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  • progenitor
  • Experimental studies suggest that cardiac transfer of stem and progenitor cells can have a favorable impact on tissue perfusion and contractile performance of the injured heart. (ahajournals.org)
  • They are classified as either totipotent (iTC), pluripotent (iPSC) or progenitor (multipotent-iMSC, also called an induced multipotent progenitor cell-iMPC) or unipotent-(iUSC) according to their developmental potential and degree of dedifferentiation. (wikipedia.org)
  • It is a tendon-specific gene marker known to be important for tendon maturation with key implications for the residing tendon stem/progenitor cells (TSPCs) as well as for the regulation of endothelial cell migration in chordae tendineae cordis in the heart and in experimental tumour models. (wikipedia.org)
  • GDF11 has been shown to suppress neurogenesis through a pathway similar to that of myostatin, including stopping the progenitor cell-cycle during G-phase. (wikipedia.org)
  • This cytokine also inhibits the proliferation of olfactory receptor neuron progenitors to regulate the number of olfactory receptor neurons occurring in the olfactory epithelium, and controls the competence of progenitor cells to regulate numbers of retinal ganglionic cells developing in the retina. (wikipedia.org)
  • GDF11 is also a negative regulator of neurogenesis, the production of islet progenitor cells, the regulation of kidney organogenesis, pancreatic development, the rostro-caudal patterning in the development of spinal cords, and is a negative regulator of chondrogenesis. (wikipedia.org)
  • isoform
  • Non-muscle myosins are expressed in a wide variety of tissues, but NM-IIB is the only non-muscle myosin II isoform expressed in cardiac muscle, where it localizes to adherens junctions within intercalated discs. (wikipedia.org)
  • Detailed kinetic studies on NM-IIB show that this isoform of non-muscle myosin II has a slower actomyosin ATPase cycle relative to other myosin II isoforms, and that the markedly high affinity of NM-IIB head for ADP as well as the slow rate of ADP release can mechanistically explain affinity this finding. (wikipedia.org)
  • NM-IIB is the only non-muscle myosin II isoform expressed in adult cardiac muscle (both IIa and IIB are expressed in skeletal muscle Z-discs, suggesting a specific function of NM-IIB in this cell type. (wikipedia.org)
  • cerebellar
  • In situ hybridization revealed Tnmd expression in various parts of the adult mouse brain such as the dentate gyrus, CA regions of the hippocampus, neurons in the cerebral nuclei, cerebellum, Purkinje cells and neuronal cells in the cerebellar nucleus. (wikipedia.org)
  • PTPkappa promotes neurite outgrowth from embryonic cerebellar neurons, and thus may be involved in axonal extension or guidance in vivo. (wikipedia.org)
  • bone
  • They showed that opposing gradients of bone morphogenetic protein (BMP) and Nodal, two transforming growth factor family members that act as morphogens, are sufficient to induce molecular and cellular mechanisms required to organize, in vivo or in vitro, uncommitted cells of the zebrafish blastula animal pole into a well-developed embryo. (wikipedia.org)
  • It has been shown that miR-181 is preferentially expressed in the B-lymphoid cells of mouse bone marrow, but also in the retina and brain. (wikipedia.org)
  • By expressing a dominant negative form of PTPkappa or by using short-hairpin RNA for PTPkappa in bone-marrow derived stem cells, Erdenbayer and colleagues demonstrated that CD4(+) T cells development was inhibited. (wikipedia.org)
  • http://www.ucdmc.ucdavis.edu/publish/facultybio/orthopaedics/faculty/54 http://www.jhu.edu/gazette/aprjun96/apr1596/chairs.html Scientists Succeed In Growing Bone, The New York Times, Oct. 22, 1996 Hopkins grows its own bone orchard, The Baltimore Sun, Jan. 24, 1992 Khouri R, Koudsi B, Reddi H. Tissue Transformation Into Bone In Vivo: A Potential Practical Application. (wikipedia.org)
  • protein
  • Myoblast-specific protein that mediates myoblast fusion, an essential step for the formation of multi-nucleated muscle fibers. (genecards.org)
  • This suggests that cell division may be regulated in part by dilution of Wee1 protein in cells as they grow larger. (wikipedia.org)
  • The protein kinase Cdr2 (which negatively regulates Wee1) and the Cdr2-related kinase Cdr1 (which directly phosphorylates and inhibits Wee1 in vitro) are localized to a band of cortical nodes in the middle of interphase cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • The cell polarity protein kinase Pom1, a member of the dual-specificity tyrosine-phosphorylation regulated kinase (DYRK) family of kinases, localizes to cell ends. (wikipedia.org)
  • TNMD is highly expressed on messenger and protein levels in tendons and ligaments, but has also been found in other tissues. (wikipedia.org)
  • GDF11 is a myostatin(GDF8)-homologous protein that acts as an inhibitor of nerve tissue growth. (wikipedia.org)
  • In 2014, peripheral supplementation of GDF11 protein (in mice) was shown to ameliorate the age-related dysfunction of skeletal muscle by rescuing the function of aged muscle stem cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • Alkaline phosphatase in E. coli is located in the periplasmic space and can thus be released using techniques that weaken the cell wall and release the protein. (wikipedia.org)
  • This was in agreement with previous data showing chondroitin sulfate GAG chains attached to bovine perlecan produced by chondrocytes and that recombinant human domain I protein was glycosylated with both heparan and chondroitin sulfate chains when expressed in Chinese Hamster Ovary cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • Beta-catenin was initially discovered in the early 1990s as a component of a mammalian cell adhesion complex: a protein responsible for cytoplasmatic anchoring of cadherins. (wikipedia.org)
  • neurons
  • One type of mechanically sensitive ion channel activates specialized sensory cells, such as cochlear hair cells and some touch sensory neurons, in response to forces applied to proteins. (wikipedia.org)
  • Expression
  • Expression of Foreign Genes in Cultured Insect Cells Using a Recombinant Baculovirus Vector. (barnesandnoble.com)
  • There are high levels of expression in the cerebellum and in the testis and surrounding tissues. (wikipedia.org)
  • On the contrary, its precursor, pre-miR-138-2, is ubiquitously expressed throughout all tissues, which suggests that the expression of miRNAs can be regulated at the post-transcription level. (wikipedia.org)
  • The presence of full-length PTPkappa in melanoma cells decreases the level of free-cytosolic β-catenin, which consequently reduces the level of nuclear β-catenin and reduces the expression of the β-catenin-regulated genes, cyclin D1 and c-myc. (wikipedia.org)
  • The expression 'pattern' of genes related to pluripotency in Muse cells was almost the same as that in ES and iPS cells, while the expression 'level' was much higher in ES and iPS cells and that in Muse cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • mechanism
  • At the same time, continued basic research to elucidate the underlying mechanism of stem cell therapy is clearly needed. (ahajournals.org)
  • For some cells, there is a mechanism by which cell division is not initiated until a cell has reached a certain size. (wikipedia.org)
  • Because the presence of PTPkappa at the cell membrane was shown to sequester β-catenin to the plasma membrane, these data suggest that one mechanism whereby PTPkappa functions as a tumor suppressor is by regulating the intracellular localization of free-β-catenin. (wikipedia.org)
  • It plays an important role during embryonal development as programmed cell death and accompanies a variety of normal involutional processes in which it serves as a mechanism to remove "unwanted" cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • pluripotent
  • Induced stem cells (iSC) are stem cells derived from somatic, reproductive, pluripotent or other cell types by deliberate epigenetic reprogramming. (wikipedia.org)
  • The researchers were able to identify the minimal conditions and factors that would be sufficient for starting the cascade of molecular and cellular processes to instruct pluripotent cells to organize the embryo. (wikipedia.org)
  • A muse cell (multi-lineage differentiating stress enduring cell) is a endogenous non-tumorigenic pluripotent stem cell. (wikipedia.org)
  • Pluripotent stem cells, which can generate various kinds of the cells representative of all three germ layers have the ability to self-renew. (wikipedia.org)
  • kidney
  • Primary Kidney Cells. (barnesandnoble.com)
  • This vaccine was made possible by the cell culture research of John Franklin Enders, Thomas Huckle Weller, and Frederick Chapman Robbins, who were awarded a Nobel Prize for their discovery of a method of growing the virus in monkey kidney cell cultures. (wikipedia.org)
  • pancreatic
  • PTPkappa interacts by co-immunoprecipitation with E-cadherin, α-catenin and β-catenin in pancreatic acinar cells prior to the dissolution of adherens junctions in a rat model of pancreatitis. (wikipedia.org)
  • The authors suggest that the presence of PTPkappa at the plasma membrane in association with the cadherin/catenin complex is important for the maintenance of adherens junction in pancreatic acinar cells, much as it was suggested above in melanoma cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • specifically
  • In cooperation with MTA1 (indicative for an association with the NuRD complex) represses transcription from CCND1/cyclin-D1 and CDKN1C/p57Kip2 specifically in quiescent cells. (genecards.org)
  • Tnmd mRNA was detected in eyes, more specifically in the sclerocornea, tendon of the extraocular muscle and the retinal ganglion cell layer, lens fibre cells, inner nuclear layer cells and pigment epithelium. (wikipedia.org)
  • Specifically, the cloned eukaryotic mechanosensitive channels include the K+ selective 2P domain channels and the recently cloned cation selective PIEZO family. (wikipedia.org)
  • development
  • In 1924 Spemann and Mangold demonstrated the key importance of cell-cell inductions during animal development. (wikipedia.org)
  • The role of telomeres and telomerase in cell aging and cancer was established by scientists at biotechnology company Geron with the cloning of the RNA and catalytic components of human telomerase and the development of a polymerase chain reaction (PCR) based assay for telomerase activity called the TRAP assay, which surveys telomerase activity in multiple types of cancer. (wikipedia.org)
  • The term cell growth is used in the contexts of biological cell development and cell division (reproduction). (wikipedia.org)
  • When used in the context of cell development, the term refers to increase in cytoplasmic and organelle volume (G1 phase), as well as increase in genetic material (G2 phase) following the replication during S phase. (wikipedia.org)
  • The historical development and methods of cell culture are closely interrelated to those of tissue culture and organ culture. (wikipedia.org)
  • Mice generated from these ES cells were viable, suggesting that PTPkappa phosphatase activity is not necessary for embryonic development. (wikipedia.org)
  • PTPkappa has also been shown to regulate CD4+ positive T cell development. (wikipedia.org)
  • PTPkappa likely regulates T-cell development by positively regulating ERK1/2 phosphorylation via the regulation of MEK1/2 and c-Raf phosphorylation. (wikipedia.org)
  • An intact death pathway is required for successful embryonic development and the maintenance of normal tissue homeostasis. (wikipedia.org)
  • muscular
  • The complex hierarchy of events that triggers muscle remodeling is often unbalanced in muscular diseases. (frontiersin.org)
  • In specialized cells of the higher organisms, other types of MSCs are probably the basis of the senses of hearing and touch and sense the stress needed for muscular coordination. (wikipedia.org)
  • organisms
  • Cell size is highly variable among organisms, with some algae such as Caulerpa taxifolia being a single cell several meters in length. (wikipedia.org)
  • All organisms, and apparently all cell types, sense and respond to mechanical stimuli. (wikipedia.org)
  • mitosis
  • Telomerase replaces short bits of DNA known as telomeres, which are otherwise shortened when a cell divides via mitosis. (wikipedia.org)
  • In fission yeast Schizosaccharomyces pombe (S. Pombe), cells divide at a defined, reproducible size during mitosis because of the regulated activity of Cdk1. (wikipedia.org)
  • endothelial
  • While studying the effect of proteoglycan composition on nephritic permselectivity, it was noted that puromycin treatment of human glomerular endothelial cells (HGEC) altered the sulfation level of GAG chains on proteoglycans such as perlecan, which in turn caused a decrease in the stability of the GAG chains. (wikipedia.org)
  • quiescent
  • Moreover, they can make this transition even in the absence of noticeable injuries and are capable of replenishing entire gastric units, in essence serving as quiescent "reserve" stem cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • reproductive
  • But I'm trying to understand if there is there anything inherently evil or anti-biblical about cloning (for reproductive purposes). (probe.org)
  • phosphorylation
  • When cells have reached sufficient size during G2, the phosphatase Cdc25 removes the inhibitory phosphorylation, and thus activates Cdc2 to allow mitotic entry. (wikipedia.org)
  • osmotic pressure
  • They can also regulate internal functions of our body including, but not limited to, osmotic pressure in cells, blood pressure in veins and arteries, micturition, and heart electrophysiology and contractility. (wikipedia.org)
  • telomerase
  • In normal circumstances, absent telomerase, if a cell divides recursively, at some point the progeny reach their Hayflick limit, which is believed to be between 50-70 cell divisions. (wikipedia.org)
  • Telomerase allows each offspring to replace the lost bit of DNA allowing the cell line to divide without ever reaching the limit. (wikipedia.org)
  • Embryonic stem cells express telomerase, which allows them to divide repeatedly and form the individual. (wikipedia.org)
  • Muse cells are characterized by low telomerase activity, not a strong indicator of tumorigenicity. (wikipedia.org)
  • artificial
  • Taking into account the advances in the isolation of new subpopulation of stem cells and in the creation of artificial stem cell niches, we discuss how these emerging technologies offer great promises for therapeutic approaches to muscle diseases and muscle wasting associated with aging. (frontiersin.org)
  • Most cells require a surface or an artificial substrate (adherent or monolayer culture) whereas others can be grown free floating in culture medium (suspension culture). (wikipedia.org)
  • suggests
  • The overall clinical experience also suggests that stem cell therapy can be safely performed, if the right cell type is used in the right clinical setting. (ahajournals.org)
  • Genes
  • It is part of a cluster of trypsinogen genes that are located within the T cell receptor beta locus. (genecards.org)