• The text covers cereal endosperm development from fertilization to maturity, including molecular and cell biology of the syncytial phase, the cellularization process and cell fate specification of the embryo surrounding region cells, the basal transfer cells, the starchy endosperm and aleurone cells. (springer.com)
  • To characterize the fiber quality for functional foods, starchy endosperm and bran fractions from 11 durum wheat lines were analyzed for total and water-soluble arabinoxylans, (1,3;1,4)-β-glucan, and bound ferulic acid. (nih.gov)
  • The arabinoxylan contents ranged from 11 to 16.4% (w/w) in bran and from 1.5 to 1.8% in the starchy endosperm. (nih.gov)
  • Of the starchy endosperm arabinoxylans, 37% was soluble in water. (nih.gov)
  • The endosperm, the starchy part of a seed that envelopes and nourishes the developing embryo, comprises two-thirds of the calories in a typical human diet. (mit.edu)
  • Maize starchy endosperm mutants have kernel phenotypes that include a brittle texture, susceptibility to insect pests, and inferior functional characteristics of products made from their flour. (plantcell.org)
  • EF-1[alpha] Is Associated with a Cytoskeletal Network Surrounding Protein Bodies in Maize Endosperm Cells. (plantcell.org)
  • By using indirect immunofluorescence and confocal microscopy, we documented changes in the distribution of elongation factor-1[alpha] (EF-1[alpha]), actin, and microtubules during the development of maize endosperm cells. (plantcell.org)
  • These data suggest that EF-1[alpha] and actin are associated in maize endosperm cells and may help to explain the basis of the correlation we found between the concentration of EF-1[alpha] and lysine content. (plantcell.org)
  • Insight into the genetic specification of the different processes in endosperm development (e.g., coenocyte formation, alveolation, cell fate specification, and differentiation) may ultimately reveal how developmental subprograms are integrated into a master program specifying the entire endosperm body plan. (plantcell.org)
  • The fie mutation specifically affects the central cell, allowing for replication of the central cell nucleus and endosperm development without fertilization. (pnas.org)
  • Structural Variation and Content of Arabinoxylans in Endosperm and Bran of Durum Wheat (Triticum turgidum L. (nih.gov)
  • No correlation was found between arabinoxylan content and bound ferulic acid in bran, although a relatively high level of this antioxidant was found in endosperm (38.3 μg/g endosperm flour). (nih.gov)
  • Cereal flour consists either of the endosperm, germ, and bran together (whole-grain flour) or of the endosperm alone (refined flour). (wikipedia.org)
  • Heat-processed flour is flour where the germ is first separated from the endosperm and bran, then processed with steam, dry heat or microwave and blended into flour again. (wikipedia.org)
  • Maize ( Zea mays L. cv B73) endosperm cDNAs encoding isoprenoid synthases were isolated by functional complementation of Escherichia coli cells carrying a bacterial gene cluster encoding all pathway enzymes needed for carotenoid biosynthesis, except for GGPPS. (plantphysiol.org)
  • The maize cDNAs are encoded by a small gene family whose transcripts are prevalent in endosperm beginning mid development. (plantphysiol.org)
  • In maize ( Zea mays ), the first step of endosperm development is the formation of a syncytium surrounding a large central vacuole, due to the first mitotic divisions. (plantphysiol.org)
  • KDEL-tagged recombinant human serum albumin, which is retrieved to the ER lumen in leaf cells, was deposited in prolamin aggregates within the vacuole of endosperm cells, most likely following the bulk of endogenous glutenins. (plantphysiol.org)
  • Endosperm is the evolutionary remnant of the actual gametophyte, similar to the complex multicellular gametophytes found in gymnosperms. (wikipedia.org)
  • Thus, DU1 and zSSI accounted for the great majority of soluble SS activity present in developing endosperm. (plantphysiol.org)
  • An important step in understanding the specific functions of each SS isozyme in maize starch biosynthesis would be to determine which of the known cDNAs code for the major soluble enzyme activities present during endosperm development. (plantphysiol.org)
  • Also, most basal angiosperms still contain the four-cell embryo sac and produce diploid endosperms. (wikipedia.org)
  • Auxin distribution visualization indicates that the aleurone, the basal endosperm transfer layer, and the embryo-surrounding region accumulate free auxin, which also has a maximum in the kernel maternal chalaza. (plantphysiol.org)
  • It is believed that early in the development of angiosperm lineages, there was a duplication in this mode of reproduction, producing seven-celled/eight-nucleate female gametophytes, and triploid endosperms with a 2:1 maternal to paternal genome ratio. (wikipedia.org)
  • Cellular endosperm formation - where a cell-wall formation is coincident with nuclear divisions. (wikipedia.org)
  • Syncytia in plants: cell fusion in endosperm-placental syncytium formation in Utricularia (Lentibulariaceae). (biomedsearch.com)
  • In Utricularia, the formation of the syncytium provides an economical way to redistribute cell components and release nutrients from the digested cell walls, which can now be used for the embryo, and finally to create a large surface for the exchange of nutrients between the placenta and endosperm. (biomedsearch.com)
  • The endosperm serves as a temporary source of nutrients that are transported from maternal to filial tissues, and it also generates signals for proper embryo formation. (frontiersin.org)
  • This research confirmed that the GmZOU-1 is a ZOU ortholog that may be responsible for endosperm breakdown and embryo cuticle formation in soybean. (frontiersin.org)
  • To ensure proper seed formation, fine spatial and temporal coordination between the embryo, endosperm, and maternal seed components must be achieved. (plantcell.org)
  • Endosperm formation cellular. (wikipedia.org)
  • For example, wheat endosperm is ground into flour for bread (the rest of the grain is included as well in whole wheat flour), while barley endosperm is the main source of sugars for beer production. (wikipedia.org)
  • On the basis of these reports and of the observations on tissue differentiation and IAA distribution in defective endosperm-B18 mutant and in N -1-naphthylphthalamic acid-treated kernels, a model for ZmPIN1-mediated transport of auxin and the related auxin fluxes during maize kernel development is proposed. (plantphysiol.org)
  • Seed size and physiology is a barrier for the exchange of coconut genetics resources by seed and regarding the safe movement of germplasm, recent guidelines of the Bioversity International recommend the exchange through endosperm discs containing zygotic embryo or in vitro zygotic embryos (CUETO et al. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • Special features of endosperm, such as imprinting, polyploidy, programmed cell death and anthocyanin biosynthesis, are described in separate chapters. (springer.com)
  • Endosperm cell death is associated with the processes of nutrient transfer and embryo expansion. (frontiersin.org)
  • These results demonstrate that seed development is coordinated by a secreted peptide ligand that plays a key early role in orchestrating cell patterning and proliferation in the embryo and endosperm. (plantcell.org)