilic attack by the γ-phosphoryl group of ATP on the α-phosphoryl of AMP. (wikipedia.org)
  • fact
  • He hypothesized that cancer, malignant growth, and tumor growth are caused by the fact that tumor cells mainly generate energy (as e.g., adenosine triphosphate / ATP) by non-oxidative breakdown of glucose (a process called glycolysis). (wikipedia.org)