• and (4) to some extent alleviates osmotic stress-induced cell death probably by regulating endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress-related gene expression, for example expression of the basic leucine zipper genes bZIP60B and bZIP60D , the binding proteins BiP1 and BiP2 , the protein disulfide isomerase PDIL8-1 , and the glucose-regulated protein GRP94 . (frontiersin.org)
  • In the late 1940s and early 1950s, Porter and colleagues Helen P. Thompson and Frances Kallman introduced the term endoplasmic reticulum to describe the organelle. (britannica.com)
  • Usually referred to as the endoplasmic reticulum cisternal space, the lumen of the organelle often takes up more than 10 percent of the total volume of a cell. (fsu.edu)
  • These special proteins, which are necessary for the endoplasmic reticulum to carry out its normal functions, contain a specialized retention signal consisting of a specific sequence of amino acids that enables them to be retained by the organelle. (fsu.edu)
  • The endoplasmic reticulum (ER) is an organelle that makes and distributes many substances the cell needs, such as proteins, lipids, and sugars. (nih.gov)
  • The smooth endoplasmic reticulum is the organelle responsible for the production of lipids in the cell. (reference.com)
  • Endoplasmic reticulum ( ER ) is a cellular organelle . (wikipedia.org)
  • The endoplasmic reticulum (ER) is a multifunctional organelle required for lipid biosynthesis, calcium storage, and protein folding and processing. (hindawi.com)
  • Endoplasmic reticulum (ER) is a busy cell organelle that participates in many important cellular tasks. (diabetesjournals.org)
  • The endoplasmic reticulum (ER) is a subcellular organelle where proteins are folded with the help of lumenal chaperones. (genome.jp)
  • Therefore, in some specialized cells, such as those that are occupied chiefly in lipid and carbohydrate metabolism (brain and muscle) or detoxification (liver), the smooth endoplasmic reticulum is much more extensive and is crucial to cellular function. (fsu.edu)
  • Smooth endoplasmic reticulum also plays a role in various cellular activities through its storage of calcium and involvement in calcium metabolism. (fsu.edu)
  • The ATPase associated with different cellular activities family member p97, associated p47, and the t-SNARE syntaxin 5 are necessary for the cell-free reconstitution of transitional endoplasmic reticulum (tER) from starting low-density microsomes. (pnas.org)
  • The endoplasmic reticulum (ER) is the major site in the cell for protein folding and trafficking and is central to many cellular functions. (nih.gov)
  • Endoplasmic reticulum (ER) has a crucial role in sensing cellular homeostasis by controlling metabolism, proteostasis, and several signaling processes. (hindawi.com)
  • The endoplasmic reticulum (ER) has emerged as a major site of cellular homeostasis regulation, particularly in the unfolded protein response, which is being found to play a major role in cancer and many other diseases. (aacrjournals.org)
  • Although signals for retention in the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) have been identified in the cytoplasmic domain of various ER-resident type I transmembrane proteins, the mechanisms responsible for ER retention are still unknown. (sciencemag.org)
  • The functions of the endoplasmic reticulum vary greatly depending on the exact type of endoplasmic reticulum and the type of cell in which it resides. (wikidoc.org)
  • This type of endoplasmic reticulum is involved mainly with the production and processing of proteins that will be exported, or secreted, from the cell. (fsu.edu)
  • These data suggest that mVAP33 is an endoplasmic-reticulum-resident protein that associates with components of the cytoskeleton. (pnas.org)
  • We have identified a novel endoplasmic reticulum (ER)-resident protein, named "calumin", which is expressed in various tissues. (nih.gov)
  • Using immunofluorescence microscopy and antibodies recognizing calreticulin, a nonmuscle functional analogue of calsequestrin, and a 76 kDa glycoprotein localized in the endoplasmic reticulum (ER), we showed the incorporation of ER elements of the host cell into parasitophorous vacuole containing-T. gondii. (nih.gov)
  • Calreticulin is located in storage compartments associated with the endoplasmic reticulum. (wikipedia.org)
  • Chaperones and foldases in the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) ensure correct protein folding. (mcponline.org)
  • Advanced imaging techniques revealed a more accurate picture of how the peripheral endoplasmic reticulum is structured. (nih.gov)
  • Alcohol-induced perturbations of homeostasis in the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) have evolved as an important factor contributing to fatty liver disease, which has been reviewed by a few comprehensive reviews [ 19 - 22 ]. (hindawi.com)
  • In many instances, deregulation of endoplasmic reticulum (ER) homeostasis has been correlated with pathologic states and particularly with cancer. (aacrjournals.org)
  • The highly convoluted and labyrinthine structure of the ER led to its description in 1945 as a "lace-like reticulum" by cell biologists Keith Porter, Albert Claude , and Ernest Fullman, who produced the first electron micrograph of a cell. (britannica.com)
  • The endoplasmic reticulum manufactures, processes, and transports a wide variety of biochemical compounds for use inside and outside of the cell. (fsu.edu)
  • Presented in Figure 2 is a fluorescence digital image taken through the microscope of the endoplasmic reticulum network in a bovine (cow) pulmonary artery endothelial cell grown in culture. (fsu.edu)
  • The endoplasmic reticulum is essential for proper cell function. (reference.com)
  • Induction of endoplasmic reticulum stress-induced beta-cell apoptosis and accumulation of polyubiquitinated proteins by human islet amyloid polypeptide. (mendeley.com)
  • Mutation of Val101 of Ero1 alpha results in a reduced Endoplasmic reticulum , retarded oxidative protein folding and decreased H2O2 levels in the Endoplasmic reticulum of cervical cancer cells and further impairs cell migration, invasion, and tumor growth. (nih.gov)
  • The endoplasmic reticulum (ER) is the site of folding of membrane and secreted proteins in the cell. (hindawi.com)
  • Endoplasmic reticulum stress contributes to beta cell apoptosis in type 2 diabetes," Diabetologia , vol. 50, no. 4, pp. 752-763, 2007. (hindawi.com)
  • Accumulation of misfolded proinsulin in the β-cell leads to dysfunction induced by endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress, with diabetes as a consequence. (diabetesjournals.org)
  • Kevin M. Tuffy and Sonia Lobo Planey, "Cytoskeleton-Associated Protein 4: Functions Beyond the Endoplasmic Reticulum in Physiology and Disease," ISRN Cell Biology , vol. 2012, Article ID 142313, 11 pages, 2012. (hindawi.com)
  • Local differentiations occur within the endoplasmic reticulum of all the cell types studied. (rupress.org)
  • Endocr Rev 29:42-61 Laybutt DR, Preston AM, Akerfeldt MC et al (2007) Endoplasmic reticulum stress contributes to beta cell apoptosis in type 2 diabetes. (wikipedia.org)
  • Pirot P, Eizirik DL, Cardozo AK (2006) Interferon-gamma potentiates endoplasmic reticulum stress-induced death by reducing pancreatic beta cell defence mechanisms. (wikipedia.org)
  • The endoplasmic reticulum is also the site of many other cell metabolic reactions. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • Relationship between the host cell endoplasmic reticulum and the parasitophorous vacuole containing Toxoplasma gondii. (nih.gov)
  • Researchers from the Cell death group of the Bellvitge Biomedical Research Institute (IDIBELL), led by Dr. Cristina Muñoz-Pinedo, have characterized the cell death process due to starvation, in which the endoplasmic reticulum plays a leading role. (news-medical.net)
  • The endoplasmic reticulum is the site of cholesterol-induced cytotoxicity in macrophages," Nature Cell Biology , vol. 5, no. 9, pp. 781-792, 2003. (hindawi.com)
  • Second, ERAP1 trims peptides within the endoplasmic reticulum so that they can be loaded onto major histocompatibility complex (MHC) class I. These peptides are attached to MHC class I in the endoplasmic reticulum and exported to the cell surface, where they are displayed to the immune system. (wikipedia.org)