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  • germ
  • Normally a female germ cell begins to divide when it has about 150 cells - at this point stem cells can be harvested. (medicalnewstoday.com)
  • The SCNT-hES-1 cells displayed typical ES cell morphology and cell surface markers and were capable of differentiating into embryoid bodies in vitro and of forming teratomas in vivo containing cell derivatives from all three embryonic germ layers in severe combined immunodeficient mice. (sciencemag.org)
  • Orthologs of Oct-4 exist in humans and several other species including: Oct-4 contains the following protein domains: Oct-4 has been implicated in tumorigenesis of adult germ cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • In vertebrates, a special population of embryonic cells called the neural crest has been proposed as a "fourth germ layer", and is thought to have been an important novelty in the evolution of head structures. (wikipedia.org)
  • During organogenesis, molecular and cellular interactions between germ layers, combined with the cells' developmental potential, or competence to respond, prompt the further differentiation of organ-specific cell types. (wikipedia.org)
  • The presence of embryonic and foetal cells from all germ layers in the amniotic fluid was gradually determined since the 1980s. (wikipedia.org)
  • In 2007, it was confirmed that the amniotic fluid contains a heterogeneous mixture of multipotent cells after it was demonstrated that they were able to differentiate into cells from all three germ layers but they could not form teratomas following implantation into immunodeficient mice. (wikipedia.org)
  • genes
  • He'd like to see a library of cells created with those carefully chosen genes. (wunc.org)
  • Regenerative medicine generally refers to using cells and genes to artificially create tissues and organs and then transplanting them to regenerate physiological functions in patients. (childresearch.net)
  • By culturing ES cells and manipulating the genes in their nuclei, it is possible to develop them into the necessary tissues or organs. (childresearch.net)
  • Of these 13000 mutant genes, 8000 mutations in mouse ES Cells are 'targeted': that is, the mutation which knocks out gene function is inserted precisely into the genome. (wikipedia.org)
  • The 8000 genes selected for mutation in mouse ES cells were drawn from the total set of protein coding mouse genes, based on a rough metric of how easy the genes were to mutate, with the technologies present at the time the project started. (wikipedia.org)
  • A potential use of stem cells genetically matched to a patient would be to create cell lines that have genes linked to a patient's particular disease. (wikipedia.org)
  • For example, if a person with Parkinson's disease donated his or her somatic cells, the stem cells resulting from SCNT would have genes that contribute to Parkinson's disease. (wikipedia.org)
  • successfully
  • A number of studies have successfully demonstrated the viability of theoretical proposals previously offered by President Bush's Council on Bioethics to generate alternative sources of pluripotent cells, at least in the experimental setting. (yale.edu)
  • Also, in Korea in 2004, scientist Dr. Hwang Woo Suk published papers that indicated he had successfully cloned human embryos. (scribd.com)
  • Hwang first caught media attention in South Korea when he announced he successfully created a cloned dairy cow, Yeongrong-i in February 1999. (wikipedia.org)
  • insulin-secre
  • Specifically, this refers to efforts to culture, for example, skin for the treatment of burns, cornea for cataracts, myocardial cells for myocardial disorders, bone and cartilage for motor disorders, neurocytes for neurological disorders, insulin-secreting cells for diabetes, among others. (childresearch.net)
  • fetal
  • In January 2018, a team of scientists in Shanghai announced the successful cloning of two female crab-eating macaques (named Zhong Zhong and Hua Hua) from fetal nuclei. (wikipedia.org)
  • transplantation
  • Parkinsons, Alzheimers, diabetes and other degenerative diseases could be treated with cell transplantation of new and healthy cells. (ung.si)
  • world's
  • On November 2015, a Chinese biotech company Boyalife Group announced that it will partner with Hwang's laboratory, Sooam Biotech, to open the world's largest animal cloning factory in Tianjin as early as 2016. (wikipedia.org)
  • generate
  • Dr. Mitalipov said the technique was efficient enough that one donation - which can include multiple eggs - would probably be enough to generate a stem cell line, even accounting for failures. (nytimes.com)
  • The Potential of Stem Cells It may become possible to generate healthy heart muscle cells in the laboratory and then transplant those cells into patients with chronic heart disease. (slidesfinder.com)
  • differentiation
  • therefore, it is proposed that after directed cell differentiation, the cells could be transplanted without immune rejection to treat degenerative disorders such as diabetes, osteoarthritis, and Parkinson's disease (among others). (sciencemag.org)
  • too much or too little will cause differentiation of the cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • Gene knockdown of Oct-4 promotes differentiation, thereby demonstrating a role for these factors in human embryonic stem cell self-renewal. (wikipedia.org)
  • The intestinal dysplasia resulted from an increase in progenitor cell population and the upregulation of β-catenin transcription through the inhibition of cellular differentiation. (wikipedia.org)
  • AS their differentiation into neural and glial cells as well as hepatocyte precursors was observed. (wikipedia.org)
  • There is some debate whether c-Kit is a suitable marker to distinguish amniotic stem cells from other cell types because cells lacking c-Kit also display differentiation potential. (wikipedia.org)
  • neural
  • It was later deterimined that only two of these four factors, Oct4 and Klf4 were sufficient to reprogram mouse adult neural stem cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • Although those cells which expressed the markers were able to differentiate into muscle, adipogenic, osteogenic, nephrogenic, neural and endothelial cells, this did not necessarily occur from a homogenous population of undifferentiated cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • therapies
  • So ideally scientists would like to be able to extract DNA from the cells of older people - not just cells from infants - to create therapies for adult diseases. (wunc.org)
  • genetic
  • They repeated the process - this time starting with the genetic material extracted from the skin cells of a much older man. (wunc.org)
  • legislation
  • However, around the world, many countries began producing legislation that forbade human cloning. (scribd.com)
  • Though neither of these attempts were successful, both show that attempts on human cloning will still occur as long as there is no worldwide legislation. (scribd.com)
  • human cell
  • And with a bit of coaxing, these cells could, theoretically, be prodded to turn into any sort of human cell - nerve, heart, liver and pancreas, for example. (wunc.org)
  • scientists
  • In principle, scientists could produce a series of cell lines that would allow a close match for the majority of would-be cell recipients - just as transplant surgeons currently seek a close match for organ donors. (wunc.org)
  • Scientists in Oregon recently created patient-specific embryonic stem cells through cloning, an achievement that brings with it a number of ethical considerations. (utsw.edu)
  • fetus
  • In humans, a pregnancy is generally considered to be in the embryonic stage of development between the fifth and the eleventh weeks after fertilization, and is expressed as a fetus from the twelfth week. (wikipedia.org)
  • Human leukocyte antigen testing has been utilised to confirm that the MSCs stem from the fetus and not from the mother. (wikipedia.org)
  • lines
  • But he says this does mean we could be getting closer to being able to go beyond cloned cell lines to cloning an entire human being. (wunc.org)
  • Similarly, a "parthenote" (derived entirely from one parent) that does not have the potential to develop into a person might be a source of cell lines with potential comparable to that of embryonic stem cell lines. (yale.edu)
  • The disease specific stem cell lines could then be studied in order to better understand the condition. (wikipedia.org)
  • vitro
  • Even in the Petri dish, the fertilized egg created through in vitro fertilization continues to divide, with the number of cells doubling quickly. (childresearch.net)
  • viable
  • this approach has been championed as an answer to the many issues concerning embryonic stem cells (ESC) and the destruction of viable embryos for medical use, though questions remain on how homologous the two cell types truly are. (wikipedia.org)
  • Korean
  • Hwang's next claim came only two months later in April 1999, when he announced the cloning of a Korean cow, Jin-i, also without providing any scientifically verifiable data. (wikipedia.org)
  • nucleus
  • The technique works by removing the nucleus from an unfertilised egg and replacing it with the nucleus of a skin cell. (stem-cells-news.com)
  • The technique consists of taking an enucleated oocyte (egg cell) and implanting a donor nucleus from a somatic (body) cell. (wikipedia.org)
  • The nucleus of the donor egg cell is removed and discarded, leaving it 'deprogrammed. (wikipedia.org)
  • gene
  • This previously unidentified progenitor occurs as a temporally discrete population during ES cell differentiation, and differs from the preceding and succeeding populations in gene expression and differentiation potential, with the unique ability to form surface ectoderm in response to BMP4 signalling. (biologists.org)
  • Research applications such as gene editing, gene expression, and directed differentiation depend on the effective, efficient delivery of DNA, RNA and/or Cas9 protein complexes into stem cells. (thermofisher.com)
  • For gene editing, Lipofectamine Stem reagent allows the co-transfection of Cas9 protein complexed with guide RNAs along with single-stranded DNA for homology directed repair. (thermofisher.com)
  • In addition, Lipofectamine Stem reagent can be used for the transfection of mRNA for gene expression or directed differentiation studies using stem cells. (thermofisher.com)
  • The protein encoded by this gene is found in rod cells in the back of the eye and is essential for vision in low-light conditions. (genecards.org)
  • Other studies showed that lack of Daxx gene caused a higher apoptotic rate in embryonic stem cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • Although senescent cells can no longer replicate, they remain metabolically active and commonly adopt an immunogenic phenotype consisting of a pro-inflammatory secretome, the up-regulation of immune ligands, a pro-survival response, promiscuous gene expression (pGE) and stain positive for senescence-associated β-galactosidase activity. (wikipedia.org)
  • The protein encoded by this gene plays a role in the determination of cell fates during development. (wikipedia.org)
  • The numb gene protein product controls binary cell fate decisions in the peripheral and central nervous systems of both invertebrates and mammals during neurogenesis. (wikipedia.org)
  • mice
  • The experimental elimination of senescent cells from transgenic progeroid mice and non-progeroid, naturally-aged mice led to greater resistance against aging-associated diseases. (wikipedia.org)
  • After modifying the technique, Obokata was able to show that white blood cells from newborn mice could be transformed into cells that behaved much like stem cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • This was the first in a series of development that have begun to make rats tractable as genetic research subjects, although they still lag behind mice, which lend themselves better to the embryonic stem cell techniques typically used for genetic manipulation. (wikipedia.org)
  • Embryonic stem cells were isolated in mice in 1981, and in humans in 1998. (wikipedia.org)
  • Δ324 found at low levels in human and mouse cells - an alternative splice variant encoding an 88kDa protein lacking zinc fingers 6 and 7 Δ105 variant is unique to mice, and results in a protein truncated by 105 amino acids at the acidic C-terminus. (wikipedia.org)
  • Embryogenesis The role of EVI1 in embryogenesis and development is not completely understood, but it has been shown that EVI1 deficiency in mice is an embryonic lethal mutation, characterized primarily by widespread hypocellularity and poor/disrupted development of the cardiovascular and neural system. (wikipedia.org)
  • plasmid
  • Time-lapse phase-contrast (left) and fluorescence (right) movies of human ES cells (H9) grown in Essential 8 medium on vitronectin and transfected with 1 µL Lipofectamine Stem reagent complexed with a GFP-expression construct (500 ng total plasmid DNA). (thermofisher.com)
  • The goal of this study was to illustrate the versatility of Invitrogen Lipofectamine Stem Transfection Reagent, which was developed specifically for stem cells, to co-deliver multiple payloads in addition to large plasmid constructs with high transfection efficiency. (thermofisher.com)
  • (A) Human ES (H9) cells or Human Episomal iPSCs were transfected with Lipofectamine Stem Reagent or FuGENE HD Regent according to the accompanying protocol and either a 5 kb or 11 kb DNA plasmid expressing GFP and examined for GFP expression 24 hours posttransfection. (thermofisher.com)
  • In the bottom panel NCRM-iPS cells transfected using Lipofectamine Stem Reagent with a ~10.5 kb plasmid expressing Cas9 and GFP followed by detection via immunocytochemistry. (thermofisher.com)
  • embryos
  • Thus, in X. laevis embryos, the ectoderm is patterned by the secretion of BMP antagonists from the dorsal blastopore lip, or Spemann's organizer: BMP signalling is active ventrally, and induces the formation of surface ectoderm, whereas dorsal BMP signalling is inhibited, and the cells adopt a neural fate ( Hemmati-Brivanlou and Melton, 1997 ). (biologists.org)
  • Because Embryonic Stem (ES) cells are cultured from the embryoblast 4-5 days after fertilization, harvesting them is most often done from donated embryos from in vitro fertilization (IVF) clinics. (wikipedia.org)
  • Italy has a 2004 law that forbids all sperm or egg donations and the freezing of embryos, but allows, in effect, using existing stem cell lines that have been imported. (wikipedia.org)
  • In 2003, Spain's laws state that embryos left over from IVF and donated by the couple that created them can be used in research, including ES cell research, if they have been frozen for more than five years. (wikipedia.org)
  • this approach has been championed as an answer to the many issues concerning embryonic stem cells (ESC) and the destruction of viable embryos for medical use, though questions remain on how homologous the two cell types truly are. (wikipedia.org)
  • inducible
  • EF-1 alpha promoter versions of the Tet-On 3G Tetracycline Inducible Expression System provide for consistent long-term expression of the Tet-On 3G transactivator, even in cell types known for their tendency to silence a CMV promoter over time, such as hematopoietic cells and stem cells. (clontech.com)
  • This means that in these cell types long term tetracycline inducible expression can be achieved. (clontech.com)
  • When expressing the Tet-On 3G transactivator protein from the EF-1 alpha promoter, 83% of the Jurkat Tet-On 3G clones showed strong inducible expression and 33% demonstrated very high inducibility (greater than 2,000-fold). (clontech.com)
  • Human
  • (B) Human ES (H9) cells were transfected with Lipofectamine Stem Reagent or FuGENE HD Reagent according to the protocol with an mRNA expressing GFP. (thermofisher.com)
  • The United Nations Declaration on Human Cloning was a nonbinding statement against all forms of human cloning approved by a divided UN General Assembly. (wikipedia.org)
  • The UN Declaration on Human Cloning, as it is named, calls for all member states to adopt a ban on human cloning, which it says is "incompatible with human dignity and the protection of human life. (wikipedia.org)
  • Research is underway to generate stimulus-triggered acquisition of pluripotency (STAP) cells using human tissue: in February 2014, Charles Vacanti and Koji Kojima (Harvard researchers originally involved in the discovery and publication of STAP) claimed to have preliminary results of STAP cells generated from human fibroblasts, but concomitantly cautioned that these preliminary results require further analysis and validation. (wikipedia.org)
  • In human fertilization, a released ovum (a haploid secondary oocyte with replicate chromosome copies) and a haploid sperm cell (male gamete)-combine to form a single 2n diploid cell called the zygote. (wikipedia.org)
  • The role of telomeres and telomerase in cell aging and cancer was established by scientists at biotechnology company Geron with the cloning of the RNA and catalytic components of human telomerase and the development of a polymerase chain reaction (PCR) based assay for telomerase activity called the TRAP assay, which surveys telomerase activity in multiple types of cancer. (wikipedia.org)
  • After DNMT1 knockout in human cancer cells, these cells were found to retain their inherited methylation pattern, which suggests maintenance activity by the expressed DNMT3s. (wikipedia.org)
  • Some of the most common ones are: EVI_1a, EVI_1b, EVI_1c, EVI_1d, and EVI_3L are all variants in the 5' untranslated region, and all except EVI_1a are specific to human cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • Rp9 variant is quite common in human and mouse cells, lacks 9 amino acids in the repression domain. (wikipedia.org)
  • Cell cycle and differentiation In vitro experiments using both human and mouse cell lines have shown that EVI1 prevents the terminal differentiation of bone marrow progenitor cells to granulocytes and erythroid cells, however it favors the differentiation of hematopoietic cell to megakaryocytes. (wikipedia.org)
  • In human SCNT (Somatic Cell Nuclear Transfer) experiments, these eggs are obtained through consenting donors, utilizing ovarian stimulation. (wikipedia.org)
  • The second being a somatic cell, referring to the cells of the human body. (wikipedia.org)
  • Only a handful of the labs in the world are currently using SCNT techniques in human stem cell research. (wikipedia.org)
  • 1999
  • Going into the 1999 election with new leadership and executive, the party achieved limited media attention by conducting a demonstration at Queen's Park featuring three "cloned sheep" to represent Progressive Conservative leader Mike Harris, Liberal leader Dalton McGuinty and New Democratic Party leader Howard Hampton. (wikipedia.org)
  • nuclei
  • No expression of Daxx leads to malfunction of S phase and cells with two nuclei are formed. (wikipedia.org)
  • In January 2018, a team of scientists in Shanghai announced the successful cloning of two female crab-eating macaques (named Zhong Zhong and Hua Hua) from fetal nuclei. (wikipedia.org)
  • lethal
  • DNMT3A mutations are associated with poor overall survival, suggesting that they have an important common effect on the potential of AML cells to cause lethal disease. (wikipedia.org)
  • heterochromatin
  • The nucleus of senescent cells is characterized by senescence-associated heterochromatin foci (SAHF) and DNA segments with chromatin alterations reinforcing senescence (DNA-SCARS). (wikipedia.org)
  • development
  • It is also essential for development of nerval system by programmed cell death. (wikipedia.org)
  • When Daxx was not expressed or disrupted during embryonic development, it resulted in an early stage lethality. (wikipedia.org)
  • Through the processes of compaction, cell division, and blastulation, the conceptus takes the form of the blastocyst by the fifth day of development, just as it approaches the site of implantation. (wikipedia.org)
  • When the blastocyst hatches from the zona pellucida, it can implant in the endometrial lining of the uterus and begin the embryonic stage of development. (wikipedia.org)
  • Stem Cells and Development. (wikipedia.org)
  • Numb plays a crucial role in asymmetrical cell division during development, allowing for differential cell fate specification in the central and peripheral nervous systems. (wikipedia.org)
  • All of these involve erratic cellular development and differentiation in the bone marrow leading to dramatic alterations in the normal population of blood cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • Proteins
  • In both invertebrates and mammals, Numb is localized using the Pins/GαI complex and the PAR complex of Bazooka (Par3 in mammals), Par6, and aPKC (atypical protein kinase C). In the sensory organ precursor (SOP) cell, the PAR proteins localize to the posterior pole of the cell, and the Pins/GαI complex is localized to the anterior pole of the cell. (wikipedia.org)
  • cellular
  • Cellular senescence is the phenomenon by which normal diploid cells cease to divide. (wikipedia.org)
  • As such, cellular senescence represents a change in "cell state" rather than a cell becoming "aged" as the name confusingly suggests. (wikipedia.org)
  • Consistent with this, telomerase-immortalised cells continued to age (according to the epigenetic clock) without having been treated with any senescence inducers or DNA-damaging agents, re-affirming the independence of the process of epigenetic ageing from telomeres, cellular senescence, and the DNA damage response pathway. (wikipedia.org)
  • Mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA or mDNA) is the DNA located in mitochondria, cellular organelles within eukaryotic cells that convert chemical energy from food into a form that cells can use, adenosine triphosphate (ATP). (wikipedia.org)
  • Stem cells are cells found in most, if not all, multi-cellular organisms. (wikipedia.org)
  • eukaryotic cell
  • A zygote (from Greek ζυγωτός zygōtos "joined" or "yoked", from ζυγοῦν zygoun "to join" or "to yoke") is a eukaryotic cell formed by a fertilization event between two gametes. (wikipedia.org)
  • divisions
  • In normal circumstances, absent telomerase, if a cell divides recursively, at some point the progeny reach their Hayflick limit, which is believed to be between 50-70 cell divisions. (wikipedia.org)
  • Numb protein signaling plays a key role in binary cell fate decisions following asymmetric cell divisions. (wikipedia.org)
  • tumor cell
  • Additionally, our outcomes also claim that TRPC3 shows up as a fresh mediator of breasts cancer tumor cell migration/invasion and represents a potential focus on for a fresh course of anticancer agent. (cancercurehere.com)
  • Within this research, we discovered the functional appearance of TRPC3 in individual MCF-7 breasts cancer tumor cell-mediated Ca2+ entrance. (cancercurehere.com)
  • reagent
  • Cell routine evaluation After removal of methanol, cells had been treated having a Coulter DNA-Prep reagent package (Beckman-Coulter, France). (cancercurehere.com)
  • This newest addition to the Lipofectamine transfection reagent family helps ensure high-efficiency transfection while maintaining maximum cell viability and growth in an undifferentiated state. (thermofisher.com)
  • Lipofectamine Stem reagent offers expanded capabilities for stem cell transfection, making it possible to deliver DNA plasmids in sizes up to 11 kb. (thermofisher.com)
  • All of these attributes make this versatile reagent an ideal addition to your stem cell research tool kit and a readily accessible alternative to electroporation. (thermofisher.com)
  • Lipofectamine Stem Reagent outperforms FuGENE HD Reagent in pluripotent stem cell transfection, delivering both small and large DNA plasmids, mRNA, and Cas9 protein complexes. (thermofisher.com)
  • C, left) Lipofectamine Stem Reagent was used to transfect cells with Cas9 mRNA (modified)/ gRNA: Emx-1 crRNA (Exon2)-tracrRNA oligo/ GFP mRNA (modified) or Cas9 protein/gRNA: Emx-1 crRNA (Exon2)-tracrRNA oligo/ GFP mRNA (modified). (thermofisher.com)
  • genetically
  • These cells genetically matched the donor organism from which they came.This gives them the ability to create patient specific pluripotent cells, which could then be used in therapies or disease research. (wikipedia.org)
  • The resulting cells would be genetically identical to the somatic cell donor, thus avoiding any complications from immune system rejection. (wikipedia.org)
  • Invitrogen
  • MCF-7 cells had Danshensu been passaged onto coverslips in 500 l Opti-MEM (Invitrogen) 1 day before transfection and reached about 40C50% confluence during transfection. (cancercurehere.com)
  • whereas
  • Whereas Germany, Austria, Italy, Finland, Ireland, Portugal and the Netherlands prohibit or severely restrict the use of embryonic stem cells, Greece, Sweden, Spain and the United Kingdom have created the legal basis to support this research. (wikipedia.org)
  • subsequently
  • The technique for producing STAP cells was subsequently studied by Obokata at the Brigham and Women's Hospital (BWH), while she was studying as a post doc under Charles Vacanti, and then at the RIKEN Center for Developmental Biology in Japan. (wikipedia.org)
  • protein
  • Alkaline phosphatase in E. coli is located in the periplasmic space and can thus be released using techniques that weaken the cell wall and release the protein. (wikipedia.org)
  • The glycogen phosphorylase monomer is a large protein, composed of 842 amino acids with a mass of 97.434 kDa in muscle cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • diploid
  • The result of karyogamy is the formation of a diploid cell called zygote or zygospore. (wikipedia.org)
  • After approximately 30 hours from the time of fertilization, fusion of the pronuclei and immediate mitotic division produce two 2n diploid daughter cells called blastomeres. (wikipedia.org)
  • sperm
  • In seedless plants, the archegonium is usually flask-shaped, with a long hollow neck through which the sperm cell enters. (wikipedia.org)
  • adopt
  • One daughter cell, generally that receiving the Numb, is able to adopt a neuronal fate and innervate the developing nervous system. (wikipedia.org)
  • fate
  • The ability to form, recognize and manipulate the differentiation of definitive ectoderm is crucial to understanding the determination of cell fate in the ectoderm. (biologists.org)
  • A persistent question in developmental biology is how germ cell fate, with its characteristics of totipotency and immortality, is preserved in the context of somatic cell differentiation. (biologists.org)
  • This asymmetric division allows a daughter cell containing Numb to acquire a different fate than the other daughter cell. (wikipedia.org)
  • Numb exerts its functional role on cell fate decisions by antagonizing Notch signaling activities. (wikipedia.org)