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  • human embryonic
  • Human embryonic stem cells with biological and epigenetic characteristics similar to those of mouse ESCs. (addgene.org)
  • When James Thomson of the University of Wisconsin announced in 1998 that he had derived and cultured human embryonic stem cells(hESCs), Americans widely believed-and accepted-that stem cells would one day be the basis of a multitude of regenerative medical techniques. (asu.edu)
  • James Alexander Thomson, affectionately known as Jamie Thomson, is an American developmental biologist whose pioneering work in isolating and culturing non-human primate and human embryonic stem cells has made him one of the most prominent scientists in stem cell research. (asu.edu)
  • Spemann
  • Mangold conducted research for her dissertation 'On the Induction of Embryonic Primordia by Implantation of Organizers from Different Species' ('Ueber Induktion von Embryonanlagen durch Implantation artfremder Organisatoren'), under the guidance of Hans Spemann, a professor of zoology at the University of Freiburg. (asu.edu)
  • The first experiments proving induction were attributed by Viktor Hamburger to independent discoveries of both Hans Spemann of Germany in 1901 and Warren Lewis of the USA in 1904. (wikipedia.org)
  • It was Hans Spemann who first popularized the term "primary neural induction" in reference to the first differentiation of ectoderm into neural tissue during neurulation. (wikipedia.org)
  • An actual physical wave of contraction has been shown to originate from the precise location of the Spemann organizer which then traverses the presumptive neural epithelium and a full working model of how primary neural inductions was proposed in 2006. (wikipedia.org)
  • adult
  • An oocyte can reprogram an adult nucleus into an embryonic state after somatic cell nuclear transfer, so that a new organism can be developed from such cell. (wikipedia.org)
  • mesenchyme
  • Between February 1969 and August 1970 Edward Kollar and Grace Baird, from the University of Chicago in Chicago, Illinois, published three papers that established the role of the mesenchyme in tooth induction. (asu.edu)
  • During kidney ontogenesis, a reciprocal induction of the ureteric bud epithelium and nephrogenic mesenchyme occurs. (wikipedia.org)
  • hypothesis
  • Information concerning the changes in the synthetic patterns in the reacting tissue, which may be related to the induction, must be accumulated before we will be able to formulate a hypothesis on the mechanism of embryonic induction at a subcellular level. (biologists.org)
  • In 1962 he introduced the Association induction hypothesis (see below), which claims to be unifying, general theory of the living cell, and is an alternative and controversial hypothesis to the membrane and steady-state membrane pump theories, and three years later added the Polarized-Oriented Multilayer (PM or POM) theory of cell water. (wikipedia.org)
  • This early embryonic version of the Association induction hypothesis was called Ling's Fixed Charge Hypothesis (LFCH). (wikipedia.org)
  • In 1962 his first book entitled "A Physical Theory of the Living State: the Association-Induction Hypothesis. (wikipedia.org)
  • occurs
  • Demethylation of early embryogenesis occurs in the preimplantation period in two stages - initially in the zygote, then the first few embryonic replication cycles of morula and blastula. (wikipedia.org)
  • organs
  • In the book, Moore argues that regulation of sex differentiation in mammals is not controlled by sex hormones secreted by embryonic sex organs (gonads), but is controlled by non-hormonal genetic factors. (asu.edu)
  • somatic
  • Mice carrying SMAD4 somatic mutations, generated by Cre-loxP approach to overcome embryonic lethality of germline mutation, develop cancers in the liver, pancreas, colon, skin, and many other organ/tissues [ 20 - 26 ]. (ijbs.com)
  • gastrulation
  • Within these three layers exist many molecules, including members of TGF-β superfamily, their receptors and intracellular mediators that are important for initiation of gastrulation, head induction and patterning [ 3 - 11 ]. (ijbs.com)
  • cultures
  • The inductive effectiveness of various natural corticosteroids has been examined in organ cultures of embryonic retina and correlated with specific groupings on the steroid molecules. (sciencemag.org)
  • synthesis
  • The work reported in this paper represents an effort to obtain preliminary information concerning the possible changes in RNA synthesis correlated with primary embryonic induction using the autoradiographic technique. (biologists.org)
  • mechanical
  • The microtubules and microfilaments are in mechanical opposition in a proposed embryonic organelle they called the cell state splitter. (wikipedia.org)
  • however
  • However, the follow-up work of Johannes Holtfreter, Dorothy M. Needham and Joseph Needham, Conrad Waddington and others showed that organizers killed by boiling, fixing or freezing were also capable of causing induction. (wikipedia.org)