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  • symbols
  • What remains to be seen is whether linguistic representation is expressed at the time of recall or whether the representational methods used (such as recordings, videos, symbols, etc.) participate in a more fundamental role in encoding and preservation of information in memory. (wikipedia.org)
  • It encodes mathematical symbols with variable sizes like for capital Pi notation, brackets, braces and radicals. (wikipedia.org)
  • It encodes italic Latin and Greek letters for mathematical formulas and various symbols. (wikipedia.org)
  • Range encoding conceptually encodes all the symbols of the message into one number, unlike Huffman coding which assigns each symbol a bit-pattern and concatenates all the bit-patterns together. (wikipedia.org)
  • The central concept behind range encoding is this: given a large-enough range of integers, and a probability estimation for the symbols, the initial range can easily be divided into sub-ranges whose sizes are proportional to the probability of the symbol they represent. (wikipedia.org)
  • When all symbols have been encoded, merely identifying the sub-range is enough to communicate the entire message (presuming of course that the decoder is somehow notified when it has extracted the entire message). (wikipedia.org)
  • The central problem may appear to be selecting an initial range large enough that no matter how many symbols we have to encode, we will always have a current range large enough to divide into non-zero sub-ranges. (wikipedia.org)
  • NHGRI
  • Encode was launched by the US National Human Genome Research Institute (NHGRI) in September 2003. (wikipedia.org)
  • The ENCODE Consortium is composed primarily of scientists who were funded by US National Human Genome Research Institute (NHGRI). (wikipedia.org)
  • To help, the National Human Genome Research Institute (NHGRI) launched the Encyclopedia of DNA Elements ( ENCODE ) in 2003 and the Model Organism ENCODE ( modENCODE ) in 2007. (alzforum.org)
  • Arabic
  • ЯUSSIAИ" Arabic Chat Alphabet - the same idea in Arabic Mojibake Greeklish A note of cancellation of automatic volapuk encoding (1997) (in Russian) Instructions at the Ukrainian chat server Nyshporka Archived 2007-01-01 at the Wayback Machine. (wikipedia.org)
  • Morse code was introduced in the 1840s and is used to encode each letter of the Latin alphabet, each Arabic numeral, and some other characters via a series of long and short presses of a telegraph key. (wikipedia.org)
  • genes
  • These papers and many others published at about the same time and since under the umbrella of the ENCODE project collectively claim function for the majority of the 3.2 Gb human genome, not just the few percent already recognized as genes (traditionally defined) or obvious gene-controlling elements. (pnas.org)
  • The editors of The Lancet ( 3 ) enthuse: "Far from being 'junk,' the DNA between protein encoding genes consists of myriad elements that determine gene expression, whether by switching transcription on or off, or by regulating the degree of transcription and consequently the concentrations and function of all proteins. (pnas.org)
  • binary
  • Early binary repertoires include Bacon's cipher, Braille, International maritime signal flags, and the 4-digit encoding of Chinese characters for a Chinese telegraph code (Hans Schjellerup, 1869). (wikipedia.org)
  • IBM's Binary Coded Decimal (BCD) was a six-bit encoding scheme used by IBM in as early as 1959 in its 1401 and 1620 computers, and in its 7000 Series (for example, 704, 7040, 709 and 7090 computers), as well as in associated peripherals. (wikipedia.org)
  • IBM's Extended Binary Coded Decimal Interchange Code (usually abbreviated as EBCDIC) is an eight-bit encoding scheme developed in 1963. (wikipedia.org)
  • Byte
  • For programmers, the most familiar form of encoding is the compilation of a programming language into machine code or byte-code. (wikipedia.org)
  • Range coding is very similar to arithmetic encoding, except that encoding is done with digits in any base, instead of with bits, and so it is faster when using larger bases (e.g. a byte) at small cost in compression efficiency. (wikipedia.org)
  • retrieval
  • Various strategies can be applied such as chunking and mnemonics to aid in encoding, and in some cases, allow deep processing, and optimizing retrieval. (wikipedia.org)
  • The efficiency and success of encoding (and subsequent retrieval) is largely dependent upon the type of associations you choose to make. (wikipedia.org)
  • method
  • JScript.Encode is a method created by Microsoft used to encode both server and Client-side JavaScript or VB Script source code in order to protect the source code from copying. (wikipedia.org)
  • Range encoding is an entropy coding method defined by G. Nigel N. Martin in a 1979 paper, which effectively rediscovered the FIFO arithmetic code first introduced by Richard Clark Pasco in 1976. (wikipedia.org)
  • different
  • For example, letter 'щ' can be encoded in more than 15 different ways). (wikipedia.org)
  • You don't need to understand this to use protocol buffers in your applications, but it can be very useful to know how different protocol buffer formats affect the size of your encoded messages. (google.com)
  • project
  • The primary goal of the ENCODE project is to determine the role of the remaining component of the genome, much of which was traditionally regarded as "junk. (wikipedia.org)
  • The ENCODE pilot project process involved close interactions between computational and experimental scientists to evaluate a number of methods for annotating the human genome. (wikipedia.org)
  • A set of regions representing approximately 1% (30 Mb) of the human genome was selected as the target for the pilot project and was analyzed by all ENCODE pilot project investigators. (wikipedia.org)
  • For use in the ENCODE pilot project, defined regions of the human genome - corresponding to 30Mb, roughly 1% of the total human genome - were selected. (wikipedia.org)
  • junk
  • Succinctly, in Science , Pennisi ( 4 ) declares that the ENCODE publications write the "eulogy for junk DNA. (pnas.org)
  • integers
  • ZigZag encoding maps signed integers to unsigned integers so that numbers with a small absolute value (for instance, -1) have a small varint encoded value too. (google.com)
  • results
  • For best results, encode your site in UTF-8. (google.com)
  • Five papers in the August 28 Nature detail the latest results from ENCODE and modENCODE, adding more than 1,600 novel transcription datasets and bringing the new total to 3,300. (alzforum.org)
  • compression
  • Delta encoding is sometimes called delta compression, particularly where archival histories of changes are required (e.g., in revision control software). (wikipedia.org)
  • Therefore, compression algorithms often choose to delta encode only when the compression is better than without. (wikipedia.org)
  • Thus range encoding can achieve greater compression ratios than the one-bit-per-symbol lower bound on Huffman encoding and it does not suffer the inefficiencies that Huffman does when dealing with probabilities that are not exact powers of two. (wikipedia.org)
  • Main
  • Although it is known as URL encoding it is, in fact, used more generally within the main Uniform Resource Identifier (URI) set, which includes both Uniform Resource Locator (URL) and Uniform Resource Name (URN). (wikipedia.org)
  • form
  • Another instance of use of delta encoding is RFC 3229, "Delta encoding in HTTP", which proposes that HTTP servers should be able to send updated Web pages in the form of differences between versions (deltas), which should decrease Internet traffic, as most pages change slowly over time, rather than being completely rewritten repeatedly: This document describes how delta encoding can be supported as a compatible extension to HTTP/1.1. (wikipedia.org)
  • buffer
  • To understand your simple protocol buffer encoding, you first need to understand varints . (google.com)
  • As you saw in the previous section, all the protocol buffer types associated with wire type 0 are encoded as varints. (google.com)
  • code
  • Unipolar encoding is a line code. (wikipedia.org)
  • It is the simplest line code, directly encoding the bitstream, and is analogous to on-off keying in modulation. (wikipedia.org)
  • This encoding is also known as Code Page 10006. (wikipedia.org)
  • Representations of characters encoded using Morse code varied in length. (wikipedia.org)
  • The Baudot code, a five-bit encoding, was created by Émile Baudot in 1870, patented in 1874, modified by Donald Murray in 1901, and standardized by CCITT as International Telegraph Alphabet No. 2 (ITA2) in 1930. (wikipedia.org)
  • simple
  • The encoding is a simple polyalphabetic substitution using three alphabets. (wikipedia.org)
  • BCD extended existing simple four-bit numeric encoding to include alphabetic and special characters, mapping it easily to punch-card encoding which was already in widespread use. (wikipedia.org)
  • uses
  • MacGreek encoding or Macintosh Greek encoding is used in Apple Macintosh computers to represent texts in the Greek language that uses the Greek script. (wikipedia.org)
  • If you use one of the signed types, the resulting varint uses ZigZag encoding, which is much more efficient. (google.com)
  • The actual encoding uses the principles and syntax given in the TEI Guidelines, as modified and amended by the WWP. (coverpages.org)
  • previous
  • In delta encoded transmission over a network where only a single copy of the file is available at each end of the communication channel, special error control codes are used to detect which parts of the file have changed since its previous version. (wikipedia.org)
  • often
  • For example, one will often be more successful in recalling a stimulus while chewing bubble gum if one were also chewing gum when one originally encoded the new stimulus. (wikipedia.org)
  • important
  • The amygdala is a complex structure that has an important role in visual encoding. (wikipedia.org)
  • It is important that we all encode in a consistent manner and that we think through the complexities of the texts carefully before attempting to encode them. (coverpages.org)
  • problem
  • MIME/BASE64, MIME/Quoted-Printable, volapuk, uuencode" By the late 90s, the encoding problem had been almost completely resolved, due to increasing support from software manufacturers and Internet service providers. (wikipedia.org)
  • hints indeed an encoding problem. (tug.org)