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  • genes
  • Genes bound by SP1 are more likely to be expressed in the HCT116 cell line we used, and SP1-bound CpG islands show a strong preference to be unmethylated. (genetics.org)
  • We describe the use of PB calling cards to accurately and reproducibly map the target genes of the transcription factor SP1 in human cells. (genetics.org)
  • Finally, we are developing new ways of making conditional alleles of mammalian genes using synthetic ligands that we hope will bring about a new fusion of biochemical and genetic approaches to understanding and controlling fundamental biologic processes. (stanford.edu)
  • PcG proteins assemble into two Polycomb repressive complexes (PRC1 and PRC2) that are necessary for developmentally regulated transcriptional silencing of many genes crucial for early embryonic patterning ( 18 ). (pnas.org)
  • The researchers selected 24 genes--all previously found to play a role in early embryos and embryonic stem cell identity--as candidate factors that might give body cells the ability to become other cell types. (bio-medicine.org)
  • Background Cdx4 is a homeobox gene essential for normal blood formation during embryonic development in the zebrafish, through activation of posterior hox genes. (haematologica.org)
  • HSCs
  • Hematopoietic Stem Cells (HSCs) are characterized by their ability to both self-renew and give rise to all lineages of the blood system. (harvard.edu)
  • Nuclear OCT-4, SCA-1, and SSEA-1 coexpressing LIN - /CD45 - VSELs and slightly larger LIN - /CD45 + HSCs expressing cytoplasmic OCT-4 were identified and comprised 0.022 ± 0.002 % and 0.081 ± 0.004 % respectively of the total cells in BM. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Proteins
  • MEF2 proteins are highly expressed in cardiac myocytes and induce myogenesis from precursor cells ( Black and Olson, 1998 ). (jneurosci.org)
  • The monosaccharide addition of an N -acetylglucosamine to serine and threonine residues of nuclear and cytosolic proteins ( O -GlcNAc) is a posttranslational modification emerging as a general regulator of many cellular processes, including signal transduction, cell division, and transcription. (pnas.org)
  • To understand the role of OGT in mouse development better, we mapped sites of O -GlcNAcylation of nuclear proteins in mouse embryonic stem cells (ESCs). (pnas.org)
  • Here, we unambiguously identify over 60 nuclear proteins as O -GlcNAcylated, several of which are crucial for mouse ESC cell maintenance. (pnas.org)
  • On the other hand, recent reports showed that functional SR and SR proteins are already present in embryonic cardiomyocytes and contribute to the regulation of [Ca 2+ ] i transients ( 24 , 25 , 33 ). (physiology.org)
  • Cells are highly variable and specialized in both structure and function, although all must at some stage replicate proteins and nucleic acids, use energy, and reproduce themselves. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • zebrafish
  • Treatment of adult zebrafish with exogenous estrogen after ablation of the hematopoietic system by irradiation revealed that elevated estrogen levels improved hematopoietic regeneration. (harvard.edu)
  • Therefore, these results outline substantial differences in the Cdx-Hox axis between mammals and zebrafish and support the hypothesis that Cdx factors are functional redundancy during mammalian hematopoietic development under homeostatic conditions. (haematologica.org)
  • progenitors
  • the fetal stem cell marker, is expressed in three major cell types: vascular endothelial cells, aorta-associated hematopoietic clusters, and primitive fetal liver hematopoietic progenitors. (antibodybeyond.com)
  • Indeed, although an increase in white blood cell counts was observed, no significant difference in the distribution of mature blood cells, progenitors or stem cells were observed in Cdx4-deficient animals. (haematologica.org)
  • mouse
  • One day before transfection, mouse D3 ES cells were trypsinized and plated in DMEM plus 20% FBS and 1000 U/ml LIF in six-well tissue culture plates coated with gelatin at a density resulting in ∼90% confluency within 1 d. (jneurosci.org)
  • Meanwhile, cellular studies ongoing at Wistar revealed that MRL cells behaved very differently than cells from "non-healer" mouse strains in culture. (thinkatheist.com)
  • Snyder found that p21, a cell cycle regulator, was consistently inactive in cells from the MRL mouse ear. (thinkatheist.com)
  • The sole mouse O -GlcNAc transferase (OGT) is essential for embryonic development. (pnas.org)
  • A recent study provides more direct evidence showing that a majority (∼74%) of cytosolic Ca 2+ removal is mediated by SERCA in mouse embryonic cardiomyocytes 8.5-9.5 days old ( 32 ). (physiology.org)
  • a surface marker on mouse and rat male germline stem cells. (antibodybeyond.com)
  • highly expressed in mouse and human embryonic stem cells and one of several gene markers used to identify human stem cells. (antibodybeyond.com)
  • types
  • They are characterized by the ability to renew themselves through mitotic cell division and differentiating into a diverse range of specialized cell types. (medicalxpress.com)
  • In this review, we discuss the different stem cell types that are showing promise for nervous system tissue engineering in the context of peripheral nerve injury. (hindawi.com)
  • a neuroectodermal stem cell marker molecule, is expressed in Leydig cells of the human testis and in some specific cell types from human testicular tumours. (antibodybeyond.com)
  • The main distinction between the two cell types is the presence or absence of CD45 expression. (biomedcentral.com)
  • clinical
  • We also discuss some of the biological, practical, ethical, and commercial considerations in using these different stem cells for future clinical application. (hindawi.com)
  • germline
  • Design and Methods We inactivated Cdx4 in mice through either a germline or conditional knockout approach and analyzed requirement for Cdx4 in both normal adult hematopoiesis and leukemogenesis initiated by the MLL-AF9 fusion oncogene. (haematologica.org)
  • plasma
  • 1. any of the protoplasmic masses making up organized tissue, consisting of a nucleus surrounded by cytoplasm enclosed in a cell or plasma membrane. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • mammals
  • O -GlcNAcylation of the mammalian Ph homolog, PHL3, and a second mammalian PcG protein homolog, YY1, extends the relationship between OGT and PcG to mammals ( 19 - 21 ). (pnas.org)
  • Conclusion These observations indicate that Cdx4 is dispensable for the establishment and maintenance of normal hematopoiesis in adult mammals. (haematologica.org)
  • therapeutic
  • Finally such features may contribute to a better understanding of carcinogenesis under cancer embryonic stem celllike attractors theory and provide novel angles for cancer therapeutic interventions. (omicsonline.org)
  • mechanisms
  • Epigenetic control of gene expression lasts through multiple cell divisions without alterations in primary DNA sequence and can occur via mechanisms that include histone modification and DNA methylation. (stanford.edu)