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  • midgut
  • Similarly, mutations that eliminate the Drosophila GATA factor ABF/Serpent (dGATAb) result in the complete absence of the midgut, the only endoderm derivative in flies ( 7 , 8 ). (pnas.org)
  • elegans
  • Evidence from the ecdysozoan protostomes ( 1 ) Drosophila and Caenorhabditis elegans indicates that activation of endoderm development is regulated by transcription factors of the GATA family in these species. (pnas.org)
  • ELT-2, a second gut-specific transcription factor expressed slightly later in the C. elegans endoderm, has two presumptive zinc fingers, one of which is similar to the GATA motif ( 5 ), and is required for maintenance of intestinal cells ( 6 ). (pnas.org)
  • mice
  • Heterozygous mutations in this gene are the leading cause of pancreas agenesis while studies in mice do not replicate the human phenotype. (upenn.edu)
  • To date, all SMADs have been knocked out in mice, and SMAD4‑deficient mice exhibited the most severe phenotype than any other mice carrying targeted mutations of other SMADs (reviewed in [ 10 , 27 ], which is consistent with its function as a common mediator for TGF-β signaling. (ijbs.com)
  • vertebrate
  • Among vertebrate GATA proteins, the GATA-4/5/6 subfamily regulates aspects of late endoderm development, but a role for GATA factors in establishing the endoderm is unknown. (pnas.org)
  • We exploited this activity of END-1 to demonstrate that establishment of the vertebrate endoderm, like that of invertebrate species, also appears to involve GATA transcriptional activity. (pnas.org)
  • By examining these effects in conjunction with those of Mixer- and Sox17β-activating and dominant inhibitory constructs, we further establish the likely relationships between GATA activity and these regulators in early development of the vertebrate endoderm. (pnas.org)
  • Vertebrate mesoderm and endoderm formation requires signaling by Nodal-related ligands from the TGFβ superfamily. (biologists.org)
  • Vertebrate mesoderm and endoderm (mesendoderm) formation requires Nodal proteins, a subclass of TGFβ superfamily ligands ( Schier and Shen, 2000 ). (biologists.org)
  • mutations
  • Using the EP cell culture system to bypass the developmental block at the endoderm stage, cell lines with mutations in one or both GATA6 alleles were differentiated into β-like cells. (upenn.edu)
  • organs
  • We show that, in zebrafish, Gata4 is essential for the generation of endoderm-derived organs, including the intestine, liver, pancreas and swim bladder. (biologists.org)
  • pluripotent
  • ERK inhibition was found to be essential for conversion to this altered state, but once converted, ERK inhibition led to a loss of pluripotent phenotype in suspension. (pnas.org)
  • transcriptional
  • We have previously shown that, if ELT-2 is expressed sufficiently early, it is also able to specify the endoderm and to replace all other members of the core GATA-factor transcriptional cascade ( END-1 , END-3 , ELT-7 ). (g3journal.org)
  • Genotype
  • This inconsistency between genotype and phenotype is illustrated in the malformation spectrum of holoprosencephaly (HPE). (jci.org)
  • Xenopus
  • In the Xenopus early embryo, the mesodermal cell fate is established in the marginal zone between the animal and vegetal poles by inductive signals from the underlying endoderm. (biologists.org)
  • congenital
  • Conclusion: We have demonstrated, for the first time, the causative role of FOXA2 in a complex congenital syndrome with hypopituitarism, CHI and endoderm-derived organ abnormalities. (endocrine-abstracts.org)
  • expression
  • Later, its expression is restricted to the intestinal endoderm in fetuses and is retained throughout adulthood in the intestinal epithelium. (bmj.com)
  • Removal of Fgf8- expressing endoderm adjacent to precardiac mesoderm in chicks alters expression of cardiac markers such as Nkx2.5 ( Alsan and Schultheiss, 2002 ). (biologists.org)
  • Therefore
  • Therefore, the objective of this study was to systematically examine the effects of varying alginate compositions on microencapsulated ESC expansion and phenotype. (gladstone.org)
  • But only few attempts were made to predict novel phenotypes, and therefore the full predictive value of the network and its usefulness to test hypotheses regarding novel genetic perturbations remain unclear. (plos.org)
  • development
  • In addition, on the basis of their Pvl phenotypes, we show that the previously identified genes lin-26, mom-3 / mig-14, egl-18 , and sem-4 also function during vulval development. (genetics.org)