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  • embryonic stem
  • To investigate the role of Tal1 in blood development, we mixed embryonic stem cells carrying the mutated Tal1 gene with very early normal embryos to make chimaeras," explained Professor Jenny Nichols, group leader at the Wellcome-MRC Cambridge Stem Cell Institute. (phys.org)
  • However, cell pluripotency is a continuum, ranging from the completely pluripotent cell that can form every cell of the embryo proper, e.g., embryonic stem cells and iPSCs (see below), to the incompletely or partially pluripotent cell that can form cells of all three germ layers but that may not exhibit all the characteristics of completely pluripotent cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • These induced cells exhibit similar traits to those of embryonic stem cells (ESCs) but do not require the use of embryos. (wikipedia.org)
  • While a fellow at the Imperial Cancer Research Fund, (now Cancer Research UK) laboratory in Oxford, Beddington and Elizabeth Robertson recognised the potential of embryonic stem cells for the study of genetic manipulation after demonstrating the ability of these cells to colonise developing embryos. (wikipedia.org)
  • Like Cdx2-null embryos, the Tead4-null embryos can yield embryonic stem cells, indicating that Tead4 is dispensable for ICM specification. (wikipedia.org)
  • gastrulation
  • This new research provides fundamentally important information on how mammalian embryos develop during gastrulation, a key stage of development, and paves the way for new understanding of the earliest stages of life. (phys.org)
  • Gastrulation represents the process in animal (and human) development whereby precursor cells in the embryo become genetically programmed to generate all of the different organs in the body, including the brain, heart, lungs, gut and muscles. (phys.org)
  • Gastrulation is a critically important step in embryo development, however, detailed understanding of this process at the molecular level has, until now, been limited. (phys.org)
  • Micropatterned differentiation of mouse pluripotent stem cells gives rise to regionally distinct cell types arising in embryos at gastrulation. (elifesciences.org)
  • Her demonstration of the self-organisation of human embryos developing in vitro until day 13/14, gastrulation, has provided an unprecedented opportunity to study our own development at previously inaccessible and critical stages. (wikipedia.org)
  • bovine embryos
  • Publications] SEIKE,N: 'Production and development of calves from sexed-bisected bovine embryos' Jpn.J.Vet.Res.38. (nii.ac.jp)
  • There is variation between species of mammals as to number of cells at compaction with bovine embryos showing differences related to compaction as early as 9-15 cells and in rabbits not until after 32 cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • preimplantation mouse
  • At that time, she also began to trace the origins and destinies of cells in the preimplantation mouse embryo that let her to discover that cell fate specification begins earlier than expected, at the time an unexpected discovery but subsequently validated by her group and others. (wikipedia.org)
  • epiblast
  • The hypoblast contributes to extraembryonic membranes and the epiblast will give rise to the ultimate embryo proper as well as some extraembryonic tissues. (wikipedia.org)
  • mouse
  • Targeted disruption of genes in the mouse that result in failure of the emergence or maturation of the primitive erythroid lineage leads to early fetal death, indicating that the primitive erythroid lineage is necessary for survival of the mammalian embryo. (ehu.es)
  • These two vitrification solutions gave not only a high in-vitro survival for mouse and cattle embryos, but also resulted in many offspring, both mice and calves, after the transfer of vitrified-warmed embryos to recipient animals. (nii.ac.jp)
  • Regarding the cloning of embryos, we have done a lot of experiments using mouse oocytes and embryos to determine the factors affecting reprograming of nuclear tranplanted embryos. (nii.ac.jp)
  • Publications] Cheong HT: 'Effects of various electric fields on tha fusion and in vitro development of mouse two-cell embryos. (nii.ac.jp)
  • Publications] Cheong HT: 'Developmental capacity of reconstituted mouse embryos:influences of nuceus and cytoplasm souces. (nii.ac.jp)
  • Publications] ISHIMORI,H: 'Viability of vitrified mouse embryos using various cryoprotectant mixtures. (nii.ac.jp)
  • Absence of Nodal signaling promotes precocious neural differentiation in the mouse embryo. (semanticscholar.org)
  • In the present studies, attempts were made to define the redox regulation in i … More n vitro development of early mouse embryos. (nii.ac.jp)
  • Cloning experiments of the protein revealed that it is a novel pre-mRNA splicing factor in mammals, and immunofluorescense experiments revealed that it is also stage -specifically accumulated in the nuclei of late 1-cell mouse embryos. (nii.ac.jp)
  • By use of culture techniques the precise concentrations of exogenous glucose causing morphological and biochemical changes are defined for a range of developmental stages in both rat and mouse embryos. (ehu.es)
  • Biro and his colleagues used advanced imaging techniques to study live, fully intact mouse embryos as they developed in a Petri dish and found that rings of the protein actin form across the ball of cells and help to zipper the embryo closed in a multistep process. (the-scientist.com)
  • As a graduate student at the University of Warsaw in the 1950s, Tarkowski found that destroying one cell of a two-cell mouse embryo did not stop the mouse from developing normally, "a finding that had important implications for the development of prenatal genetic tests in humans," The Telegraph reported. (the-scientist.com)
  • Then, during a short stint at University College of North Wales (now Bangor University), Tarkowski generated the first chimeric mouse embryos, which still serve as an important tool in biological research today. (the-scientist.com)
  • This hypothesis remains "a central tenet of mammalian development," wrote Zernicka-Goetz, who once attended a lecture by Tarkowski on mouse embryo plasticity and, upon his request, attempted to make mouse-vole chimeras. (the-scientist.com)
  • In the 1980s, Tarkowski developed a technique to analyze chromosome structure in mouse oocytes using an electric current to fuse two-cell embryos together. (the-scientist.com)
  • A team of biologists, physicists and mathematical modellers in Cambridge have studied the genetic activity of over 100,000 embryonic cells to establish the molecular blueprint of mouse early embryo development. (phys.org)
  • Measuring the genetic activity in 116,312 single cells within the mouse embryo between 6.5 to 8.5 days after fertilisation, the researchers have established the molecular blueprint for mammalian embryonic development. (phys.org)
  • The researchers used cutting-edge single-cell technology to measure which genes are activated in the mouse embryo across a number of sequential time-points. (phys.org)
  • 1959). "Response of the very early mouse embryo to low levels of ionizing radiations. (wikipedia.org)
  • Stem cells resembling totipotent blastomeres from 2-cell stage embryos can arise spontaneously in mouse embryonic stem cell cultures and also can be induced to arise more frequently in vitro through down-regulation of the chromatin assembly activity of CAF-1. (wikipedia.org)
  • Beddington taught at the newly established Cold Spring Harbor Laboratories summer course on manipulating the mouse embryo from 1986, including two years as co-organiser with Robertson. (wikipedia.org)
  • To achieve this, she was first to establish RNA interference in mammalian cells to determine cell fate in the mouse embryos. (wikipedia.org)
  • Her recent development of systems permitting for the first time both mouse and human embryogenesis during implantation and early post-implantation stages in vitro allowed her to reveal that mouse and human embryo remodelling at implantation is entirely embryo autonomous. (wikipedia.org)
  • Her lab found genrated an experimental model to find that aneuploid cells arising during embryogenesis in the mouse embryo become eliminated by apoptosis in embryonic but not extra-embryonic tissues. (wikipedia.org)
  • Specifically, she uses cellular and genetic manipulation techniques to study how genetics control both normal and abnormal development of early mouse embryos. (wikipedia.org)
  • The lab specifically focuses on how cells in the early mouse embryos decide their fate and how this information can be applied to maintaining and differentiating embryo-derived stem cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • In this lifetime achievement award, given out once every four years, the society highlighted Rossant's impact in helping researchers understand human embryo development and stem cell origin, as well as developing the technique of introducing targeted mutations into genes of mouse embryos. (wikipedia.org)
  • Mouse embryos that are Oct-4-deficient or have low expression levels of Oct-4 fail to form the inner cell mass, lose pluripotency and differentiate into trophectoderm. (wikipedia.org)
  • At the transcription level, the transcription factors Oct4, Nanog, Cdx2, and Tead4 have all been implicated in establishing and reinforcing the specification of the ICM and the TE in early mouse embryos. (wikipedia.org)
  • amphibian
  • Bioelectric memory: modeling resting potential bistability in amphibian embryos and mammalian cells. (tufts.edu)
  • Method: To facilitate the analysis of endogenous bioelectric signaling and the exploitation of voltage-based cellular controls in synthetic bioengineering applications, we sought to understand the conditions under which somatic cells can stably maintain distinct resting potential values (a type of state memory) Using the Channelpedia ion channel database, we generated an array of amphibian oocyte and mammalian membrane models for voltage evolution. (tufts.edu)
  • Results: We find that typical mammalian models and amphibian oocyte models exhibit bistability when expressing different ion channel subsets, with either persistent sodium or inward-rectifying potassium, respectively, playing a facilitative role in bistable memory formation. (tufts.edu)
  • We illustrate this difference using fast sodium channel dynamics for which a comprehensive theory exists, where the same model exhibits bistability under mammalian conditions but not amphibian conditions. (tufts.edu)
  • frog embryo
  • A cDNA library from the blastula stage of a frog embryo was cloned into RNA expression plasmids to generate synthetic mRNA. (wikipedia.org)
  • It was demonstrated in the frog embryo that the first cleavage furrow widens in the animal hemisphere creating a small intercellular cavity that is sealed off via tight junctions. (wikipedia.org)
  • uterus
  • Her technical contributions to experimental embryology include surgical re-implantation into the uterus to extend the time an experimentally manipulated embryo can be cultured and the use of a transgenic marker (beta-galactosidase) to identify transplant versus host tissue in experimental embryos. (wikipedia.org)
  • Embryo transfer refers to a step in the process of assisted reproduction in which embryos are placed into the uterus of a female with the intent to establish a pregnancy. (wikipedia.org)
  • However, there is limited evidence that supports deposition of embryos in the midportion of the uterus. (wikipedia.org)
  • fate
  • Studies on cell fate and cell potency in the postimplantation mammalian embryo (PhD thesis). (wikipedia.org)
  • The protein Ectodermin, firstly identified in Xenopus embryos, promotes ectodermal fate and suppresses the mesoderm formation mediated by the signaling of Transforming Growth Factor β (TGFβ) and Bone Morphogenic Proteins (BMP), members of the TGFβ-superfamily. (wikipedia.org)
  • development
  • For the human embryo, this represents the first two months of intrauterine development preceding the stages of the Fetus . (jove.com)
  • One of the most salient findings from our results is that the donor cell-cycle stage critically affects the chromatin structure and development of nuclear transplant embryos when the nuclei from donor embryos were transferred to enucleated oocytes. (nii.ac.jp)
  • Publications] SEIKE,N: 'Development of frozen-thawed demi-embryos and production of identical twin calves of different ages. (nii.ac.jp)
  • Denker, H.-W. Self-Organization of Stem Cell Colonies and of Early Mammalian Embryos: Recent Experiments Shed New Light on the Role of Autonomy vs. External Instructions in Basic Body Plan Development. (mdpi.com)
  • Lowering oxygen tension and the addition of anti-oxidants, such as superoxide dismutase or thioredoxin, to the culture medium has been shown to exert a beneficial effect on in vitro development of embryos. (nii.ac.jp)
  • In the second experiments, we found that nitric oxide, a free radical molecule acts as a regulator of development, especially transition of 2-cell embryos to the 4-cell stage and formation of blastocysts. (nii.ac.jp)
  • Publications] H, Iwata: 'Effects of antioxidants on the development of bovine IVM/IVF embryos in various concentration of glucose. (nii.ac.jp)
  • Pre-implantation embryo development encompasses several key developmental events, especially the activation of zygotic genome activation (ZGA)-related genes. (mdpi.com)
  • Particularly, a subtle balance exists between ERV activation and ERV repression in host-virus interplay, which leads to stage-specific ERV expression during pre-implantation embryo development. (mdpi.com)
  • A large portion of somatic cell nuclear transfer (SCNT) embryos display developmental arrest and ZGA failure during pre-implantation embryo development. (mdpi.com)
  • Furthermore, because of the close relationship between ERV activation and ZGA, exploring the regulatory mechanism underlying ERV activation may also shed more light on the enigma of SCNT embryo development in model animals. (mdpi.com)
  • Not only does this reveal the 'birth' of cytoskeleton-bound cell-cell junctions in the early embryo, but also identifies cellular processes likely to be unique to these early stages of development which could cause infertility or early embryo loss if defective," Galea writes in an email to The Scientist . (the-scientist.com)
  • The concept was first introduced by Spemann and Mangold, who showed that there is a cellular population in the newt embryo that elicits the development of a secondary axis from adjacent cells. (biologists.org)
  • In 1993, she established and led a Division of Mammalian Development at the National Institute for Medical Research. (wikipedia.org)
  • She is Professor of Mammalian Development and Stem Cell Biology in the Department of Physiology, Development and Neuroscience and Fellow of Sidney Sussex College at the University of Cambridge Magdalena Zernicka-Goetz was born in Warsaw, Poland. (wikipedia.org)
  • Upon setting up her independent group in 1997, she wished to reveal the mechanisms regulating early mammalian development. (wikipedia.org)
  • Although there is no expression profile of FAM in early embryos in Xenopus, in the zebra fish, FAM homolog is expressed ubiquitously at a two-cell stage but as development proceeds then its only expressed in the cephalic central nervous system. (wikipedia.org)
  • The antennapedia complex consists of five genes, including proboscipedia, and is involved in the development of the front of the embryo, forming the segments of the head and thorax. (wikipedia.org)
  • The bithorax complex consists of three main genes and is involved in the development of the back of the embryo, namely the abdomen and the posterior segments of the thorax. (wikipedia.org)
  • Janet Rossant, CC, FRS, FRSC (born 13 July 1950) is a developmental biologist well known for her contributions to the understanding of the role of genes in embryo development. (wikipedia.org)
  • Rossant has discovered information on embryo development, how multiple types of stem cells are established, and the methods at which genes control development. (wikipedia.org)
  • She then earned her PhD in mammalian development from University of Cambridge, England, in 1976. (wikipedia.org)
  • The physical and functional separation of the inner cell mass from the trophectoderm (TE) is a special feature of mammalian development and is the first cell lineage specification in these embryos. (wikipedia.org)
  • The outcome from using cryopreserved embryos has uniformly been positive with no increase in birth defects or development abnormalities, also between fresh versus frozen eggs used for intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI). (wikipedia.org)
  • morula
  • After fertilization, the mammalian cells, called blastomeres, undergo rotational cleavage until they are at the 16-cell stage called the morula. (wikipedia.org)
  • cells
  • While it was thought for over a century that primitive erythroid cells were uniquely nucleated mammalian red cells, it is now recognized that they, like their definitive erythroid counterparts, enucleate to form reticulocytes and pyrenocytes. (ehu.es)
  • ZIP ZIP: After cells in the developing embryo divide, microtubules at the dividing poles of each cell pull actin proteins into a ring. (the-scientist.com)
  • Following the observation of the expanding actin rings, we realized just how beautiful and intricate the coordination between all the outer cells of the embryo is," Biro tells The Scientist . (the-scientist.com)
  • Tarkowski was the first to propose the inside-outside hypothesis, which states that the inner cells of an embryo give rise to the embryo proper while the outer cells become the placenta. (the-scientist.com)
  • Similar experiments in chicken and rabbit embryos subsequently revealed groups of cells with similar instructive potential. (biologists.org)
  • Each dot represents a single cell in the developing embryo, with the number of specialized cells increasing across the 48hrs from embryonic day 6.5 to embryonic day 8.5. (phys.org)
  • In 1984, at the British Agricultural Research Council's Institute of Animal Physiology, Cambridge, he successfully used cells from early embryos to clone sheep by nuclear transfer. (wikipedia.org)
  • This led her to the pioneering success of constructing embryo-like structures from pluripotent embryonic and multipotent extra-embryonic (trophoblast) stem cells in a 3D scaffold of extra-cellular matrix proteins in vitro. (wikipedia.org)
  • This system allowed her to identify signalling pathways responsible for morphogenesis of stem cells into embryos. (wikipedia.org)
  • Archicortical precursor cells are also present in the dentate gyrus of the developing mammalian embryo. (wikipedia.org)
  • In early embryogenesis of most eutherian mammals, the inner cell mass (abbreviated ICM and also known as the embryoblast in mammals or pluriblast) is the mass of cells inside the primordial embryo that, once fertilized, will eventually give rise to the definitive structures of the fetus. (wikipedia.org)
  • Trophectoderm cells form extraembryonic tissues, which act in a supporting role for the embryo proper. (wikipedia.org)
  • These internal cells are called the inner cell mass (ICM) and will go on to become the actual embryo. (wikipedia.org)
  • the embryo is still a ball of dividing cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • mice
  • Therefore, the level of Oct-4 expression in mice is vital for regulating pluripotency and early cell differentiation since one of its main functions is to keep the embryo from differentiating. (wikipedia.org)
  • blastula
  • The mRNA was then injected into several Xenopus embryos at a four-cell stage and looked in early blastula embryos for an expansion of the region of the ectodermal marker Sox2 and diminution of the expression of the mesodermal marker Xbra. (wikipedia.org)
  • Even as the blastomeres continue to divide, the blastula remains one-cell thick and thins out as the embryo expands outward. (wikipedia.org)
  • The vegetal plate and animal hemisphere develop and secrete a hatching enzyme that digests the fertilization envelope and allows the embryo to now become a free-swimming hatched blastula. (wikipedia.org)
  • experiments
  • Importantly, C. H. Waddington expanded the notion of the organizer to birds and mammals in experiments in which he transplanted a piece from the leading edge of the primitive streak of chicken, duck and rabbit embryos into early chicken embryos and observed a duplication of the anteroposterior axis of the host ( Waddington, 1932 , 1954 ). (biologists.org)
  • Prior to the nuclear transfer experiments, Willadsen had developed methods for freezing sheep and cow embryos, and embryo manipulation methods for producing genetically identical animals, primarily identical twins in sheep, cattle, pigs, and horses, and for producing mammalian chimaeras, including interspecies chimaeras. (wikipedia.org)
  • genes
  • embryos become more sensitive to Activin response, they show an increase and expansion of the expression of mesodermal specific genes and down-regulate the expression of neural plate and epidermis marker (Sox2 and cytokeratin respectively). (wikipedia.org)
  • Cell
  • WIKIMEDIA, NATIONAL INSTITUTES OF HEALTH Andrzej Tarkowski-considered by many to be the "father of modern mammalian embryology," according to an obituary published in Nature Cell Biology this week (November 29)-passed away on September 23 at age 83. (the-scientist.com)
  • Embryos who reach the day 3 cell stage can be tested for chromosomal or specific genetic defects prior to possible transfer by preimplantation genetic diagnosis (PGD). (wikipedia.org)
  • human
  • Biro, Plachta, and their colleagues now plan to develop noninvasive imaging techniques to study the sealing of human embryos. (the-scientist.com)
  • In the human, the uterine lining (endometrium) needs to be appropriately prepared so that the embryo(s) can implant. (wikipedia.org)
  • ectoderm
  • Thus, in X. laevis embryos, the ectoderm is patterned by the secretion of BMP antagonists from the dorsal blastopore lip, or Spemann's organizer: BMP signalling is active ventrally, and induces the formation of surface ectoderm, whereas dorsal BMP signalling is inhibited, and the cells adopt a neural fate ( Hemmati-Brivanlou and Melton, 1997 ). (biologists.org)
  • Waddington's hypothesis was that a transplanted primitive streak could induce neural tissue in the ectoderm of the rabbit embryo. (asu.edu)
  • It is an embryo which exists as three different germ layers - the ectoderm, the mesoderm and the endoderm. (wikipedia.org)
  • mammals
  • Diapause is common in insects, allowing them to suspend development between autumn and spring, and in mammals such as the roe deer (Capreolus capreolus, the only ungulate with embryonic diapause[citation needed]), where a delay in attachment of the embryo to the uterine lining ensures that offspring are born in spring, when conditions are most favorable. (wikipedia.org)
  • serve
  • Many of the most important and diagnostic mammalian characteristics serve to further intelligence and sensibility, promote endothermy, or to increase the efficiency of reproduction or the securing and processing of food. (shsu.edu)
  • however
  • However, they named this gene odd Oz (Odz) after the oddless pair-rule phenotype displayed in Odz mutant embryos, where every odd-numbered body segment was deleted. (wikipedia.org)
  • further
  • I consider it possible that only the ions of the blood prevent the parthenogenetic origins of embryos in mammalians, and I think it further not impossible that a transitory change in the ions of the blood may also allow complete parthenogenesis in mammalians. (devbio.com)