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  • embryo
  • Blastomeres of the early mouse embryo are thought to be equivalent in their developmental properties at least until the eight-cell stage. (biologists.org)
  • In conclusion, this study shows that while all four-cell blastomeres can have full developmental potential, they differ in their individual developmental properties according to their origin in the embryo from as early as the four-cell stage. (biologists.org)
  • Embryonic stem (ES) cells are derived from the embryo and are pluripotent, thus possessing the capability of developing into any organ or tissue type or, at least potentially, into a complete embryo. (google.es)
  • Thus
  • Thus, in embryos dividing in this way, the progeny of the earlier meridionally dividing cell contribute predominantly to the embryonic part of the blastocyst. (biologists.org)
  • human
  • Isolated human adult cardiomyocytes could be the best model for assessing drug-induced cardiotoxicity, while harvesting mature cardiomyocytes is restricted by some limitations such as biopsy size, cell numbers, viability, proliferative capacity and their disability to be passaged as a cell line. (sinaweb.net)
  • In the present study, human embryonic stem cell (hESC)-derived cardiomyocytes applied as a model for evaluation of doxorubicin cardiotoxicity. (sinaweb.net)
  • In a particularly advantageous embodiment, the cells of the preparation are human embryonic stem cells, have normal karyotypes, and continue to proliferate in an undifferentiated state after continuous culture for eleven months. (google.es)
  • study
  • This study also clarified the relationship between the order of blastomere division from the two- to four-cell stage, and the polarity of this embryonic-abembryonic axis ( Piotrowska and Zernicka-Goetz, 2002 ). (biologists.org)
  • different
  • We have therefore readdressed this issue having defined cell lineages in mouse embryos undergoing different patterns of cleavage in their second division cycle. (biologists.org)
  • Since in a major group of embryos (ME embryos) the progeny of individual four-cell blastomeres tends to follow different fates, the question arises as to whether they are equivalent to each other. (biologists.org)
  • For example, a hematopoietic stem cell may give rise to any of the different types of terminally differentiated blood cells. (google.es)
  • made
  • By contrast, chimaeras made from four-cell stage blastomeres from early meridional divisions develop normally. (biologists.org)
  • This is a landmark accomplishment for all of biology since we can now begin to investigate the phenomena that made cells come together and function in a complex multicellular system. (apsnet.org)
  • mouse
  • One of the seminal achievements of mammalian embryology of the last decade is the routine insertion of specific genes into the mouse genome through the use of mouse ES cells. (google.es)
  • Mouse ES cells are undifferentiated, pluripotent cells derived in vitro from preimplantation embryos (Evans, at al. (google.es)
  • Mouse ES cells maintain an undifferentiated state through serial passages when cultured in the presence of fibroblast feeder layers in the presence of Leukemia Inhibitory Factor (LIF) (Williams, et al. (google.es)
  • If LIF is removed, mouse ES cells differentiate. (google.es)
  • Mouse ES cells cultured in non-attaching conditions aggregate and differentiate into simple embryoid bodies, with an outer layer of endoderm and an inner core of primitive ectoderm. (google.es)
  • Mouse ES cells injected into syngeneic mice form teratocarcinomas that exhibit disorganized differentiation, often with representatives of all three embryonic germ layers. (google.es)
  • gene
  • They confirmed these findings by looking at SCLC cell lines in which five of seven lines examined showed similar activation of the Hedgehog pathway and Gli1 gene. (scienceblog.com)
  • The scientists discovered that vitamin C has the ability to change gene expression, accelerating the process of transforming adult stem cells into embryonic stem cells. (emaxhealth.com)
  • They have been transfected using liposomes with a commercial plasmid vector containing a reporter gene, thus suggesting a possible importance as an alternative expression system of recombinant vertebrate proteins in teleost cells. (sigmaaldrich.com)
  • MO-induced defects were rescued with ectopic expression of mouse NPC1, demonstrating functional gene conservation, and by treatments with steroids pregnenolone or dexamethasone, suggesting that reduced steroidogenesis contributed to abnormal cell movements. (luriechildrens.org)
  • Shoukhrat Mitalipov (Shoe-KHRAHT Mee-tuhl-EE-pov, Russian: Шухрат Музапарович Миталипов, born 1961) is an American biologist who heads the Center for Embryonic Cell and Gene Therapy at the Oregon Health & Science University in Portland. (wikipedia.org)
  • Center for Embryonic Cell and Gene Therapy. (wikipedia.org)
  • Undifferentiated embryonic cell transcription factor 1 is a protein in humans that is encoded by the UTF1 gene. (wikipedia.org)
  • Aberrant expression of UTF1 has also been reported in cervical cancer cells, where the UTF1 gene promoter loses methylation and becomes abnormally expressed compared to normal cervical cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • In developmental biology, midblastula or midblastula transition (MBT) is a stage during the blastula stage of embryonic development in which zygotic gene transcription is activated. (wikipedia.org)
  • tissues
  • Only cells in the nervous system and the imaginal cells that generate the adult body divide during larval stages, with larval tissues growing by increasing ploidy rather than cell number. (mit.edu)
  • As an embryo develops, its cells divide, grow and migrate in specific patterns to build an organized collection of cells that go on to form our tissues and organs. (elifesciences.org)
  • Cell death was found in anterior tissues of npc1 morphants at later stages, consistent with findings in mammals. (luriechildrens.org)
  • Genes
  • We identified mutations in the pavarotti (pav) and tumbleweed (tum) genes needed for cytokinesis by a phenotype of large and multinucleate cells in the embryonic epidermis and nervous system. (mit.edu)
  • We believe chronic injury to the lungs by cigarette smoking re-activates genes in the Hedgehog pathway to repair cell damage in the lining of the lungs. (scienceblog.com)
  • In this work we evaluated several genes involved in gluconeogenesis, glycolysis and glycogen metabolism, the major pathways for carbohydrate catabolism and anabolism, in the BME26 Rhipicephalus microplus embryonic cell line. (mdpi.com)
  • BME26 cells in media were investigated using three different glucose concentrations, and changes in the transcription levels of target genes in response to carbohydrate utilization were assessed. (mdpi.com)
  • In addition, RNAi data from this study revealed that the transcription of gluconeogenic genes in BME26 cells is controlled by GSK-3. (mdpi.com)
  • they discovered genes controlling cytokinesis and found features previously thought specific to plant cell division. (wikipedia.org)
  • Genes Cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • Since the cells are now transcribing their own DNA, this stage is where differential expression of paternal genes is first observed. (wikipedia.org)
  • 2017
  • Progenitors of inner cell mass are first morphologically apparent at the 16 cell stage as unpolarized cells residing inside the morula (reviewed in Frum and Ralston, 2017 ). (elifesciences.org)
  • metabolism
  • Collectively, these results improve our understanding of how glucose metabolism is regulated at the genetic level in tick cells. (mdpi.com)
  • The DNA of a cell is vulnerable to the damaging effect of oxidative free radicals produced as byproducts of cellular metabolism. (wikipedia.org)
  • It was proposed that, in order to avoid damage to the DNA genome of the oocytes, the metabolism contributing to the synthesis of much of the oocyte's constituents was shifted to other maternal cells that then transferred these constituents to oocytes. (wikipedia.org)
  • from regulation of cellular "house-keeping" such as cell cycle progression and cellular metabolism, to regulation of developmental processes such as fertilization, activation of zygotic transcription, and formation of body axes. (wikipedia.org)
  • The oocyte receives mitochondria from maternal cells, which will go on to control embryonic metabolism and apoptotic events. (wikipedia.org)
  • Research
  • With this news may end the controversy over keeping embryonic stem cells for research. (emaxhealth.com)
  • Some people have argued against the use of embryonic stem cell in research from aborted fetuses and the like. (emaxhealth.com)
  • The ongoing and regular assault to the lungs by cigarettes causes the usually dormant pathway to be stuck in activation mode making too many new cells, ultimately resulting in cancer," says Neil Watkins, Ph.D., research associate at the Kimmel Cancer Center and lead author of the study. (scienceblog.com)
  • This study represents one of the first attempts to therapeutically manipulate this cell pathway, and it's a perfect example of how basic developmental science can have clinical implications in a relatively short period of time," says Stephen B. Baylin, M.D., Ludwig professor of oncology and director of research at the Kimmel Cancer Center. (scienceblog.com)
  • Current research focuses on differentiating ES into a variety of cell types for eventual use as cell replacement therapies (CRTs). (wikipedia.org)
  • However, the derivation of such cell types from ESs is not without obstacles and hence current research is focused on overcoming these barriers. (wikipedia.org)
  • He earned his Ph.D. in developmental and stem cell biology from the Research Centre of Medical Genetics in Moscow. (wikipedia.org)
  • White's research investigates cell division in the nematode Caenorhabditis elegans. (wikipedia.org)
  • He studied the role of cell-cell interaction in determining the lineage pattern, stimulating a wide field of research. (wikipedia.org)
  • involves
  • The company's treatment involves turning embryonic cells into another type of cell, which helps nerve fibers replace myelin, a fatty insulating substance that often gets stripped away when spines are injured, inhibiting the body's ability to transmit sensory signals. (mercurynews.com)
  • spinal injuries
  • If the treatment from Geron works, it "would be revolutionary," said Dr. Richard Fessler, a neurological surgeon at Northwestern University, who will lead the study of a stem-cell treatment designed to be injected into patients with spinal injuries to restore their motor function. (mercurynews.com)
  • protein
  • The mutations causing truncation of the protein affect cell fate of the NB6-4 neuroblast, whereas the weak missense mutation has no effect. (mit.edu)
  • They have discovered the key protein, called Tet1, that helps stem cells stay stem cells. (emaxhealth.com)
  • Strikingly, MEK1 appeared to control the asymmetric inheritance of Ventx2 protein following cell division. (xenbase.org)
  • UTF1 protein is localized to the cell nucleus, where it functions to regulate the pluripotent chromatin state and buffer mRNA levels by promoting degradation of mRNA. (wikipedia.org)
  • Members of this protein family regulate translation of cyclin B1 during embryonic cell divisions. (wikipedia.org)
  • The exact method by which the cell achieves this control is unknown, but it is thought to involve a cytosolic protein. (wikipedia.org)
  • development
  • Oocytes are rich in cytoplasm, which contains yolk granules to nourish the cell early in development. (wikipedia.org)
  • Blaschko's lines, also called the lines of Blaschko, named after Alfred Blaschko, are lines of normal cell development in the skin. (wikipedia.org)
  • Non-CpG methylation can however be observed in embryonic stem cells, and has also been indicated in neural development. (wikipedia.org)
  • transcription
  • Optimal modulation of both CAF-1 and transcription factor levels increases reprogramming efficiency by several orders of magnitude and facilitated iPS cell formation in as little as 4 days. (wikipedia.org)
  • mRNA
  • 9. The method of claim 1 , wherein said Smad4 is inhibited by overexpressing small interfering RNA complementary to the mRNA encoding Smad4 in said pluripotent cells. (google.com)
  • The mRNA is localised in different parts of the oocyte, so that as the embryo divides it is segregated into different cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • germ cell
  • An oocyte (UK: /ˈoʊəsʌɪt/, US: /ˈoʊ.oʊ.saɪt/), oöcyte, ovocyte, or rarely ocyte, is a female gametocyte or germ cell involved in reproduction. (wikipedia.org)
  • The female germ cells produce a primordial germ cell (PGC), which then undergoes mitosis, forming oogonia. (wikipedia.org)
  • fate
  • These permitted us to investigate the requirements for Cyclin E function in neuroblast cell fate determination, a role previously shown for a null Cyclin E allele. (mit.edu)
  • Yet, Sox2 is more sensitive than Cdx2 to Yap1/Wwtr1 dosage, leading cells to a state of conflicted cell fate when YAP1/WWTR1 activity is moderate. (elifesciences.org)
  • Remarkably, HIPPO signaling activity resolves conflicted cell fate by repositioning cells to the interior of the embryo, independent of its role in regulating Sox2 expression. (elifesciences.org)
  • epigenetic
  • Several studies have shown that the interaction between CAF-1 and PCNA, which stabilizes CAF-1 at replication forks, is important for CAF-1's role in nucleosome assembly CAF-1 is required for the spatial organization and epigenetic marking of heterochromatin domains in pluripotent embryonic cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • viable
  • Five new alleles of Cyclin E were recovered, ranging from a missense mutation that is viable to stop codons causing embryonic lethality. (mit.edu)
  • It has been shown that if the embryo of this starfish is dissociated into its constituent cells, a collection of these cells is capable of re-aggregation into a viable bipinnaria larva. (wikipedia.org)
  • multipotent
  • Self-renewing and multipotent stem cells provide a source of transplantable material to replace post-mitotic neurons that do not spontaneously regenerate after injury. (google.com)
  • found
  • The trial began in 2010 after being delayed by the FDA because cysts were found on mice injected with these cells, and safety concerns were raised. (wikipedia.org)
  • neurons
  • Some of the cell types that have or are currently being developed include cardiomyocytes (CM), neurons, hepatocytes, bone marrow cells, islet cells and endothelial cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • Suppression of CAF-1 also enhance the direct conversion of B cells into macrophages and fibroblasts into neurons. (wikipedia.org)
  • fetal
  • Components and strategies Cell lifestyle MCF-7 cells had been grown up in DMEM moderate filled with 10% fetal leg serum and 1% penicillin/streptomycin serum as defined (9). (cancercurehere.com)
  • The permanent organs of the adult are preceded by a set of structures which are purely embryonic, and which with the exception of the ducts disappear almost entirely before the end of fetal life. (wikipedia.org)
  • Structures
  • These embryonic structures are the mesonephric ducts (also known as Wolffian ducts) and the paramesonephric ducts, (also known as Müllerian ducts). (wikipedia.org)
  • At the level of the cell, Daxx is found in the cytoplasm, interacting with Fas-receptor or other cytoplasmic molecules, as well as in the nucleus, where it is interacting with some subnuclear structures. (wikipedia.org)
  • Osteoprogenitor cells can be identified by their associations with existing bone or cartilage structures, or their placement in the embryo, as the sites for osteogenesis and chondrogenesis are now known. (wikipedia.org)
  • nucleus
  • The response to platelet-rich plasma was greater in the case of anulus fibrosus cells than of nucleus pulposus cells. (blogspot.com)
  • ASK1 will be transported to the nucleus when UV-irradiation is used to treat the cell. (wikipedia.org)
  • The nucleus of senescent cells is characterized by senescence-associated heterochromatin foci (SAHF) and DNA segments with chromatin alterations reinforcing senescence (DNA-SCARS). (wikipedia.org)
  • most of the DNA can be found in the cell nucleus and, in plants and algae, also in plastids such as chloroplasts. (wikipedia.org)
  • In the cells of extant organisms, the vast majority of the proteins present in the mitochondria (numbering approximately 1500 different types in mammals) are coded for by nuclear DNA, but the genes for some, if not most, of them are thought to have originally been of bacterial origin, having since been transferred to the eukaryotic nucleus during evolution. (wikipedia.org)
  • In bacteria, which lack a cell nucleus, the cell cycle is divided into the B, C, and D periods. (wikipedia.org)
  • In cells with a nucleus, as in eukaryotes, the cell cycle is also divided into three periods: interphase, the mitotic (M) phase, and cytokinesis. (wikipedia.org)
  • Interphase is a series of changes that takes place in a newly formed cell and its nucleus, before it becomes capable of division again. (wikipedia.org)
  • proteins
  • Genetic combinatorial marking using lentiviral vectors encoding fluorescent proteins (FPs) enabled cell fate mapping through advanced microscopy imaging. (jove.com)
  • In this phase, the cell increases its supply of proteins, increases the number of organelles (such as mitochondria, ribosomes), and grows in size. (wikipedia.org)
  • hematopoietic
  • We developed and validated a fluorescent marking methodology for clonal tracking of hematopoietic stem and progenitor cells (HSPCs) with high spatial and temporal resolution to study in vivo hematopoiesis using the murine bone marrow transplant experimental model. (jove.com)
  • Src, Fyn and Yes are expressed ubiquitously in all cell types while the others are generally found in hematopoietic cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • stem cell
  • In a statement released Aug. 20, the archdiocese voiced concerns over the ALS Association's support of embryonic stem-cell research, which requires the destruction of a human life. (ncregister.com)
  • Embryonic stem-cell research, which involves the destruction of a unique human being in an attempt to cure different diseases, has proven not only destructive and costly, but has not produced a cure. (ncregister.com)
  • The administration ignored the promising results from adult stem cell therapies. (orthodoxnet.com)
  • Science is on the side of embryonic stem cell research, the president argued. (orthodoxnet.com)
  • we will lift the ban on federal funding for promising embryonic stem cell research. (orthodoxnet.com)
  • For the National Institutes of Health, Trump and the Republican-led Congress are likely to revisit funding for embryonic stem cell research and to take a closer look at restricting gene editing. (northeastern.edu)
  • He has performed and published research in men's reproductive health issues including genetic infertility, ejaculatory duct obstruction, immunologic infertility, quality of life issues with infertility, testis cancer and stem cell science, and has developed several techniques for evaluating and treating male infertility. (wikipedia.org)
  • Essential stem cell methods. (wikipedia.org)
  • senescent cells
  • Although senescent cells can no longer replicate, they remain metabolically active and commonly adopt an immunogenic phenotype consisting of a pro-inflammatory secretome, the up-regulation of immune ligands, a pro-survival response, promiscuous gene expression (pGE) and stain positive for senescence-associated β-galactosidase activity. (wikipedia.org)
  • The word "post-mitotic" is sometimes used to refer to both quiescent and senescent cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • regulation
  • It is involved in the regulation of adenine nucleotide composition within a cell by catalyzing the reversible transfer of the terminal phosphate group between ATP and AMP. (mybiosource.com)
  • Germ
  • In addition, post-meiotic germ cells undergo a dramatic morphological reshaping process as well as a global epigenetic reconfiguration of the germ line chromatin-the histone-to-protamine switch. (jove.com)
  • pathway
  • This pathway normally regulates stress-induced cell death. (wikipedia.org)
  • When the cell is treated with TGF-β, HIPK2, a nuclear kinase, phosphorylates Daxx and the activated Daxx in turn activates the JNK pathway (see "The Daxx Pathway" figure). (wikipedia.org)
  • Consistent with this, telomerase-immortalised cells continued to age (according to the epigenetic clock) without having been treated with any senescence inducers or DNA-damaging agents, re-affirming the independence of the process of epigenetic ageing from telomeres, cellular senescence, and the DNA damage response pathway. (wikipedia.org)
  • Knock out of the entire pathway results in early embryonic death, therefore most research of this nature utilised conditional knockouts of the pathway. (wikipedia.org)
  • stages
  • To promote the long-term culture of the embryonic heart at late stages of gestation, we developed a protocol in which the excised heart is cultured in a semi-solid, dilute Matrigel. (jove.com)
  • Although the various stages of interphase are not usually morphologically distinguishable, each phase of the cell cycle has a distinct set of specialized biochemical processes that prepare the cell for initiation of cell divisions. (wikipedia.org)
  • tumor
  • Exogenous PUFA and a TRPC3 antagonist regularly attenuated breasts cancer tumor cell proliferation and migration, recommending a mechanism where PUFA restrains the breasts cancer partially via its inhibition of TRPC stations. (cancercurehere.com)
  • Additionally, our outcomes also claim that TRPC3 shows up as a fresh mediator of breasts cancer tumor cell migration/invasion and represents a potential focus on for a fresh course of anticancer agent. (cancercurehere.com)
  • Within this research, we discovered the functional appearance of TRPC3 in individual MCF-7 breasts cancer tumor cell-mediated Ca2+ entrance. (cancercurehere.com)
  • Ca2+ entrance via turned on TRPC was improved when PUFA had been absent, recommending a double-gating system for Danshensu TRPC which may be involved with MCF breasts cancer tumor cell proliferation and invasion. (cancercurehere.com)
  • Cellular
  • Cellular senescence is the phenomenon by which normal diploid cells cease to divide. (wikipedia.org)
  • As such, cellular senescence represents a change in "cell state" rather than a cell becoming "aged" as the name confusingly suggests. (wikipedia.org)
  • Mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA or mDNA) is the DNA located in mitochondria, cellular organelles within eukaryotic cells that convert chemical energy from food into a form that cells can use, adenosine triphosphate (ATP). (wikipedia.org)
  • research
  • Turek is a recent recipient of National Institutes of Health (NIH) grant for research designed to help infertile men become fathers using stem cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • regulates
  • TGF-β determines and regulates cell lineages during endochondral ossification through Sox9 and Runx2 signalling pathways. (wikipedia.org)
  • growth
  • AK1 is a small ubiquitous enzyme which is essential for maintenance and cell growth. (mybiosource.com)
  • Specifically, hydrogen cyanamide stimulates cell division and growth in dormant plants, causing budbreak when the plant is on the edge of breaking dormancy. (wikipedia.org)
  • lineage
  • The positioning of the osteoprogenitor cell condensations determines the cell lineage before the signalling molecules can. (wikipedia.org)
  • mitosis
  • During interphase, the cell grows, accumulating nutrients needed for mitosis, preparing it for cell division and duplicating its DNA. (wikipedia.org)
  • The cell cycle consists of four distinct phases: G1 phase, S phase (synthesis), G2 phase (collectively known as interphase) and M phase (mitosis). (wikipedia.org)
  • early
  • Nuclear and mitochondrial DNA are thought to be of separate evolutionary origin, with the mtDNA being derived from the circular genomes of the bacteria that were engulfed by the early ancestors of today's eukaryotic cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • A morula (Latin, morus: mulberry) is an early stage embryo consisting of cells (called blastomeres) in a solid ball contained within the zona pellucida. (wikipedia.org)
  • modification
  • Adjustments in the Ca2+ focus had been indicated as F/F, where F was the fluorescence strength when cells had been at rest, and F was the modification in fluorescence during excitement. (cancercurehere.com)
  • tubular
  • Each arises on the lateral aspect of the corresponding mesonephric duct as a tubular invagination of the cells lining the abdominal cavity. (wikipedia.org)
  • nerve
  • In epilepsy, nerve cells in the brain signal abnormally and cause repeated seizures that can include strange sensations, severe muscle spasms and loss of consciousness. (innovations-report.com)
  • Internal to this peripheral region is the grey matter, which contains the nerve cell bodies arranged in the three grey columns that give the region its butterfly-shape. (wikipedia.org)
  • state
  • Cells that have temporarily or reversibly stopped dividing are said to have entered a state of quiescence called G0 phase. (wikipedia.org)
  • processes
  • M phase is itself composed of two tightly coupled processes: karyokinesis, in which the cell's chromosomes are divided, and cytokinesis, in which the cell's cytoplasm divides forming two daughter cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • activation
  • Cells can also be induced to senesce via DNA damage in response to elevated reactive oxygen species (ROS), activation of oncogenes and cell-cell fusion, independent of telomere length. (wikipedia.org)
  • cancer
  • Eight medical organizations and a bioethics journal recognize the independent link - that abortion leaves a woman with more cancer-vulnerable cells than she had before she became pregnant. (pfli.org)
  • Genetic mutations that cause cancer also weaken cancer cells, allowing researchers to develop drugs that will selectively kill them. (ucsd.edu)
  • This discovery changed the current thinking about cancer from a model wherein cancer is caused by a foreign substance (a viral gene) to one where a gene that is normally present in the cell can cause cancer. (wikipedia.org)
  • fertilization
  • A morula is distinct from a blastocyst in that a morula (3-4 days post fertilization) is a 16-cell mass in a spherical shape whereas a blastocyst (4-5 days post fertilization) has a cavity inside the zona pellucida along with an inner cell mass. (wikipedia.org)
  • Within a few days after fertilization, cells on the outer part of the morula become bound tightly together with the formation of desmosomes and gap junctions, becoming nearly indistinguishable. (wikipedia.org)