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  • tissue
  • Importance of B cells to development of Tregs and prolongation of tissue allograft survival in recipients receiving autologous bone marrow transplantation. (bioportfolio.com)
  • We previously showed that congenic bone marrow transplantation (BMTx) post myeloablation augmented tissue allograft survival in association with increased Tregs of both host and bone marrow donor orig. (bioportfolio.com)
  • Adult stem cells are involved in the repair of tissue and in maintaining a balance between stem cell and differentiated cell populations by asymmetrical cell division [ 1 ]. (hindawi.com)
  • Although adult stem cell populations are found in most adult tissue, the bone marrow is an ideal source of stem cells because it is easily accessible and can be used for cell and gene therapy [ 1 , 2 ]. (hindawi.com)
  • In vivo , the normal myocardial architecture has a unique three-dimensional extracellular matrix, offering cyclic mechanical stress (from rhythmic heart beating), electric stimulation, cell-cell signaling and topographical cues among the cardiomyocytes (CM). Upon injury, the normal architecture is disrupted and CMs are replaced by scar tissue and proliferating fibroblasts, which in turn results in compromise of the heart's structural integrity and adverse remodeling. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • Rare cells in blood and tissue have been shown to serve as specific indicators of disease status and progression, a source of adult stem cells, and a tool for patient stratification and monitoring. (mcponline.org)
  • Additionally, the isolation of adult stem cells provides a needed cell source for tissue engineering and regenerative medicine treatments ( 5 , 6 ). (mcponline.org)
  • They reside in the connective tissue of nearly every organ, bone marrow and peripheral blood. (wikipedia.org)
  • Replenish new functional cells through spontaneous differentiation into tissue-compatible cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • To engraft these cells into patients' damaged myocardium, a variety of approaches (intramyocardial, transendocardial, transcoronary, venous, intravenous, intracoronary artery and retrograde venous administrations and bioengineered tissue transplantation) have been developed and explored. (hindawi.com)
  • Reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction indicated that human-specific gene expression of cardiomyocyte (brain natriuretic peptide, cardiac troponin-I, myosin heavy chain, and Nkx 2.5), SMC (smooth muscle actin and sm22α), and endothelial cell (CD31 and KDR) markers were dose-dependently augmented in MI tissue. (ahajournals.org)
  • Skeletal myoblasts are undifferentiated cells separated from the muscular tissue. (hindawi.com)
  • The muscle cells differentiated from engrafted myoblasts are unable to form electrical coupling with surrounding cardiomyocytes and thereby failed to achieve integration and synchronicity with the host tissue, which was responsible for the refractory ventricular tachyarrhythmia observed in treated patients. (hindawi.com)
  • The CD34 protein is a member of a family of single-pass transmembrane sialomucin proteins that show expression on early hematopoietic and vascular-associated tissue. (wikipedia.org)
  • However, there are two main principles by which cells facilitate therapeutic action: Stem cell or progenitor cell engraftment, differentiation, and long term replacement of damaged tissue. (wikipedia.org)
  • These cells then integrate into the site of injury, replacing damaged tissue, and thus facilitate improved function of the organ or tissue. (wikipedia.org)
  • After injury, mature terminally differentiated kidney cells dedifferentiate into more primordial versions of themselves and then differentiate into the cell types needing replacement in the damaged tissue Macrophages can self-renew by local proliferation of mature differentiated cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • In newts, muscle tissue is regenerated from specialized muscle cells that dedifferentiate and forget the type of cell they had been. (wikipedia.org)
  • Adipose tissue (lipid cells), which requires extraction by liposuction. (wikipedia.org)
  • In practice, stem cells are identified by whether they can regenerate tissue. (wikipedia.org)
  • citation needed] Possible mechanisms of recovery include: Generation of heart muscle cells Stimulation of growth of new blood vessels to repopulate damaged heart tissue Secretion of growth factors Assistance via some other mechanism It may be possible to have adult bone-marrow cells differentiate into heart muscle cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • citation needed] A Nature Insight review defines niche as follows: "Stem-cell populations are established in 'niches' - specific anatomic locations that regulate how they participate in tissue generation, maintenance and repair. (wikipedia.org)
  • It constitutes a basic unit of tissue physiology, integrating signals that mediate the balanced response of stem cells to the needs of organisms. (wikipedia.org)
  • ECFCs are now known to be tissue-resident progenitor cells in adults that maintain some vasculogenic ability. (wikipedia.org)
  • T cells differentiate into subsets, including Th2 cells, which play a vital role in tissue fibrosis. (wikipedia.org)
  • Furthermore, there are vast developments in tissue engineering, which involve leveraging of technologies from biomaterials, molecular medicine, biochemistry, nanotechnology, genetic and biomedical engineering for regeneration and cell expansion targets to restructure and/or repair human organs. (wikipedia.org)
  • Adipose tissue host progenitor cells with reported interesting cardiomyogenic and vasculogenic potential in the sense that they improve heart functions and reduce infarction size in rodent animal models. (wikipedia.org)
  • Subcutaneous adipose tissue is also a source of mesenchymal stem cells and have demonstrated positive outcomes in terms of cardiovascular tissue remodeling. (wikipedia.org)
  • However, cardiac remodling remains limited due to limited cell residency, impact of mechanical forces onto cell survival and tissue hypoxia. (wikipedia.org)
  • Cardiac tissue engineering is a new technology based on the use of combinations of cells with regenerative capacity, biological and/or synthetic materials, cell signaling agents to induce the regeneration of an organ or damaged tissue. (wikipedia.org)
  • The phenomena of mechanically dissociated cells aggregating and reorganizing to reform the tissue they were obtained from subsequently led to the development of the differential adhesion hypothesis by Malcolm Steinberg. (wikipedia.org)
  • With the advent of the field of stem cell biology, the potential of stem cells to form organs in vitro was realized early on with the observation that when stem cells form teratomas or embryoid body, the differentiated cells can organize into different structures resembling those found in multiple tissue types. (wikipedia.org)
  • EPCs
  • In the case of immunodeficient rats with acute myocardial infarction (MI), transplanted human CD34 + cells or ex vivo expanded EPCs incorporated into the site of myocardial neovascularization, differentiated into mature endothelial cells (ECs) (vasculogenesis), augmented capillary density, inhibited myocardial fibrosis and apoptosis, and preserved left ventricular (LV) function. (ahajournals.org)
  • In particular, only a CD31 + but not CD31 − fraction gave rise to endothelial progenitor cells (EPCs) in a culture assay. (ahajournals.org)
  • While some other authors have contested these, and maintained that they are true EPCs, many investigators have begun to term these cells colony forming unit-Hill cells (CFU-Hill) or circulating angiogenic cells (CAC) instead (depending on the method of isolation), highlighting their role as hematopoietic myeloid cells involved in promoting new vessel growth. (wikipedia.org)
  • By method of isolation and cell function, three main populations of putative adult EPCs have been described. (wikipedia.org)
  • Certain developmental cells may be similar to or the same as other endothelial progenitors, though not typically referred to as EPCs. (wikipedia.org)
  • A large amount of research has been done on CFU-Hill bone marrow-derived putative EPCs. (wikipedia.org)
  • Fetal liver kinase-1 (Flk-1) is a cell surface receptor protein that is commonly used as a marker for ESCs and EPCs. (wikipedia.org)
  • CD34
  • A concurrent patient group meeting eligibility but not receiving CD34+ cells will be evaluated similar to the treated group to assess the rate of significant spontaneous improvement in cardiac function without CD34+cell infusion. (bioportfolio.com)
  • In the present study we performed a series of experiments to prove our hypothesis that vasculogenesis and cardiomyogenesis after myocardial infarction (MI) may be dose-dependently enhanced after CD34 + cell transplantation. (ahajournals.org)
  • PBS and 1×10 3 (low), 1×10 5 (mid), or 5×10 5 (high) CD34 + cells were intramyocardially transplanted after ligation of the left anterior descending coronary artery of nude rats. (ahajournals.org)
  • Functional assessments with the use of echocardiography and a microtip conductance catheter at day 28 revealed dose-dependent preservation of left ventricular function by CD34 + cell transplantation. (ahajournals.org)
  • Immunostaining for smooth muscle actin and human leukocyte antigen or Ulex europaeus lectin type 1 also revealed dose-dependent vasculogenesis by endothelial cell and SMC development after CD34 + cell transplantation. (ahajournals.org)
  • Conclusions- Human CD34 + cell transplantation may have significant and dose-dependent potential for vasculogenesis and cardiomyogenesis with functional recovery from MI. (ahajournals.org)
  • 3-6 In adults, CD34 + cells had been considered to be HSCs and clinically applied to the field of hematology for HSC transplantation. (ahajournals.org)
  • 7,8 Recently, human peripheral blood CD34 + cells were reported to be an endothelial progenitor cell (EPC)-enriched population as well as a HSC fraction. (ahajournals.org)
  • 9 Thereafter, therapeutic application of CD34 + cells for vascular regeneration has been performed in many preclinical studies. (ahajournals.org)
  • CD34 + cells were isolated using immuno-magnetic beads and cultured for up to 7 days. (scielo.br)
  • On the other hand, the fraction of CD34 + CD38 - cells became 52.0 ± 29% of all CD34 + cells. (scielo.br)
  • The absolute number of CD34 + CD38 - cells was expanded on average 15 ± 12-fold when CD34 + cells were cultured with TPO + FL + KL for 7 days. (scielo.br)
  • We conclude that culture of CD34 + cells with TPO + FL + KL results in a significant increase in the number of candidate stem cells with the CD34 + CD38 - phenotype. (scielo.br)
  • The CD34 + protein is a surface glycoprotein expressed on HSCs and progenitor cells in early developmental stages in HUCB and bone marrow, as well as on endothelial cells. (scielo.br)
  • The CD34 + CD38 - immunophenotype defines a primitive subpopulation of progenitor cells in fetal liver and fetal or adult bone marrow (3-5). (scielo.br)
  • About 1% of bone marrow cells express CD34, and generally less than 1% of these cells are CD38-negative. (scielo.br)
  • Hematopoietic progenitor cell antigen CD34 also known as CD34 antigen is a protein that in humans is encoded by the CD34 gene. (wikipedia.org)
  • CD34 is also an important adhesion molecule and is required for T cells to enter lymph nodes. (wikipedia.org)
  • Conversely, under other circumstances CD34 has been shown to act as molecular "Teflon" and block mast cell, eosinophil and dendritic cell precursor adhesion, and to facilitate opening of vascular lumina. (wikipedia.org)
  • Finally, recent data suggest CD34 may also play a more selective role in chemokine-dependent migration of eosinophils and dendritic cell precursors. (wikipedia.org)
  • Regardless of its mode of action, under all circumstances CD34, and its relatives podocalyxin and endoglycan, facilitates cell migration. (wikipedia.org)
  • citation needed] CD34 is expressed in roughly 20% of murine hematopoietic stem cells, and can be stimulated and reversed. (wikipedia.org)
  • donor
  • Several factors are believed to inhibit the proper functioning of stem cells as the donor ages, making the young stem cells in cord blood a beneficial source when HLA-matching is equal. (cryo-cell.com)
  • Studies show that in unrelated donor hematopoietic stem cell (HSC) transplantations, HLA-mismatching can lower the overall survival rate. (cryo-cell.com)
  • Studies have been conducted to see how much weight to give various secondary characteristics, and the data show that the age of the donor at the time of collecting the stem cells is the most significant factor. (cryo-cell.com)
  • In a study published in the Blood for January 2016, the effects of donor characteristics on survival were compared in 10,000 unrelated donor transplantations for hematologic malignancies. (cryo-cell.com)
  • In the most recent study, published in Biology of Blood and Marrow Transplantation in February 2018, researchers analyzed 10,462 fully HLA-matched transplants from more than 450 transplant centers for the association of donor factors and transplant complications. (cryo-cell.com)
  • So far, the only definitive treatment for heart failure is heart transplantation, which is precluded from wider application due to the limited availability of donor hearts and complications from immunosuppressive therapies [ 3 ]. (hindawi.com)
  • Over the past 15 years, human umbilical cord blood (HUCB) has been clinically investigated as an alternative source of HSCs for allogeneic transplantation of patients lacking a human leukocyte antigen-matched marrow donor. (scielo.br)
  • In allogeneic cell therapy the donor is a different person to the recipient of the cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • Blood, which requires extraction through apheresis, wherein blood is drawn from the donor (similar to a blood donation), and passed through a machine that extracts the stem cells and returns other portions of the blood to the donor. (wikipedia.org)
  • MSCs are purified from the marrow, cultured and packaged, with up to 10,000 doses derived from a single donor. (wikipedia.org)
  • endogenous
  • Pharmacological activation of endogenous neural stem cells has been reported to induce neuroprotection and behavioral recovery in adult rat models of neurological disorder. (wikipedia.org)
  • Regeneration
  • While the issues of optimal delivery approach, the best progenitor stem cell type, the most effective dose, and timing of administration remain to be addressed, we are highly optimistic that stem cell therapy will provide a clinically viable option for myocardial regeneration. (hindawi.com)
  • Increasing studies have indicated that stem-cell-based cardiovascular regeneration has the potential to revolutionize current treatments for patients with ischemic heart disease [ 4 , 5 ]. (hindawi.com)
  • So far skeletal myoblasts, bone marrow-derived cells, mesenchymal stromal cells, and resident cardiac cells have been applied for therapeutic myocardial regeneration. (hindawi.com)
  • One example is the transformation of iris cells to lens cells in the process of maturation and transformation of retinal pigment epithelium cells into the neural retina during regeneration in adult newt eyes. (wikipedia.org)
  • This self-regeneration capacity gives rise to alternatives to classical cellular therapies whereby administration of growth factors such as Thymosin β4 for cell activation and migration are solely necessary. (wikipedia.org)
  • vitro
  • They showed that opposing gradients of bone morphogenetic protein (BMP) and Nodal, two transforming growth factor family members that act as morphogens, are sufficient to induce molecular and cellular mechanisms required to organize, in vivo or in vitro, uncommitted cells of the zebrafish blastula animal pole into a well-developed embryo. (wikipedia.org)
  • They form characteristic cell clusters in suspension culture that express a set of genes associated with pluripotency and can differentiate into endodermal, ectodermal and mesodermal cells both in vitro and in vivo. (wikipedia.org)
  • G-CSF is a colony stimulating factor which has been shown to have minimal direct in vivo or in vitro effects on the production of other haematopoietic cell types. (wikipedia.org)
  • Properties of stem cells can be illustrated in vitro, using methods such as clonogenic assays, in which single cells are assessed for their ability to differentiate and self-renew. (wikipedia.org)
  • These properties can be illustrated with relative ease in vitro, using methods such as clonogenic assays, where the progeny of a single cell is characterized. (wikipedia.org)
  • It can be induced by modifying the growth medium when stem cells are cultured in vitro or transplanting them to an organ of the body different from the one they were originally isolated from. (wikipedia.org)
  • These cells are phenotypically similar to endothelial cells and have been shown to create vessel-like structures in vitro and in vivo. (wikipedia.org)
  • Hemangioblasts (or their in vitro counterpart, blast - colony forming cells) are cells believed to give rise to both the endothelial and hematopoietic systems during early development. (wikipedia.org)
  • Attempts to create organs in vitro started with one of the first dissociation-reaggregation experiment where Henry Van Peters Wilson demonstrated that mechanically dissociated sponge cells can reaggregate and self-organize to generate a whole organism. (wikipedia.org)
  • In 2009 the Laboratory of Hans Clevers at Hubrecht Institute and University Medical Center Utrecht, The Netherlands showed that single LGR5 stem cells build crypt-villus structures in vitro without a mesenchymal niche. (wikipedia.org)
  • In 2010, Mathieu Unbekandt & Jamie A. Davies demonstrated the production of renal organoids from murine fetus-derived renogenic stem cells: subsequent reports showed significant physiological function of these organoids in vitro and in vivo. (wikipedia.org)
  • Myocardial Infarction
  • Methods and Results- We randomly allocated 20 patients with reperfused acute myocardial infarction (AMI) to receive intracoronary infusion of either bone marrow-derived (n=9) or circulating blood-derived progenitor cells (n=11) into the infarct artery 4.3±1.5 days after AMI. (ahajournals.org)
  • In a hindlimb ischemia model, 1x10 6 cells were injected intravenously, and in a myocardial infarction (MI) model, 5x10 5 were injected intramyocardially. (ahajournals.org)
  • gene
  • Thus, transplantation of genetically modified bone marrow progenitors may represent a vehicle for the transport of gene therapy to tumors. (epfl.ch)
  • We transduced bone marrow progenitors with lentiviral vectors expressing genes from transcription-regulatory elements of Tie2/Tek gene. (epfl.ch)
  • Unexpectedly, we did not find bone marrow-derived ECs in tumor vessels when we transplanted bone marrow progenitors constitutively expressing a marker gene from the Tie2 or ubiquitously active promoters. (epfl.ch)
  • By delivering a 'suicide' gene, we selectively eliminated the TEM cells and achieved substantial inhibition of angiogenesis and slower tumor growth without systemic toxicity. (epfl.ch)
  • Thus, TEM cells may account for the proangiogenic activity of bone marrow-derived cells in tumors, may represent a new target for drug development and may provide the means for selective gene delivery and targeted inhibition of tumor angiogenesis. (epfl.ch)
  • Expansion of human stem cells in ex vivo culture will likely have important applications in transplantation, stem cell marking, and gene therapy (2). (scielo.br)
  • The GATA family of transcription factors, which contain zinc fingers in their DNA binding domain, have emerged as candidate regulators of gene expression in hematopoietic cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • Multiple mutations on GATA2 gene have been recently implicated as the cause of primary immunodeficiency in patients with MonoMAC Syndrome, and cases of dendritic cell, monocyte, B NK lymphoid deficiency and leukemia. (wikipedia.org)
  • The Duffy antigen gene was the fourth gene associated with the resistance after the genes responsible for sickle cell anaemia, thalassemia and glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase. (wikipedia.org)
  • The gene is still transcribed in non erythroid cells in the presence of this mutation. (wikipedia.org)
  • erythroid cells
  • Most Duffy negative blacks carry a silent Fy-b allele with a single T to C substitution at nucleotide -46, impairing the promoter activity in erythroid cells by disrupting a binding site for the GATA1 erythroid transcription factor. (wikipedia.org)
  • isolation
  • Microfluidic magnetophoretic isolation of target cells spiked into 1 ml of blood at the level of 1000-2000 cells/ml, followed by focused acoustics-assisted sample preparation has been coupled with one-dimensional PLOT-LC-MS methodology. (mcponline.org)
  • The characterization of rare cells in limited volumes of physiological fluids is shown by the isolation and quantitative proteomic profiling of first MCF-7 cells spiked into whole blood as a model system and then two CD133+ endothelial progenitor and hematopoietic cells in whole blood from volunteers. (mcponline.org)
  • Cell isolation by SSEA-3 cell sorting can be done using SSEA-3 antibody. (wikipedia.org)
  • extracellular matrix
  • Several factors are important to regulate stem-cell characteristics within the niche: cell-cell interactions between stem cells, as well as interactions between stem cells and neighbouring differentiated cells, interactions between stem cells and adhesion molecules, extracellular matrix components, the oxygen tension, growth factors, cytokines, and the physicochemical nature of the environment including the pH, ionic strength (e.g. (wikipedia.org)