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  • biology
  • 2007. Interspecies nuclear transfer: implications for embryonic stem cell biology. (koreascience.or.kr)
  • However, a number of other features are needed, and a variety of specialised cloning vectors (small piece of DNA into which a foreign DNA fragment can be inserted) exist that allow protein production, affinity tagging, single stranded RNA or DNA production and a host of other molecular biology tools. (wikipedia.org)
  • In 1988, the center adds the Cooley Center for Cell and Molecular Biology to the campus, followed by the Animal Services Building in 1992. (wikipedia.org)
  • genes
  • He'd like to see a library of cells created with those carefully chosen genes. (wunc.org)
  • Regenerative medicine generally refers to using cells and genes to artificially create tissues and organs and then transplanting them to regenerate physiological functions in patients. (childresearch.net)
  • By culturing ES cells and manipulating the genes in their nuclei, it is possible to develop them into the necessary tissues or organs. (childresearch.net)
  • In most cases, isolated genes or cells are duplicated for scientific study, and no new animal results. (stemcellclinic.net)
  • In theory, the oocyte's cytoplasm would reprogram the transferred nucleus by silencing all the somatic cell genes and activating the embryonic ones. (sciencemag.org)
  • The encoded protein is transcriptional regulator that targets genes involved in development and cell cycle regulation. (wikipedia.org)
  • They form characteristic cell clusters in suspension culture that express a set of genes associated with pluripotency and can differentiate into endodermal, ectodermal and mesodermal cells both in vitro and in vivo. (wikipedia.org)
  • Cloning is commonly used to amplify DNA fragments containing whole genes, but it can also be used to amplify any DNA sequence such as promoters, non-coding sequences and randomly fragmented DNA. (wikipedia.org)
  • For any given cell type, these RNA and protein markers reflect the genes characteristically active in that cell type. (wikipedia.org)
  • Each of the cells in an embryo contains the same genome, characteristic of the species, but the level of activity of each of the many thousands of genes that make up the complete genome varies with, and determines, a particular cell's type (e.g. neuron, bone cell, skin cell, muscle cell, etc. (wikipedia.org)
  • germ layers
  • Embryonic stem cells of the inner cell mass are pluripotent, that is, they are able to differentiate to generate primitive ectoderm, which ultimately differentiates during gastrulation into all derivatives of the three primary germ layers: ectoderm, endoderm, and mesoderm. (wikipedia.org)
  • organism
  • Cloning in biotechnology refers to processes used to create copies of DNA fragments (molecular cloning), cells (cell cloning), or organisms (organism cloning). (wikipedia.org)
  • There are many cell markers useful in distinguishing, classifying, separating and purifying the numerous cell types present at any given time in a developing organism. (wikipedia.org)
  • As the embryo's cells grow in number and migrate, they also differentiate into an increasing number of different cell types, ultimately turning into the stable, specialized cell types characteristic of the adult organism. (wikipedia.org)
  • During embryo development (embryogenesis), many cell types are present which are not present in the adult organism. (wikipedia.org)
  • insulin-secre
  • Specifically, this refers to efforts to culture, for example, skin for the treatment of burns, cornea for cataracts, myocardial cells for myocardial disorders, bone and cartilage for motor disorders, neurocytes for neurological disorders, insulin-secreting cells for diabetes, among others. (childresearch.net)
  • sperm
  • The egg cell (ovum), after fertilization with a sperm cell, becomes the zygote, represented by the trunk at the very bottom of the tree. (wikipedia.org)
  • In general, in organisms that reproduce sexually, an embryo develops from a zygote, the single cell resulting from the fertilization of the female egg cell by the male sperm cell. (wikipedia.org)
  • world's
  • On November 2015, a Chinese biotech company Boyalife Group announced that it will partner with Hwang's laboratory, Sooam Biotech, to open the world's largest animal cloning factory in Tianjin as early as 2016. (wikipedia.org)
  • vitro
  • Even in the Petri dish, the fertilized egg created through in vitro fertilization continues to divide, with the number of cells doubling quickly. (childresearch.net)
  • 2007. Cell cycle analysis and interspecies nuclear transfer of in vitro cultured skin fibroblasts of the Siberian tiger (Panthera tigris Altaica). (koreascience.or.kr)
  • They showed that opposing gradients of bone morphogenetic protein (BMP) and Nodal, two transforming growth factor family members that act as morphogens, are sufficient to induce molecular and cellular mechanisms required to organize, in vivo or in vitro, uncommitted cells of the zebrafish blastula animal pole into a well-developed embryo. (wikipedia.org)
  • Other potential uses of embryonic stem cells include investigation of early human development, study of genetic disease and as in vitro systems for toxicology testing. (wikipedia.org)
  • differentiate
  • After injury, mature terminally differentiated kidney cells dedifferentiate into more primordial versions of themselves and then differentiate into the cell types needing replacement in the damaged tissue Macrophages can self-renew by local proliferation of mature differentiated cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • Additionally, under defined conditions, embryonic stem cells are capable of propagating themselves indefinitely in an undifferentiated state and have the capacity when provided with the appropriate signals to differentiate, presumably via the formation of precursor cells, to almost all mature cell phenotypes. (wikipedia.org)
  • Human embryonic stem cells are pluripotent, that is, they can differentiate into any of the cell types present in the adult human, and into any of the intermediate progenitor cell types that eventually turn into the adult cell lines. (wikipedia.org)
  • nucleus
  • An unfertilized egg with its nucleus removed is fused with a donor cell body tissue like the skin. (biotecharticles.com)
  • The technique works by removing the nucleus from an unfertilised egg and replacing it with the nucleus of a skin cell. (stem-cells-news.com)
  • The process involves sucking out the nucleus of a somatic (body) cell and injecting it into an oocyte that has had its nucleus removed Using an approach based on the protocol outlined by Tachibana et al. (wikipedia.org)
  • neural
  • Musashi2 also appears to be expressed in stem cells and in a wide variety of tissues, including the bulge region of the hair follicle, immature pancreatic β-cells and neural progenitor cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • In neural cell lines, MSI2 protein, as well as its homologue MSI1, is exclusively located in the cytoplasm. (wikipedia.org)
  • In a similar way to MSI1, MSI2 is also active in the proliferation of pluripotent neural precursors cells of the embryo, during which both MSI1 and MSI2 are strongly co-expressed. (wikipedia.org)
  • Moreover, MSI1 and MSI2 regulate the multiplication and maintenance of a specific group inside of neural precursors cells: CNS (central neural system) stem cells populations. (wikipedia.org)
  • One example is the transformation of iris cells to lens cells in the process of maturation and transformation of retinal pigment epithelium cells into the neural retina during regeneration in adult newt eyes. (wikipedia.org)
  • In vertebrates, a special population of embryonic cells called the neural crest has been proposed as a "fourth germ layer", and is thought to have been an important novelty in the evolution of head structures. (wikipedia.org)
  • potential
  • Similarly, a "parthenote" (derived entirely from one parent) that does not have the potential to develop into a person might be a source of cell lines with potential comparable to that of embryonic stem cell lines. (yale.edu)
  • They are classified as either totipotent (iTC), pluripotent (iPSC) or progenitor (multipotent-iMSC, also called an induced multipotent progenitor cell-iMPC) or unipotent-(iUSC) according to their developmental potential and degree of dedifferentiation. (wikipedia.org)
  • Additionally
  • Additionally, the cloning vectors may contain colour selection markers, which provide blue/white screening (alpha-factor complementation) on X-gal medium. (wikipedia.org)