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  • transplantation
  • Parkinsons, Alzheimers, diabetes and other degenerative diseases could be treated with cell transplantation of new and healthy cells. (ung.si)
  • Unlike sexual reproduction, during which a new organism is formed when the genetic material of the egg and sperm fuse, in nuclear transplantation cloning there is a single genetic "parent. (stemcellclinic.net)
  • Besides the ethical concerns of stem cell therapy (see stem cell controversy), there is a technical problem of graft-versus-host disease associated with allogeneic stem cell transplantation. (wikipedia.org)
  • According to a 2002 article in PNAS, "Human embryonic stem cells have the potential to differentiate into various cell types, and, thus, may be useful as a source of cells for transplantation or tissue engineering. (wikipedia.org)
  • germ layers
  • During organogenesis, molecular and cellular interactions between germ layers, combined with the cells' developmental potential, or competence to respond, prompt the further differentiation of organ-specific cell types. (wikipedia.org)
  • The presence of embryonic and foetal cells from all germ layers in the amniotic fluid was gradually determined since the 1980s. (wikipedia.org)
  • In 2007, it was confirmed that the amniotic fluid contains a heterogeneous mixture of multipotent cells after it was demonstrated that they were able to differentiate into cells from all three germ layers but they could not form teratomas following implantation into immunodeficient mice. (wikipedia.org)
  • produce cloned
  • The Conference of Catholic Bishops, for instance, said Wednesday that the research "will be taken up by those who want to produce cloned children as 'copies' of other people. (nytimes.com)
  • vitro
  • Even in the Petri dish, the fertilized egg created through in vitro fertilization continues to divide, with the number of cells doubling quickly. (childresearch.net)
  • The government of Canada defines a human clone as, "an embryo that, as a result of the manipulation of human reproductive material or an in vitro embryo, contains a diploid set of chromosomes obtained from a single - living or deceased - human being, foetus or embryo" (Health Canada). (scribd.com)
  • 2007. Cell cycle analysis and interspecies nuclear transfer of in vitro cultured skin fibroblasts of the Siberian tiger (Panthera tigris Altaica). (koreascience.or.kr)
  • They showed that opposing gradients of bone morphogenetic protein (BMP) and Nodal, two transforming growth factor family members that act as morphogens, are sufficient to induce molecular and cellular mechanisms required to organize, in vivo or in vitro, uncommitted cells of the zebrafish blastula animal pole into a well-developed embryo. (wikipedia.org)
  • Other potential uses of embryonic stem cells include investigation of early human development, study of genetic disease and as in vitro systems for toxicology testing. (wikipedia.org)
  • hESC
  • However, key challenges and concerns remain for human therapeutic cloning and for potential clinical application of NT-hESC. (ipscell.com)
  • If NT-hESC are only about the same as these other human pluripotent stem cells in terms of most key attributes then given the difficulty of making NT-hESC (even factoring in some anticipated improvements in technology) there would be little reason to make NT-hESC from a clinical perspective. (ipscell.com)
  • Human iPS cells were first reported in 2007 and thus have a 7-year head start on NT-hESC. (ipscell.com)
  • On the other hand, one might say that the regulatory and scientific hurdles cleared by both hESC-based products and human iPS cell products might pave the way for NT-hESC and speed their translation to the clinic. (ipscell.com)
  • When making iPS cells we start with proliferative somatic cells and can essentially use as many as we want (e.g. tens of millions), while in contrast when making NT-hESC each line must be derived using a separate human egg. (ipscell.com)
  • One of the headaches for the advocates of NT-hESC is that potentially each advance in making NT-hESC (therapeutic cloning) could unintentionally also make it easier for some crazy folks to try to actually clone a person (reproductive cloning or "Star Wars" type cloning). (ipscell.com)
  • insulin-secre
  • Specifically, this refers to efforts to culture, for example, skin for the treatment of burns, cornea for cataracts, myocardial cells for myocardial disorders, bone and cartilage for motor disorders, neurocytes for neurological disorders, insulin-secreting cells for diabetes, among others. (childresearch.net)
  • humans
  • In humans, a pregnancy is generally considered to be in the embryonic stage of development between the fifth and the eleventh weeks after fertilization, and is expressed as a fetus from the twelfth week. (wikipedia.org)
  • genetic
  • They repeated the process - this time starting with the genetic material extracted from the skin cells of a much older man. (wunc.org)
  • Nobel Prize-winning geneticist Joshua Lederberg advocated cloning and genetic engineering in an article in The American Naturalist in 1966 and again, the following year, in The Washington Post. (wikipedia.org)
  • differentiate
  • The cells in the outer cell mass become the placenta while the cells in the inner cell mass are pluripotent, meaning that they have the latent ability to differentiate and develop into all the different organs and tissues of the embryo's body. (childresearch.net)
  • After injury, mature terminally differentiated kidney cells dedifferentiate into more primordial versions of themselves and then differentiate into the cell types needing replacement in the damaged tissue Macrophages can self-renew by local proliferation of mature differentiated cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • Additionally, under defined conditions, embryonic stem cells are capable of propagating themselves indefinitely in an undifferentiated state and have the capacity when provided with the appropriate signals to differentiate, presumably via the formation of precursor cells, to almost all mature cell phenotypes. (wikipedia.org)
  • Although those cells which expressed the markers were able to differentiate into muscle, adipogenic, osteogenic, nephrogenic, neural and endothelial cells, this did not necessarily occur from a homogenous population of undifferentiated cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • sperm
  • In general, in organisms that reproduce sexually, an embryo develops from a zygote, the single cell resulting from the fertilization of the female egg cell by the male sperm cell. (wikipedia.org)
  • The purpose of the directives was to facilitate a safer and easier exchange of tissues and cells (including human eggs and sperm) between member states and to improve safety standards for European citizens. (wikipedia.org)
  • potential
  • Similarly, a "parthenote" (derived entirely from one parent) that does not have the potential to develop into a person might be a source of cell lines with potential comparable to that of embryonic stem cell lines. (yale.edu)
  • They are classified as either totipotent (iTC), pluripotent (iPSC) or progenitor (multipotent-iMSC, also called an induced multipotent progenitor cell-iMPC) or unipotent-(iUSC) according to their developmental potential and degree of dedifferentiation. (wikipedia.org)
  • The cells also have potential medical applications, especially in organ regeneration. (wikipedia.org)
  • At around the same time, it was determined that stem cells from the amniotic membrane also have multipotent potential. (wikipedia.org)
  • Another Nobel Laureate, James D. Watson, publicized the potential and the perils of cloning in his Atlantic Monthly essay, "Moving Toward the Clonal Man", in 1971. (wikipedia.org)
  • neural
  • In vertebrates, a special population of embryonic cells called the neural crest has been proposed as a "fourth germ layer", and is thought to have been an important novelty in the evolution of head structures. (wikipedia.org)
  • Musashi2 also appears to be expressed in stem cells and in a wide variety of tissues, including the bulge region of the hair follicle, immature pancreatic β-cells and neural progenitor cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • In neural cell lines, MSI2 protein, as well as its homologue MSI1, is exclusively located in the cytoplasm. (wikipedia.org)
  • In a similar way to MSI1, MSI2 is also active in the proliferation of pluripotent neural precursors cells of the embryo, during which both MSI1 and MSI2 are strongly co-expressed. (wikipedia.org)
  • Moreover, MSI1 and MSI2 regulate the multiplication and maintenance of a specific group inside of neural precursors cells: CNS (central neural system) stem cells populations. (wikipedia.org)
  • AS their differentiation into neural and glial cells as well as hepatocyte precursors was observed. (wikipedia.org)
  • world's
  • On November 2015, a Chinese biotech company Boyalife Group announced that it will partner with Hwang's laboratory, Sooam Biotech, to open the world's largest animal cloning factory in Tianjin as early as 2016. (wikipedia.org)
  • progenitor
  • Musashi2 is an RNA-binding protein expressed in neuronal progenitor cells, including stem cells, and both normal and leukemic blood cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • Haematopoietic progenitor cells were first reported to be present in the amniotic fluid in 1993, specifically up to the 12th week of pregnancy. (wikipedia.org)
  • GDF11 has been shown to suppress neurogenesis through a pathway similar to that of myostatin, including stopping the progenitor cell-cycle during G-phase. (wikipedia.org)
  • This cytokine also inhibits the proliferation of olfactory receptor neuron progenitors to regulate the number of olfactory receptor neurons occurring in the olfactory epithelium, and controls the competence of progenitor cells to regulate numbers of retinal ganglionic cells developing in the retina. (wikipedia.org)
  • GDF11 is also a negative regulator of neurogenesis, the production of islet progenitor cells, the regulation of kidney organogenesis, pancreatic development, the rostro-caudal patterning in the development of spinal cords, and is a negative regulator of chondrogenesis. (wikipedia.org)
  • hematopoietic cells
  • As Musashi2 is involved in the generation of hematopoietic cells, it is also linked with cancer pathologies: It has been found that MSI2 plays an important role in myeloid leukemia. (wikipedia.org)
  • concerns
  • Nonetheless, many of the concerns about cloning have focused on issues related to "playing God," interfering with the natural order of life, and somehow robbing a future individual of the right to a unique identity. (stemcellclinic.net)
  • These ethical concerns have prompted several nations to pass laws regarding human cloning and its legality. (wikipedia.org)