• EMC viruses have a poly(C) tract of variable length (usually 80-250 nt) about 150 nt from the 5′-terminus of the viral RNA, while the other cardioviruses lack this feature. (ictvonline.org)
  • The virus was first isolated in 1944 from a gibbon that died suddenly from pulmonary edema and myocarditis ( 2 ) and later isolated from diseased pigs ( 3 ). (asm.org)
  • Depending on the virus strain and the infected host, the virus can induce myocarditis, reproductive failure, diabetes or nervous disorders. (jle.com)
  • With the exception of single blood and fecal samples collected 24 h post-feeding, no virus was recovered from any of the specimens from experimentally infected rodents. (ajtmh.org)
  • Subsequently, we investigated the virulence and pathogenesis of this naturally occurring short-poly(C)-tract-containing virus in rodents, pigs, and nonhuman primates. (asm.org)
  • Rodents and in particular rats and mice are usually considered the natural host and reservoir of this virus. (biomedcentral.com)
  • This virus specifically affects rodents, but can be transferred to other species. (wikipedia.org)
  • TLR3 may also allow detection of dsRNA viruses that are internalized from the extracellular space through receptor-mediated endocytosis. (pnas.org)
  • In addition to her research on rhinovirus, Dr. Palmenberg has done extensive research on encephalomyocarditis, which is a fatal viral disease that causes inflammation of skeletal and cardiac muscles, followed by degradation of these same muscles. (wikipedia.org)
  • researchers could not unequivocally establish that the virus did not originate from the mice used for isolation and passage rather than from human clinical specimens ( 12 ). (cdc.gov)
  • Rats and mice are the natural hosts of the virus, but pigs are the most commonly and severely infected domestic animals ( 5 , 36 ). (asm.org)
  • For instance, in earlier studies, truncation of the poly(C) tract of Mengo virus M/48 (from C 44 UC 10 to C 8 - or C 13 UC 10 ) attenuated the virus in mice, resulting in lower virus titers in the brain and development of milder meningoencephalitis ( 11 , 33 ). (asm.org)
  • However, later, more-extensive experiments using a number of inbred strains of mice demonstrated that both short- and long-poly(C)-tract variants of Mengo virus M/48 were highly virulent in newborn mice of any strain ( 34 ). (asm.org)
  • Ohguchi A, Nakayama Y, Yasoshima A, Doi C, Mikami T, Uetsuka K, Nakayama H, Doi K. Encepalomyocarditis virus-induced apoptosis and ultrastructural changes in the lacrimal and parotid glands of mice. (uchicago.edu)
  • Yamanouchi-Ueno A, Nakayama Y, Doi K. Characteristics of testicular lesions in mice infected with a low dose of encephalomyocarditis (EMC) virus. (uchicago.edu)
  • Relation between distribution of viral RNA and development of histopathological changes in encephalomyocarditis virus-induced orchitis in mice. (semanticscholar.org)
  • The AT 1 R blocker also significantly attenuated the expression of proinflammatory cytokines and the activation of NF-kB in virus-inoculated WT mice. (onlinejacc.org)
  • Multiple mutations in hepatitis C virus NS5A domain II are required to confer a significant level of resistance to alisporivir. (nih.gov)
  • Alisporivir is the most advanced host-targeting antiviral cyclophilin (Cyp) inhibitor in phase III studies and has demonstrated a great deal of promise in decreasing hepatitis C virus (HCV) viremia in infected patients. (nih.gov)
  • Efficient replication of blood-borne hepatitis C virus in human fetal liver stem cells. (pubfacts.com)
  • The prevalence of EMC antibodies among R. rattus on four Hawaiian islands ranged from 8-86%, indicating considerable geographic variation in virus activity. (ajtmh.org)
  • However, additional in vivo studies with lymphocytic choriomeningitis virus, reovirus, and MCMV have indicated that antiviral responses are also mediated by pathways independent of TLR3 ( 17 , 18 ). (pnas.org)
  • The South African pig isolate differed by 4% (3D) and 11% (VP3/1) from available European and Asian pig virus sequences. (up.ac.za)
  • When a complete virus particle ( virion ) comes in contact with a host cell, only the viral nucleic acid and, in some viruses, a few enzymes are injected into the host cell. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • This review discusses the significance of various pathways/steps during virus-mediated modulation of host cell apoptosis. (springer.com)
  • Sera from 12 different species of Hawaiian mammals and birds as well as from humans were examined by plaque reduction neutralization test for antibodies against encephalomyocarditis virus (EMC). (ajtmh.org)
  • Both RIG-I and mda-5 can bind polyriboinosinic:polyribocytidylic acid (polyI:C), the synthetic analog of viral dsRNA, and mediate type I IFN responses to polyI:C and multiple RNA viruses in vitro . (pnas.org)
  • Moreover, PKR is not essential for in vivo responses to RNA viruses ( 21 , 22 ). (pnas.org)
  • Moreover, the IFN responses to the TLR3-independent agonists and viruses tested were maintained in both patients' peripheral blood mononuclear cells and fibroblasts. (rupress.org)
  • The sequence between nucleotides 260 and 484 in the 5'NTR of encephalomyocarditis RNA was found to play a critical role in the efficient translation in both mono- and dicistronic mRNAs. (asm.org)
  • A segment of the 5' nontranslated region of encephalomyocarditis virus RNA directs internal entry of ribosomes during in vitro translation. (asm.org)
  • The effect of the poliovirus 5'NTR on in vitro translation was compared with that of the 5'NTR of encephalomyocarditis virus by the use of synthetic mRNAs, micrococcal nuclease-treated HeLa cell extracts, and rabbit reticulocyte lysates. (asm.org)
  • Blood, urine, and stool specimens were collected from the animals for virus isolation at regular intervals after virus administration. (ajtmh.org)
  • Patients' clinical signs and symptoms were recorded, and acute- and convalescent-phase serum samples were obtained for serologic examination and virus isolation in Vero E6 and C6/36 cells. (cdc.gov)
  • This type of research works toward finding a viral vaccines for constantly changing viruses, such as rhinovirus and HIV. (wikipedia.org)
  • Artificial mono- and dicistronic mRNAs synthesized with T7 RNA polymerase were used to investigate whether the 5'NTR of encephalomyocarditis virus RNA contains a potential internal ribosomal entry site. (asm.org)
  • For certain viruses the RNA is replicated by a viral enzyme ( transcriptase ) contained in the virion, or produced by the host cell using the viral RNA as a messenger. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • Angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors have been reported to attenuate virus-induced myocardial injury (5,6) . (onlinejacc.org)
  • However, its wide host range and its biological characteristics make this virus a potential zoonotic agent. (jle.com)