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  • vitro
  • These cells could then be differentiated into the affected cell type of the patient and studied in vitro, or used to replace the damaged or missing cells. (jove.com)
  • Our in vitro culture system employs hydrogels in order to mimic the native ovarian environment by maintaining the 3D follicular architecture, cell-cell interactions and paracrine signaling that direct follicle development 5 . (jove.com)
  • The SCNT-hES-1 cells displayed typical ES cell morphology and cell surface markers and were capable of differentiating into embryoid bodies in vitro and of forming teratomas in vivo containing cell derivatives from all three embryonic germ layers in severe combined immunodeficient mice. (sciencemag.org)
  • The following selection markers for in vitro-produced porcine embryos were investigated: the timing, pattern and evenness of the first cleavage and the timing of the second cleavage. (biomedsearch.com)
  • Haploid ES cells elegantly combine the advantages of haploidy and pluripotency and offer a unique in vitro system for genetic analyses of molecular, cellular and developmental events in various cell lineages. (biomedsearch.com)
  • The effects of the age of cell donor animal on in vitro development of ovine nuclear transfer (NT) embryos were investigated. (biomedsearch.com)
  • Notably, these disease-relevant patient cells can also be used for in vitro disease modeling which may yield new insights into disease mechanisms and drug discovery. (stembook.org)
  • While some success has been reported recently in the in vitro modeling of degenerative diseases by introducing known disease-causing alleles into ES cells (Di Giorgio et al. (stembook.org)
  • When given no stimuli for differentiation, (i.e. when grown in vitro ), ES cells maintain pluripotency through multiple cell divisions . (wikidoc.org)
  • When injected into oocytes , these haploid cells restored the somatic diploid complement of chromosomes and formed blastocysts in vitro . (wikidoc.org)
  • It is widely anticipated that human embryonic stem (ES) cells will serve as an experimental model for studying early development in our species, and, conversely, that studies of development in model systems, the mouse in particular, will inform our efforts to manipulate human stem cells in vitro. (biologists.org)
  • Conversely, will our understanding of the molecular regulation of mammalian development based on studies in the mouse provide us with a framework to control hES cells in vitro, enabling us to develop the many important clinical applications that are envisioned for these cells in the future? (biologists.org)
  • Mouse ES cells are undifferentiated, pluripotent cells derived in vitro from preimplantation embryos (Evans, at al. (google.es)
  • Criteria that optimize the potential of murine embryonic stem cells for in vitro and in vivo developmental studies", In Vitro Cell. (patents.com)
  • This paper discusses the potential of this technology to make possible what I call ' in vitro eugenics': the deliberate breeding of human beings in vitro by fusing sperm and egg derived from different stem-cell lines to create an embryo and then deriving new gametes from stem cells derived from that embryo. (bmj.com)
  • In vitro eugenics might be used to study the heredity of genetic disorders and to produce cell lines of a desired character for medical applications. (bmj.com)
  • However, the development of a technology of in vitro gametogenesis would also make possible other technological interventions into human reproduction, which as yet have barely been discussed at all. (bmj.com)
  • In particular, it might allow what I will call ' in vitro eugenics': the deliberate breeding of human beings in vitro by fusing sperm and egg derived from different stem-cell lines to create an embryo and then deriving new gametes from stem cells derived from that embryo, which in turn might be used in the creation of another embryo. (bmj.com)
  • Bovine
  • Bovine clones that survived until the neonatal period differed quantitatively and qualitatively from in-vivo-derived cattle. (jove.com)
  • isolation
  • This course will also introduce basic molecular biological techniques that are used in current molecular biological research including DNA, RNA isolation and analysis, protein isolation and analysis, genetic engineering, cloning and sequencing, gene expression analysis, PCR and quantitative real-time RCR. (evms.edu)
  • tissues
  • Multicellular organisms arise from the generation of different cell types and the organization of cells into tissues and organs. (biomedsearch.com)
  • Stem cell researchers are engaged in different endeavors, including treating genetic disorders and generating new stem cell-derived human tissues and biomaterials for use in pharmacy genomics and regenerative medicine. (medsci.org)
  • Pubmed ID: 15716340 Cells in the early vertebrate somite receive cues from surrounding tissues, which are important for their specification. (jove.com)
  • First, evidence exists that off-target effects of immunosuppressant drugs commonly used in tissue and organ transplants may directly interfere with the function of transplanted tissues, such as the inhibition of β-cell replication that has been observed with drugs used in the treatment of Type I Diabetes (Nir et al. (stembook.org)
  • 2) There are two potential sources of stem cells for human research, firstly 'adult' stem cells, which are derived from the umbilical cord blood, the bone marrow and other tissues and secondly 'embryonic' stem cells, which are obtained by the disaggregation of human embryos. (vatican.va)
  • The unexpected plasticity of adult stem cells has made it possible to use this type of undifferentiated, self-renewing cell successfully for the healing of various human tissues and organs, (1) particularly in hearts damaged after myocardial infarction. (vatican.va)
  • iv] Given that embryonic stem cells replicate almost indefinitely, they would be a renewable source of replacement cells and tissues. (spusa.org)
  • Only the morula's cells are totipotent, able to become all tissues and a placenta. (wikidoc.org)
  • ethical
  • However, clinical application of stem cells raises numerous ethical and safety concerns. (medsci.org)
  • In this review, we provide an overview of the most important ethical issues in stem cell therapy, as a contribution to the controversial debate about their clinical usage in regenerative and transplantation medicine. (medsci.org)
  • This review offers stem cell scientists, clinicians and patient's useful information and could be used as a starting point for more in-depth analysis of ethical and safety issues related to clinical application of stem cells. (medsci.org)
  • We describe and discuss ethical challenges regarding human embryonic stem cell (hESC) research, therapeutic potential and clinical translation of induced pluripotent stem cell (iPSC) and safety issues of mesenchymal stem cell (MSC)-based therapy. (medsci.org)
  • Our hope is that stem cell scientists and clinicians will use the information presented herein as a starting point for more in-depth analysis of ethical and safety issues related to clinical translation of stem cells since controversial regulation and application of stem cell therapy has been falsely celebrated not only in countries with lax medical regulations but also in many developed countries. (medsci.org)
  • Above all, it is universally agreed that the use of adult stem cells does not entail any ethical problems. (vatican.va)
  • Technical problems aside, the need to extract these cells from living human embryos raises ethical questions of the highest order. (vatican.va)
  • Indeed, even putting aside fundamental ethical considerations other than the patient's expectations, the present state of 'therapeutic cloning' precludes, now and in the near future, any clinical application. (vatican.va)
  • Discussion of the bioethics of human stem cell research has transitioned from controversies over the source of human embryonic stem cells to concerns about the ethical use of stem cells in basic and clinical research. (jci.org)
  • (jci.org)
  • From that point forward, hES cell research has been steeped in ethical controversy. (jci.org)
  • Against this background dystopian view of science, a pro-life ideology rapidly emerged as a main driving force behind stem cell ethical debate and policy. (jci.org)
  • It is safe to say that, despite a host of other concerns about where science was leading us in the future, the ethical discourse over stem cell research for the past decade has been characterized predominantly by the debate over embryo destruction. (jci.org)
  • Around the world, researchers and politicians have struggled to develop guidelines that will allow for ethical and socially responsible stem cell research. (spusa.org)
  • Since the first fertilization of a human egg in the laboratory in 1968, scientific and technological breakthroughs have raised ethical dilemmas and generated policy controversies on both sides of the Atlantic. (scribd.com)
  • Over time, he argues, partisan debate and religious-secular polarization have come to overshadow ethical reflection and political deliberation on the moral status of the embryo and the promise of biomedical research. (scribd.com)
  • I believe that the moral status of the embryo and the promise of biomedical research to reduce human suffering are critical and complex ethical issues. (scribd.com)
  • Besides the ethical problems of stem cell therapy (see stem cell controversy ), there is a technical problem of graft-versus-host disease associated with allogeneic stem cell transplantation . (wikidoc.org)
  • and the characteristics of the cells, their potential use in regenerative medicine, and the ethical issues surrounding their provenance, have been widely discussed in the scientific literature. (biologists.org)
  • The main ethical and policy issues with stem cells concern the derivation and use of embryonic stem cells for research. (stemcellclinic.net)
  • To bypass this ethical controversy, the Presidents Council on Bioethics recommended in 2005 that alternative sources of pluripotent stem cells be pursued. (stemcellclinic.net)
  • To this regard, a scientific, ethical, and political debate is recently reviving in Italy about the utilization of stem cells in regenerative medicine. (hindawi.com)
  • ESCs
  • On the other hand, the in vivo developmental potential of ESCs cannot be directly tested in humans. (biomedcentral.com)
  • To date, however, the derivation and stable propagation of pluripotent ESCs from domestic ungulates remain unsuccessful. (pnas.org)
  • The production of ESCs from large livestock species is important for genomic testing and selection, genome engineering, and studying human diseases. (pnas.org)
  • From agricultural and biomedical perspectives, the derivation of stable ESCs from domestic ungulates is important for genomic testing and selection, genome engineering, and modeling human diseases. (pnas.org)
  • Therefore, the ESCs are closely related to the inner cell mass, from which, via post-implantation development, the embryo and fetus form. (biomedcentral.com)
  • apoptosis
  • It has been shown that imatinib blocks the cells proliferation and induces apoptosis in BCR-ABL expressing hematopoietic cells. (hindawi.com)
  • Abstract
  • J.D. Biggers, "Arbitrary Partitions of Prenatal Life," Human Reproduction 5, no. 1 (1990): 1-6, available from http://humrep.oxfordjournals.org/cgi/content/abstract/5/1/1 (accessed February 4, 2008). (lifeissues.net)
  • J.P. Geraedts, G.M. de Wert, "Cloning: Applications in Humans 1: Technical Aspects," Nederlands tijdschrift voor tandheelkunde 108, no. 4 (April 2001): 145-150, available from http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?cmd=Retrieve&db=pubmed&dopt=Abstract&list_uids=11383357 (accessed February 5, 2008). (lifeissues.net)
  • biological
  • From a biological standpoint, bringing cloned human embryos to birth would be dangerous for the human species. (vatican.va)
  • Living in a pluralistic society such as ours, supporters argue, means having to tolerate differences in religious and personal convictions over such personally theoretical matters as when during the course of human biological development moral personhood first appears. (jci.org)
  • Cancer cells have diverse biological capabilities that are conferred by numerous genetic and epigenetic modifications [ 2 ]. (hindawi.com)
  • Induction-Dependent and Lineage-Dependent Models for Cell-Diversification Are Mutually Exclusive," Progress in Clinical Biological Research 175, (1985): 3-11. (lifeissues.net)
  • characterization
  • Highlights include the identification and characterization of Oct-4, germline chromatin silencing by RNAi, cDNA subtraction and cloning in the field of trophoblast/placental development, and selective ablation. (springer.com)
  • fetuses
  • in addition, we included data from embryos and fetuses (produced by NT) that terminated prematurely. (jove.com)
  • ethics
  • In setting out an argument about the intersection of politics, ethics, and policy, I focus on national bioethics committees, elected leaders, and their efforts to reconcile the moral status of the embryo and the imperative of biomedical progress in practice. (scribd.com)
  • Some of this intellectual work has already begun, with philosophers and bioethicists discussing the ethics of posthumous and same-sex genetic parenthood with renewed enthusiasm. (bmj.com)
  • oocyte
  • The Drosophila oocyte has been established as a versatile system for investigating fundamental questions such as cytoskeletal function, cell organization, and organelle structure and function. (jove.com)
  • Embryology
  • Bruce M. Carlson, Human Embryology and Developmental Biology , 2nd ed. (lifeissues.net)
  • G.W. Corner, "The Observed Embryology of Human Single-Ovum Twins and Other Multiple Births," American Journal of Obstetrics and. (lifeissues.net)
  • diseases
  • 2007 ), such models are severely limited in their scope as they can only investigate the mechanisms of diseases for which causal genetic liaisons have been identified. (stembook.org)
  • Thus, the Holy See earnestly encourages investigations that are being carried out in the fields of medicine and biology, with the goal of curing diseases and of improving the quality of life of all, provided that they are respectful of the dignity of the human being. (vatican.va)
  • By deriving and studying embryonic or other pluripotent stem cells that are genetically-matched to diseases such as Parkinsons disease and juvenile diabetes, researchers are able to map out the developmental course of complex medical conditions to understand how, when, and why diseased specialized cells fail to function properly in patients. (stemcellclinic.net)
  • Such disease-in-a-dish model systems provide researchers with a powerful new way to study genetic diseases. (stemcellclinic.net)
  • researchers
  • In recent years, researchers have been exploring the potential of Induced Pluripotent Stem Cells (iPS cells) as possible substitutes or supplements to embryonic stem cells. (spusa.org)
  • At this time researchers are still uncertain of what clinical differences may exist between iPS cells and embryonic stem cells, meaning that, at this time, further research on both kinds of stem cells is necessary to fully understand the medical potential of these new discoveries. (spusa.org)
  • In 1964, researchers noted that a single cell in teratocarcinomas could be isolated and remain undifferentiated in culture. (wikidoc.org)
  • Researchers learned that primordial embryonic germ cells (EG cells) could be cultured and stimulated to produce many different cell types. (wikidoc.org)
  • Using wildtype or engineered stem cell lines, researchers may use this technique to uncover the various mechanisms or treatments that may affect early brain infection and resulting microcephaly in Zika virus-infected embryos. (jove.com)
  • Since then, more than a thousand different isolateslines of self-renewing embryonic stem cellshave been created and shared by researchers worldwide. (stemcellclinic.net)
  • By replacing the DNA of an unfertilized egg with the DNA of a cell from a patients body, researchers are able to produce embryonic stem cells that are genetically-matched to the patient and his or her particular disease. (stemcellclinic.net)
  • More controversially, it might also function as a powerful technology of 'human enhancement' by allowing researchers to use all the techniques of selective breeding to produce individuals with a desired genotype. (bmj.com)
  • More recently, researchers have begun to publish some results involving the production of gamete- like cells from both embryonic and induced pluripotent human stem cells. (bmj.com)
  • research
  • Depending on the goal of the research, large animals as models of pulmonary disease often resemble the situation of the human lung much better than mice do. (jove.com)
  • Much of the hope invested in embryonic stem (ES) cell research surrounds its promise to provide a broad spectrum of medical applications. (stembook.org)
  • This respect demands that any research that is inconsistent with the dignity of the human being is morally excluded. (vatican.va)
  • 3) By contrast, research using human embryonic stem cells has been hampered by important technical difficulties (4). (vatican.va)
  • Each of these issues is discussed as I summarize the past, present, and future bioethical issues in stem cell research. (jci.org)
  • The main bioethical issues associated with human stem cells involve their derivation and use for research. (jci.org)
  • This Review summarizes these and other bioethical issues of the past, present, and future of stem cell research. (jci.org)
  • While public concerns such as these about science and its implications are not in themselves new, hES cell research offered the opportunity for all of these inchoate worries to coalesce around a single, new scientific field. (jci.org)
  • Those who oppose embryonic stem cell research believe for religious or other personal reasons that all preimplantation embryos have a moral standing equal to all living persons, regardless of whether they are located in a fertility clinic dish or in a woman's body. (jci.org)
  • In this view, destroying preimplantation embryos during the course of research is akin to murder and therefore never acceptable, no matter how noble the aims of the research may be. (jci.org)
  • On the other hand, supporters of embryonic stem cell research have pointed out that not all religious traditions grant full moral standing to early-stage human embryos. (jci.org)
  • Stem cell research is one of the hot fields in biomedical science, both in terms of research potential and public controversy. (spusa.org)
  • Embryonic stem cells have the unique ability to self-replicate indefinitely before creating specialized cells, which is one of the advantages of performing research on them. (spusa.org)
  • An important part of this research would be the identification of how and why undifferentiated cells become differentiated. (spusa.org)
  • In Embryo Politics , Thomas Banchoff provides a comprehensive overview of political struggles aboutembryo research during four decades in four countries-the United States, the United Kingdom, Germany, and France. (scribd.com)
  • Embryo research is one of the few political issues with no historical precedent. (scribd.com)
  • However, to date, no approved medical treatments have been derived from embryonic stem cell research ( ESCR ). (wikidoc.org)
  • The online edition of Nature Medicine published a study on January 23, 2005 which stated that the human embryonic stem cells available for federally funded research are contaminated with non-human molecules from the culture medium used to grow the cells. (wikidoc.org)
  • Embryonic stem cell research is especially controversial for those who believe that five-day-old preimplantation human embryos should not be destroyed no matter how valuable the research may be for society. (stemcellclinic.net)
  • But embryonic stem cell research will remain needed because there are some questions only they have the potential to answer. (stemcellclinic.net)
  • This method of testing can reduce the risks associated with human subjects research. (stemcellclinic.net)
  • They prefer research on cordonal stem cells rather than on embryo stem cells. (hindawi.com)
  • Stem cells research is recently reproposing the paradigmatic case of the reciprocal influence between science and ideological (e.g., political, religious, economic, and social) issues. (hindawi.com)
  • More specifically, an important question deals with the impact upon national regulation and social behaviours of the scientific community experts' advice regarding stem cells research and its exploitation for health care purposes. (hindawi.com)
  • Translational medicine thus represents a stem of scientific research that aims to move "from bench to bedside" or from laboratory experiments through clinical trials to point-of-care patient applications. (hindawi.com)
  • autologous
  • Beyond providing a renewable source of material that might be transplanted into a patient without suppressing their immune system, the generation of autologous pluripotent stem cells provides two key advantages over the large number of existing stem cell lines. (stembook.org)
  • The second advantage of autologous ES cells over existing lines concerns the ability to create effective disease models. (stembook.org)
  • manipulation
  • Cloning would, indeed, bring a person to life, but through a laboratory manipulation in the order of pure zootechnology. (vatican.va)