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  • MAPK
  • Receptor Tyrosine Kinase (RTK)/Ras GTPase/MAP kinase (MAPK) signaling pathways are used repeatedly during metazoan development to control many different biological processes. (wormbook.org)
  • two different RTKs ( LET-23 /EGFR and EGL-15 /FGFR) are known to stimulate LET-60 /Ras and a MAPK cascade consisting of the kinases LIN-45 /Raf, MEK-2 /MEK and MPK-1 /ERK. (wormbook.org)
  • This Ras/MAPK cascade is required for multiple developmental events, including induction of vulval, uterine, spicule, P12 and excretory duct cell fates, control of sex myoblast migration and axon guidance, and promotion of germline meiosis. (wormbook.org)
  • Both RTKs signal through the adaptor SEM-5 (Grb2) to activate the same core Ras/MAPK pathway. (wormbook.org)
  • progression
  • Studies have thus identified (onco)proteins (Bcl-2, STAT3/5, RAS, Rac1, and Myc) in manipulating ROS level as well as exploiting an altered redox environment to create a milieu conducive for cancer formation and progression. (nus.edu.sg)
  • Therefore, identifying specific signatures, altered protein expressions, and modifications as well as protein-protein interplay/function could not only enhance our understanding of the redox networks during cancer initiation and progression but will also provide novel targets for designing specific therapeutic strategies. (nus.edu.sg)
  • FUTURE DIRECTIONS: Not only a heightened realization is required to unravel various gene/protein networks associated with cancer formation and progression, particularly from the redox standpoint, but there is also a need for developing more sensitive tools for assessing cancer redox metabolism in clinical settings. (nus.edu.sg)
  • regulation
  • SMO1 is therefore necessary for regulation of RAS activation required for conidial morphogenesis and septin-mediated plant infection. (genetics.org)
  • However, genome-wide mapping of protein-DNA interactions and epigenetic marks is essential for a full understanding of transcriptional regulation. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Thus, our findings establish a critical cell-autonomous role for the NF1-RAS-ERK pathway in the appropriate regulation of cerebellar development and provide a basis for using neonatal ERK inhibitor-based therapies to treat NF1-induced cerebellar disorders. (jove.com)
  • Furthermore, in utero electroporation experiments also indicated that regulation of the M-Ras-Lpd system by the GAP activity of Plexin is involved in the normal development of cortical dendrites in vivo . (jneurosci.org)
  • hyperactive
  • The ability to temporally regulate Nf1 inactivation or Kras activation now enables us to examine the biochemical and cellular effects of hyperactive Ras in primary hematopoietic cells, including stem and progenitor populations. (ucsf.edu)
  • We have also launched a major effort to exploit retroviral insertional mutagenesis to uncover genes that regulate hematopoietic cell fates and cooperate with hyperactive Ras to promote transformation from chronic to acute leukemia. (ucsf.edu)
  • In aggregate, these genetic findings show that hyperactive Ras signaling is an important pathogenic pathway in myeloid cancers. (aacrjournals.org)
  • mammalian
  • In this issue of Clinical Cancer Research , Parkin and colleagues report on the identification of a subset of adult acute myelogenous leukemia (AML), in which the tumor suppressor NF1 is functionally inactive, resulting in increased Ras signaling and sensitivity to mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) inhibition ( 1 ). (aacrjournals.org)
  • vertebrate
  • We determined that TMEM14C, an inner mitochondrial membrane protein that is enriched in vertebrate hematopoietic tissues, is essential for erythropoiesis and heme synthesis in vivo and in cultured erythroid cells. (jove.com)
  • scaffold
  • The C-terminal domain consists of a ten histidine repeat region, serine and tyrosine phosphorylation sites, and a T/SXV motif required for postsynaptic scaffold protein interaction. (genecards.org)
  • genome
  • Using whole-genome microarray analysis and a secreted protein database, we identified upregulated transcripts in human plexiform neurofibromas (pNF) and MPNSTs. (aacrjournals.org)
  • therapeutic
  • The emerging evidence for the noncanonical activity linked to cellular redox metabolism provides a novel avenue for the design and development of diagnostic and therapeutic strategies against cancers refractory to conventional chemotherapy by the overexpression of this prosurvival protein. (nus.edu.sg)
  • Direct therapeutic inhibition of Ras has proved difficult. (aacrjournals.org)
  • vivo
  • In addition, ChIP-Seq allowed us to identify Pax8 partners, including proteins involved in tertiary DNA structure (CTCF) and chromatin remodeling (Sp1), and these direct transcriptional interactions were confirmed in vivo . (biomedcentral.com)
  • Neural stem/progenitor cell (NPC)-specific constitutive Ras activation in vivo plus p53 deficiency led to development of primarily anaplastic astrocytoma (grade III), whereas combined loss of p53 plus p16 Ink4a /p19 Arf led to development of GBM (grade IV) at 100% penetrance within 6 weeks. (aacrjournals.org)
  • Furthermore, Alcantara Llaguno and colleagues ( 7 ) have shown that inactivation of Nf1 combined with loss of other tumor suppressors ( p53 and Pten ) in neural stem/progenitor cells (NPC), but not in non-NPCs, was both necessary and sufficient to induce glioma formation, indicating critical roles for Ras activation in NPCs on gliomagenesis in vivo . (aacrjournals.org)
  • inactive
  • The mutation causes mislocalization of RASA3 to the cytosol in scat red cells where it is inactive, leading to increased GTP-bound Ras. (pnas.org)
  • interaction
  • By studying the genetic interaction of gap-3 with the two previously identified RasGAPs gap-1 and gap-2, we find that different combinations of RasGAPs are used to repress LET-60 RAS signaling depending on the cellular context. (uzh.ch)
  • However, physiological interaction between Lpd and Ras family GTPases still remains unclear, and the identity of which Ras family proteins directly bind to Lpd and function upstream of Lpd in neurons has been rarely understood. (jneurosci.org)
  • thus
  • It is well known that these factors bind to the promoter regions of thyroid-specific genes, such as the genes encoding Thyroglobulin ( Tg) , Thyroperoxidase ( Tpo ), and the Sodium Iodide Symporter ( Nis ), thus regulating their expression. (biomedcentral.com)
  • function
  • Functional classification suggests that Pax8-regulated genes may be directly involved in important processes of thyroid cell function such as cell proliferation and differentiation, apoptosis, cell polarity, motion and adhesion, and a plethora of DNA/protein-related processes. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Mice
  • Deletion of sAnk1 did not change the expression and localization of SR proteins in 4-6 month old sAnk1 KO mice. (jove.com)
  • novel
  • Here we identified an Ena/VASP ligand, Lamellipodin (Lpd), as a novel effector of M-Ras in dendrites. (jneurosci.org)
  • actin
  • Lpd was expressed in F-actin-rich distal dendritic processes and was required for both basal and M-Ras-mediated dendrite development. (jneurosci.org)
  • partial
  • Here we discover a partial duplication of the switch 2 domain of K-Ras encoding a tandem repeat of amino acids G60_A66dup in a child with an atypical myeloproliferative neoplasm. (sigmaaldrich.com)
  • amino
  • Internal amino acid sequence was obtained from this 120,000-dalton protein and, by means of this sequence, two types of complementary DNA clones were isolated and characterized. (sciencemag.org)
  • In the most recent TCGA research, the estimation of SNVs in melanomas is certainly 30%, with almost all encoding amino-acid Q61 adjustments, although low-frequency SNVs encoding Shh for modifications in proteins G12, G13 and Q61 in and had been also within 2% of examples. (buyresearchchemicalss.net)
  • Recombinant protein corresponding to amino acids of human TBC1D15. (abnova.com)