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  • mammalian
  • The transfer of mammalian embryos from an in vivo or in vitro environment to a suitable host to improve pregnancy or gestational outcome in human or animal. (bioportfolio.com)
  • In a series of experiments between 1960 and 1965, Robert Geoffrey Edwards discovered how to make mammalian egg cells, or oocytes, mature outside of a female's body. (asu.edu)
  • During fetal life, mammalian oocytes initiate meiosis and become arrested at the diplotene stage of prophase I (dictyate stage). (springer.com)
  • Methods
  • Throughout these industries, there are no strict guidelines as to the in vitro handling methods for these procedures, leading to the question of whether different in vitro conditions influence the outcomes of semen analyses and ultimately if this impacts upon clinical decision making. (edu.au)
  • Edwards, working at several research institutions in the UK during this period, studied in vitro fertilization (IVF) methods. (asu.edu)
  • Thus, these methods are widely applicable to the future phenotypic characterization of adult zebrafish kidney injury paradigms, which include but are not limited to, nephrotoxicant exposure regimes or genetic methods of targeted cell death such as the nitroreductase mediated cell ablation technique. (jove.com)
  • In addition to the review of literature (Chapter 1), general materials and methods (Chapter 2) and general discussion (Chapter 6), in Chapter 3 and 4, the studies focused on optimizing electrical parameters on pig oocyte activation and investigating the effects of activation conditions including temperature, activation medium, and concentrations of Ca 2+ and Mg 2+ in activation medium and diploidization of activated oocytes. (bl.uk)
  • Dr Sutton-McDowall sees the use of hyperspectral imaging as a new tool that can be combined with other diagnostic methods to provide a more accurate and objective embryo viability assessment. (cnbp.org.au)
  • zona pellucida
  • The choice of treatment can also depend on if the couple has had previous failures to achieve fertilization in an IVF treatment cycle and other factors such as failure of sperm to bind to the zona pellucida of the oocytes. (gfmer.ch)
  • vivo
  • Although embryos resulting from IVF were less successful in establishing pregnancy than appropriate in vivo fertilized controls, optimization of culture and transfer techniques enabled minimization of embyronic losses and permitted valid use of these techniques. (uwo.ca)
  • Current work focuses on utilising state-of-the-art proteomic techniques and novel in vivo cell imaging systems to investigate the interaction between ram spermatozoa, seminal plasma and the ewe's reproductive tract. (edu.au)
  • Therefore studies presented in this thesis aimed at the establishment of an in vitro culture system for pig oocyte maturation and embryo culture, based on this system an electrical activation protocol for pig oocytes was optimized and also tested by monitoring in vivo development of activated pig oocytes. (bl.uk)
  • Segundo, se puede esperar un efecto mecánico diferente que puede desempeñar un rol importante, mientras el folíuclo es puncionado in vitro con una jeringa y aguja, comparado con la aspiración folicular in vivo, con una presión de vacío de aspiración ajustable, como fue demostrado por Hashimoto y col. (1999a). (docplayer.net)
  • Fertility
  • However, says Dr Sutton-McDowall, fertility specialists take a largely subjective approach in deciding which embryos should be used. (cnbp.org.au)
  • experiments
  • Between 3 and 4 experimental replicates were performed, with 40-50 embryos per replicate used for the developmental competency experiment, 10-20 embryos per replicate for the fluorophore and two-channel autofluorescence experiments and a total of 21-22 embryos used for the hyperspectral microscopy study. (cnbp.org.au)
  • development
  • Some experimental techniques such as in vitro oocyte maturation are currently under development. (utswmedicine.org)
  • The early development of embryos is a widely studied process. (bioportfolio.com)
  • Oocytes matured in the presence of their cumulus cells and serum were as capable of IVF, embryonic and fetal development as ovulated oocytes. (uwo.ca)
  • Development of such assays would represent a significant step forward in the diagnosis of oocyte activation deficiency and may identify a series of potential therapeutic targets. (ox.ac.uk)
  • As for the blastocyst , the term describes an embryo's stage of development, not a different thing than an embryo. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • The group is responsible for the development and application of most artificial breeding techniques currently employed in the Australian sheep industry. (edu.au)
  • Recording and contextualizing the science of embryos, development, and reproduction. (asu.edu)
  • Beadle and Ephrussi used their technique to study the development of the eye and eye pigment. (asu.edu)
  • Hence, Volume 2 (Molecular Embryo Analysis, Live Imaging, Transgenesis, and Cloning) contains detailed descriptions of how to ascertain and study early germ cell development that occurs during embryogenesis. (biologists.org)
  • Research with rodent species continues to provide the bulk of basic information on early development, in large part because of the ready availability of oocytes and embryos, but it is difficult to know to what extent information can be extrapolated to primate species, including humans. (springer.com)
  • However, the amount and quality of basic scientific data on early development that can be obtained from this source are restricted, in part by ethical constraints (Austin, 1990) and in part by conflicting priorities between research and clinical needs for the supply of oocytes and embryos. (springer.com)
  • This may result in development of a greater number of embryos to the blastocyst stage. (clinicaltrials.gov)
  • transcriptional
  • Over expression of transcripts by IVM oocytes is particularly interesting, therefore, a variety of approaches were employed to determine whether the observed transcriptional changes during IVM were real or an artifact of the techniques used during analysis, including the analysis of transcript abundance in oocytes in vitro matured in the presence of α-amanitin. (springer.com)
  • OCT4
  • Co-expression of cyp26a1 and the pluripotent germ cell stem cell marker pou5f1(oct4) in meiotically arrested oocytes was consistent with roles in mouse to promote germ cell survival and to prevent apoptosis, mechanisms that are central for tipping the sexual fate of gonads towards the female pathway in zebrafish. (jove.com)
  • cells
  • In the cow, lysophosphatidic acid (LPA) acts as an auto-/paracrine factor, through its receptors LPAR1-4, on oocytes and cumulus cells during in vitro maturation (IVM). (biomedcentral.com)
  • This protocol shows how to isolate primordial germinal cells from developing gonads in 10.5-11.5 days post coitum (dpc) mouse embryos. (jove.com)
  • We predict that embryos that have cells with homogeneous (uniform) metabolic profiles are the healthier ones. (cnbp.org.au)
  • pigs
  • He measured the conditions and timings for in vitro (out of the body) maturation of oocytes from diverse mammals including mice, rats, hamsters, pigs, cows, sheep, and rhesus monkeys, as well as humans. (asu.edu)