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  • vitro
  • The aim of the present study was to compare the efficiency of in vitro production and in vitro development of cloned sheep embryos by the two techniques. (deepdyve.com)
  • 181 cloned sheep embryos were produced in vitro by conventional SCNT and 92 by HMC. (deepdyve.com)
  • 05). It was inferred that HMC technique provides a cost‐effective and efficient method of in vitro production of cloned sheep embryos with a comparatively simpler technique with a possibility of automation. (deepdyve.com)
  • Murine bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells (BMSCs) appear to undergo spontaneous transformation in vitro. (semanticscholar.org)
  • Chromosomal aberrations and deoxyribonucleic acid single-strand breaks in adipose-derived stem cells during long-term expansion in vitro. (semanticscholar.org)
  • An egg may be fertilized in vitro and the resulting embryo may be frozen for later use. (wikipedia.org)
  • It is a statutory body that regulates and inspects all clinics in the United Kingdom providing in vitro fertilisation (IVF), artificial insemination and the storage of human eggs, sperm or embryos. (wikipedia.org)
  • world's
  • On November 2015, a Chinese biotech company Boyalife Group announced that it will partner with Hwang's laboratory, Sooam Biotech, to open the world's largest animal cloning factory in Tianjin as early as 2016. (wikipedia.org)
  • organisms
  • But if cloned embryos can't produce normal organisms, how can they produce normal stem cells? (eurekalert.org)
  • He introduced cellular nuclear transfer technology to the Chinese biological community, developed methods to clone organisms from many marine species, and investigated the role of cytoplasm in early development. (wikipedia.org)
  • Webber coined the word "clone" in 1903 and was the first to use it to describe a colony of organisms derived asexually from a single progenitor. (wikipedia.org)
  • In this experiment, the researchers developed a protocol for using SCNT in human cells, which differs slightly from the one used in other organisms. (wikipedia.org)
  • In general, in organisms that reproduce sexually, an embryo develops from a zygote, the single cell resulting from the fertilization of the female egg cell by the male sperm cell. (wikipedia.org)
  • In biology, cloning is the process of producing similar populations of genetically identical individuals that occurs in nature when organisms such as bacteria, insects, plants or animals reproduce asexually. (wikipedia.org)
  • Cloning in biotechnology refers to processes used to create copies of DNA fragments (molecular cloning), cells (cell cloning), or organisms (organism cloning). (wikipedia.org)
  • However, in the case of cell cultures from multi-cellular organisms, cell cloning is an arduous task as these cells will not readily grow in standard media. (wikipedia.org)
  • SCNT
  • However, there remain ethical concerns over the implications of using SCNT to develop stem cells. (www.nhs.uk)
  • SCNT has been used to clone animals before, and is thought to have potential applications in the study and treatment of human diseases. (www.nhs.uk)
  • SCNT involved taking the nucleus (the part of a cell containing most of the genetic information) from a person's skin cells, inserting its cells into a donor's unfertilised egg cell that had its nucleus removed. (www.nhs.uk)
  • Cloned embryos were produced by conventional SCNT using micromanipulator apparatus and by HMC technique. (deepdyve.com)
  • It was created using SCNT - a nucleus was taken from a man's leg cell and inserted into a cow's egg from which the nucleus had been removed, and the hybrid cell was cultured, and developed into an embryo. (wikipedia.org)
  • A year later, a team led by Robert Lanza at Advanced Cell Technology reported that they had replicated Mitalipov's results and further demonstrated the effectiveness by cloning adult cells using SCNT. (wikipedia.org)
  • For example, if a person with Parkinson's disease donated his or her somatic cells, the stem cells resulting from SCNT would have genes that contribute to Parkinson's disease. (wikipedia.org)
  • Another application of SCNT stem cell research is using the patient specific stem cell lines to generate tissues or even organs for transplant into the specific patient. (wikipedia.org)
  • Only a handful of the labs in the world are currently using SCNT techniques in human stem cell research. (wikipedia.org)
  • potential of embryonic
  • Blastocyst injection was later adopted almost universally for assessing the developmental potential of embryonic stem (ES) cells and their competence to colonise the germline following genetic modification. (wikipedia.org)
  • While a fellow at the Imperial Cancer Research Fund, (now Cancer Research UK) laboratory in Oxford, Beddington and Elizabeth Robertson recognised the potential of embryonic stem cells for the study of genetic manipulation after demonstrating the ability of these cells to colonise developing embryos. (wikipedia.org)
  • developmental potential
  • We also saw that the embryos that developed the furthest were from the same egg donors, suggesting that genetic variation between egg donors plays an important role in the developmental potential of cloned embryos. (bioethics.net)
  • During organogenesis, molecular and cellular interactions between germ layers, combined with the cells' developmental potential, or competence to respond, prompt the further differentiation of organ-specific cell types. (wikipedia.org)
  • 2001
  • In 2001, the U.S. House of Representatives passed the "Human Cloning Prohibition Act" and President Bush announced his decision to allow only limited research on existing stem cell lines but not on "embryos. (georgetown.edu)
  • 1997-2001: Professor and Vice-Chair of Obstetrics and Gynecology at the Oregon Health & Science University and Professor of Cell and Developmental Biology. (wikipedia.org)
  • The International Society for Stem Cell Research was officially incorporated on March 30, 2001, to foster the exchange of information on stem cell research. (wikipedia.org)
  • transplantation
  • Eggan's research goals at Harvard were to understand how nuclear transplantation works, and to make stem cells that carry genes for specific diseases such as Parkinson's disease, amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (Lou Gehrig's disease), and Alzheimer's. (wikipedia.org)
  • mammalian
  • The cells of female cats, which like other mammalian females have two X chromosomes (XX), undergo the phenomenon of X-inactivation, in which one or the other of the X-chromosomes is turned off at random in each cell in very early development. (wikipedia.org)
  • He was the first to apply clonal analysis to study cell fate and potency in mammals, and used this strategy to provide conclusive evidence against early segregation of the mammalian germline. (wikipedia.org)
  • His main research interests include investigating the fate and deployment of cells in early mammalian development with particular emphasis on clonal analysis, establishing the origin and efficient derivation of stem cells from early embryos, and determining the extent to which pre-patterning normally directs early development in mammals. (wikipedia.org)
  • Beddington embarked on the study of anterior-posterior axial patterning in mammalian embryos, beginning with her doctoral thesis entitled, "Studies on cell fate and cell potency in the postimplantation mammalian embryo" supervised by Richard Gardner and Virginia Papaioannou, and was awarded a DPhil in 1981. (wikipedia.org)
  • Studies on cell fate and cell potency in the postimplantation mammalian embryo (PhD thesis). (wikipedia.org)
  • Based on meticulous mammalian study review, the researchers concluded that the rigorous procedures developed for mammalian reproduction held promise for practical application in human embryonic stem cell (hESC) line production. (wikipedia.org)
  • tissue
  • The resulting stem cells could then possibly be used to repair damaged tissue, or even treat genetic conditions. (www.nhs.uk)
  • The only region in which chick nuclei appeared at significantly greater frequency than in control tissue was the dorsal thigh muscle, the region into which the cloned chick cells were placed originally. (biologists.org)
  • Our new special issue is packed with articles that use mathematical and physical approaches to gain insights into cell and tissue patterning, morphogenesis and dynamics, and that provide a physical framework to capture these processes operating across scales. (biologists.org)
  • One of the Xenopus-related protocols describes a method for surgically isolating and culturing a specific slice of tissue from Xenopus embryos. (cshlpress.com)
  • These tissue slices, called "Keller explants," contain cells that undergo dynamic movements and interactions during embryogenesis. (cshlpress.com)
  • Those cells are prized for research because of their potential to become almost any type of tissue, perhaps one day to be used to treat illnesses or injuries. (nytimes.com)
  • The resulting embryos were then used as a source of stem cells, which can be used to create specialised tissue cells for transplant operations. (abc.net.au)
  • For a viable fetus to develop, the egg needs to reprogram the genome of the skin cell, shutting off genes specific for skin tissue and turning on genes needed for embryonic development, genes that are normally dormant in tissue-specific cells. (eurekalert.org)
  • In other words, the egg needs to erase all tissue-specific memories from the skin cell and revert it into a genomic blank slate. (eurekalert.org)
  • Chromosomal instability of murine adipose tissue-derived mesenchymal stem cells in long-term culture and development of cloned embryos. (semanticscholar.org)
  • Adipose tissue stem cells: the great WAT hope. (semanticscholar.org)
  • Cells from these embryos closely match the men and could, in theory, be used to make near-identical tissue, blood or organ transplants for the men. (bioethics.net)
  • The term is generally used to refer to artificial human cloning, which is the reproduction of human cells and tissue. (wikipedia.org)
  • Her technical contributions to experimental embryology include surgical re-implantation into the uterus to extend the time an experimentally manipulated embryo can be cultured and the use of a transgenic marker (beta-galactosidase) to identify transplant versus host tissue in experimental embryos. (wikipedia.org)
  • During gastrulation the cells of the blastula undergo coordinated processes of cell division, invasion, and/or migration to form two (diploblastic) or three (triploblastic) tissue layers. (wikipedia.org)
  • research
  • It should be noted that no babies were born as a result of this research, and the researchers had no intention of producing a live cloned human being. (www.nhs.uk)
  • This research is the first time the technique has been successful using human cells. (www.nhs.uk)
  • Media coverage of this study was as varied as people's feelings are about stem cell research. (www.nhs.uk)
  • COLD SPRING HARBOR, N.Y. (Fri., June 1, 2007) - Cloning, X-chromosome inactivation, stem cells, and embryogenesis are hot areas of research at the moment, and protocols featured in this month's release of Cold Spring Harbor Protocols ( cshprotocols.cshlp.org ) will aid these studies. (cshlpress.com)
  • The news that South Korean researchers have become the first to produce human embryos and stem cells through cloning has revived a complex debate about whether such research should be permitted in the United States. (nytimes.com)
  • They split on therapeutic or research cloning for stem cells. (nytimes.com)
  • This research is always going to raise a hue and cry for people who feel that the embryo is the moral equivalent of an adult human life,'' said Suzanne Holland, chairwoman of the religion department at the University of Puget Sound in Tacoma, Wash. ''They did everything wonderfully right in terms of the protocols they used. (nytimes.com)
  • A multi-disciplinary working group of the SRT Project has produced a report on human stem cell research and embryology , which was debated at the Church of Scotland General Assembly on 23 May 2006. (srtp.org.uk)
  • that embryo stem cell research might be permitted up to 14 days, using surplus IVF of PGD embryos, but only for a very good reason to oppose the creation of IVF or cloned embryos for research, except under exceptional circumstances to oppose animal-human hybrid and parthenogenetic embryos. (srtp.org.uk)
  • It also urges the Government not to relax the present regulations governing embryo research in forthcoming legislation. (srtp.org.uk)
  • We are now faced with the possibility of mastering the art of this manipulation to the point of being able to clone in research laboratories the cells that, in other circumstances, lead to fully developed human beings. (questia.com)
  • On the one hand scientific research indicates that there is great life-saving potential in the results that can come from cloning research. (questia.com)
  • The experiments involve creating and then destroying human embryos for research purposes, which some find morally repugnant. (kwit.org)
  • But as Anthony tells us, the ongoing battle over stem cell research could make this advancement DOA. (seeker.com)
  • Legislators and reporters struggle to discuss "cloning," "pluripotency," "stem cells," and "embryos," and whether "adult" are preferable to "embryonic" stem cells as research subjects. (georgetown.edu)
  • In this chapter, I review some of the background thinking concerning matters of moral status that I had developed in previous years and that I would now bring to the work of the Human Embryo Research Panel. (georgetown.edu)
  • Years of research on monkey cells using the same technique have not successfully produced any monkey clones. (abc.net.au)
  • Mice are the most commonly used laboratory animals for research, and some mouse stem cells, such as induced pluripotent stem cells, embryonic stem cells, and mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs), are also widely used in basic research. (semanticscholar.org)
  • President Bush said Friday that he would veto a measure that would ease restrictions on federal financing of embryonic stem-cell research if it is approved by Congress. (orlandosentinel.com)
  • I'm a strong supporter of adult stem-cell research, of course. (orlandosentinel.com)
  • The cloned cells, in theory, could then be used to grow into any of the body's cell types and could be used for replacement cells to cure people or to research the origin of certain diseases. (orlandosentinel.com)
  • The team, at Massachusetts-based Advanced Cell Technology and the Institute for Stem Cell Research in Los Angeles, say they used the cloning methods to create the stem cells to match a 35-year-old man and a 75-year-old man. (bioethics.net)
  • ban all federal funding for cloning research as well as asking for a temporary voluntary moratorium on cloning research by private institutions until more could be learned about the issue. (scribd.com)
  • Obviously his research failed, but, no doubt at the expense of many human embryos. (scribd.com)
  • The main argument for why cloning research should be continued is the possible benefits it can have. (scribd.com)
  • Maienschein researched the history and philosophy of developmental biology as well as issues surrounding stem cell research and regenerative medicine. (wikipedia.org)
  • The Embryo Project Encyclopedia, ASU's Bioethics in Films Series, Responsible Conduct in Research and the History of Biology projects held at the Marine Biological Laboratory. (wikipedia.org)
  • Therapeutic cloning would involve cloning cells from a human for use in medicine and transplants, and is an active area of research, but is not in medical practice anywhere in the world, as of April 2017[update]. (wikipedia.org)
  • Since 1982 he has been Chair of the Royal Society Working Group on human embryo research, stem cells and cloning. (wikipedia.org)
  • For many years Gardner chaired the Royal Society's ad hoc committee on 'human embryo research', and later its working group on 'stem cells and cloning' and in this role he often advised on the scientific and ethical implications of cloning, attempting to clarify the complexities of the topic for a public audience. (wikipedia.org)
  • He was a professor of theriogenology and biotechnology at Seoul National University (dismissed on March 20, 2006) who became infamous for fabricating a series of experiments, which appeared in high-profile journals, in the field of stem cell research. (wikipedia.org)
  • On May 12, 2006, Hwang was charged with embezzlement and bioethics law violations after it emerged much of his stem cell research had been faked. (wikipedia.org)
  • The Korea Times reported on June 10, 2007, that Seoul National University fired him, and the South Korean government canceled his financial support and barred him from engaging in stem cell research. (wikipedia.org)
  • While being charged with fraud and embezzlement, he has kept a relatively low profile at the Sooam Bioengineering Research Institute in Yongin, Gyeonggi Province, where he currently leads research efforts on creating cloned pig embryos and using them to make embryonic stem-cell lines. (wikipedia.org)
  • In February 2011, Hwang visited Libya as part of a $133 million project in the North African country to build a stem cell research center and transfer relevant technology. (wikipedia.org)
  • His alleged success was touted as the fifth instance in the world in cow cloning, with a notable caveat: Hwang failed to provide scientifically verifiable data for the research, giving only media sessions and photo-ops. (wikipedia.org)
  • In regards to research using human embryos, the ethics and legalities of this application continue to be debated. (wikipedia.org)
  • Wood entered the arena of stem cell research shortly after the first published study of nuclear transfer stem cells (NTSC), also known as human therapeutic cloning, was withdrawn when the principal author's claims were called into question due to falsified data and ethical deviation from scientific research standards. (wikipedia.org)
  • Furthermore, they specifically proposed hESC research should steer away from attempting to produce viable offspring, focusing efforts on the use of cloned embryos as a viable source for deriving stem cell lines instead. (wikipedia.org)
  • Kiessling currently conducts research at the Bedford Stem Cell Research Foundation. (wikipedia.org)
  • The need to conduct biomedical research in areas not funded by the federal government led to the incorporation of the Bedford Stem Cell Research Foundation. (wikipedia.org)
  • The law review addresses the controversy of all of the entities that are currently called embryos with regards to embryonic stem cell research legislation around the world. (wikipedia.org)
  • Kiessling is a member of the California (California Constitution Article XXXV) and Connecticut Stem Cell Research Advisory Boards, and a member of the Embryonic Stem Cell Research Oversight Committees (ESCROS) for Harvard University, Joslin Diabetes Center and Children's Hospital. (wikipedia.org)
  • Kevin Eggan (born 1974 in Normal, Illinois) is a Professor of Stem Cell and Regenerative Biology at Harvard University, known for his work in stem cell research (also known as "therapeutic cloning"), and as a spokesperson for stem cell research in the United States. (wikipedia.org)
  • Eggan began to explore both this process and also the reasons that cloned animals often appeared to develop abnormally, with organ defects and immunological problems - his first contact with stem cell research. (wikipedia.org)
  • At the time, stem cell research in the United States was threatened by political pressure due to concerns over the ethics of human embryo research, and research such as this was at risk of potentially being made illegal. (wikipedia.org)
  • Federal funding for stem cell research had recently been removed, and part of his role was to obtain private funding to replace it. (wikipedia.org)
  • Eggan's work as of 2007[update] has succeeded in developing a technique of merging stem and skin cells that has obtained considerable public attention as a possible avenue to avoid moral objections regarding stem cell research in the context of serious illness. (wikipedia.org)
  • It suggests that ultimately, treatment of serious illnesses and understanding of stem cell development may be possible to obtain without recourse to human embryos - a highly desirable state of affairs politically, given the concurrent controversy over stem cell research in the United States. (wikipedia.org)
  • Eggan's team reported that they had created cells similar to human embryonic stem cells without destroying embryos, a major step toward someday possibly defusing the central objection to stem cell research. (wikipedia.org)
  • These discoveries sparked extensive debate in the United States Congress, with opponents of the use of embryonic stem cells from fetuses arguing that these or similar methods of creating stem cells from skin might be eventually used instead to satisfy the conflicting demands of medical research and morals. (wikipedia.org)
  • The International Society for Stem Cell Research (ISSCR) is an independent 501(c)(3) nonprofit organization based in Skokie, Illinois, United States. (wikipedia.org)
  • The organization's mission is to promote and foster the exchange and dissemination of information and ideas relating to stem cells, to encourage the general field of research involving stem cells, and to promote professional and public education in all areas of stem cell research and application. (wikipedia.org)
  • In June 2003, the International Society for Stem Cell Research held its first convention. (wikipedia.org)
  • It also regulates human embryo research. (wikipedia.org)
  • The HFEA is the independent regulator for IVF treatment and human embryo research and came into effect on 1 August 1991. (wikipedia.org)
  • This allows researchers to carry out embryonic stem cell research and therapeutic cloning providing that an HFEA Licence Committee considers the use of embryos necessary or desirable for one of these purposes of research. (wikipedia.org)
  • eggs
  • Hwang explained that his team used 242 eggs to create a single cell line. (wikipedia.org)
  • Dr. Wood and a colleague donated skin cells and the DNA from those cells was transferred into human eggs. (wikipedia.org)
  • To understand the normal biologic role of reverse transcriptase, Kiessling began to study eggs and early cleaving embryos. (wikipedia.org)
  • Eggan's technique provides a window into exactly what happens to turn back the clock in cells during cloning--and, indeed, in the normal process of creating sperm, eggs and embryos. (wikipedia.org)
  • The purpose of the directives was to facilitate a safer and easier exchange of tissues and cells (including human eggs and sperm) between member states and to improve safety standards for European citizens. (wikipedia.org)
  • tissues
  • They're basically charged with the ability to make any other cells and tissues, and even organs. (abc.net.au)
  • These cells are deemed to have a pluripotent potential because they have the ability to give rise to all of the tissues found in an adult organism. (wikipedia.org)
  • In botany, a seed plant embryo is part of a seed, consisting of precursor tissues for the leaves, stem (see hypocotyl), and root (see radicle), as well as one or more cotyledons. (wikipedia.org)
  • The European Union Tissues and Cells Directives (EUTCD) introduced common safety and quality standards for human tissues and cells across the European Union (EU). (wikipedia.org)
  • genetic material
  • Researchers have been looking into ways of using a patient's own cells to create embryonic stem cells, as this would ensure that the genetic material in any cells used therapeutically would match the patient's DNA. (www.nhs.uk)
  • Actually the nice thing about this is that if you had some genetic disease(like cystic fibrosis) you could take the genetic material out of one of your skin cells, correct it, and then use that with this process to make an embryo. (slashdot.org)
  • Next, they removed most of the DNA from each egg and replaced the genetic material with DNA from other peoples' skin cells. (kwit.org)
  • Dr Mitalipov said that since the reprogrammed cells use genetic material from the patient, there was no concern about transplant rejection. (abc.net.au)
  • Cryoconservation of animal genetic resources is a practice in which animal germplasms, such as embryos are collected and stored at low temperatures with the intent of conserving the genetic material. (wikipedia.org)
  • The offspring having all of the mother's genetic material are called full clones and those having only half are called half clones. (wikipedia.org)
  • Development
  • Tong concluded that an organizing center existed in the fish embryo, similar to the Spemann-Mangold organizer in amphibians and to Henson's node in chicks, and that the organizing center and cells in the fish embryo worked together to control the development of the embryo. (wikipedia.org)
  • In intermediate cases, melanocyte migration is slowed, so that the pigment cells arrive late in development and have less time to intermingle. (wikipedia.org)
  • An embryo is an early stage of development of a multicellular diploid eukaryotic organism. (wikipedia.org)
  • Play media In animals, the development of the zygote into an embryo proceeds through specific recognizable stages of blastula, gastrula, and organogenesis. (wikipedia.org)
  • An embryo is called a fetus at a more advanced stage of development and up until birth or hatching. (wikipedia.org)
  • The structure and development of the rest of the embryo varies by group of plants. (wikipedia.org)
  • from the Greek παρθένος parthenos, "virgin", + γένεσις genesis, "creation") is a natural form of asexual reproduction in which growth and development of embryos occur without fertilization. (wikipedia.org)
  • In animals, parthenogenesis means development of an embryo from an unfertilized egg cell. (wikipedia.org)
  • successfully
  • In what is being described as a "significant milestone" for medicine, the team from Oregon Health and Science University successfully used a technique which utilised a human skin cell and a woman's egg to produce an embryo which was a genetic copy of the original skin cell. (abc.net.au)
  • Also, in Korea in 2004, scientist Dr. Hwang Woo Suk published papers that indicated he had successfully cloned human embryos. (scribd.com)
  • Hwang first caught media attention in South Korea when he announced he successfully created a cloned dairy cow, Yeongrong-i in February 1999. (wikipedia.org)
  • As the aforementioned procedures are of particularly low efficiency, there is a need to identify the cells that have been successfully transfected with the vector construct containing the desired insertion sequence in the required orientation. (wikipedia.org)
  • ethical
  • I'm sure it isn't done every day of the week due to the ethical concerns, but I couldn't see how cloning embryos would present any difficulty at all. (slashdot.org)
  • This essay will address the ethical issues that have emerged in the first considerations of the newly emerging stem cell technology. (georgetown.edu)
  • On February 24, 1997, President Bill Clinton gave the NBAC 90 days to advise him on ethical issues concerning the cloning of human beings (Eiseman). (scribd.com)
  • Clearly, the world is undecided on the ethical status of cloning. (scribd.com)
  • These ethical concerns have prompted several nations to pass laws regarding human cloning and its legality. (wikipedia.org)
  • After the publication that a Chinese group had used CRISPR to modify a gene in human embryos, the group repeated their call for a moratorium on "attempts at human clinical germ-line genome editing while extensive scientific analysis of the potential risks is conducted, along with broad public discussion of the societal and ethical implications. (wikipedia.org)
  • sperm
  • Then, after a long search, they finally found the best way to stimulate each egg so that it would develop into an embryo without the need to be fertilized with sperm. (kwit.org)
  • Schatten's work on fertilization examines the differential inheritance of cellular components contributed by the sperm and egg, respectively, as well as the program of oocyte activation and cell division during meiosis and mitosis. (wikipedia.org)
  • Researchers
  • During their experiments, researchers identified two reasons for this inability to sufficiently grow the cells and developed techniques to overcome these limiting factors. (www.nhs.uk)
  • This study will no doubt be very exciting for researchers working with stem cells, but we're still a long way from the findings of this study being translated into new treatments for conditions such as Parkinson's disease or heart disease . (www.nhs.uk)
  • Researchers then optimised methods to prompt the egg cell to start and continue to divide using electricity and chemical compounds, including caffeine. (www.nhs.uk)
  • Because the proteins remain bound to the DNA, the researchers can determine which genes (and other genomic elements) were "off" or "on" in the cell. (cshlpress.com)
  • The researchers showed that the resulting embryos could develop to a stage where they could produce healthy stem cells containing the genes from the skin cells. (kwit.org)
  • But since the human cells used in the study appeared even more fragile, researchers said it was unlikely that clones could be made. (abc.net.au)
  • Researchers say other stem cell sources may be easier and less controversial. (abc.net.au)
  • NBC News ] Researchers say they have made powerful stem cells from both young and old adults using cloning techniques, and also found clues about why it is so difficult to do this with human beings. (bioethics.net)
  • fetal
  • Only one group has ever succeeded, and their lines were generated using fetal and infant cells. (bioethics.net)