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  • equivalent
  • He criticised the court for not fulfilling its role in philosophical jurisprudence, and leaving several key 'areas of uncertainties in its wake', including if embryos are therefore equivalent to personal property. (bionews.org.uk)
  • quality
  • Michael Hauskeller, Associate Professor of Sociology and Philosophy at the University of Exeter, led a fascinating discussion of the conventional meaning of dignity and of Immanuel Kant's argument that dignity depends on autonomy - a quality that embryos lack. (bionews.org.uk)
  • cell
  • When the first two-cell blastomere to divide does so meridionally (ME embryos), the orientation of the first cleavage is predictive of the orientation and polarity of the embryonic-abembryonic axis. (biologists.org)
  • Thus, in embryos dividing in this way, the progeny of the earlier meridionally dividing cell contribute predominantly to the embryonic part of the blastocyst. (biologists.org)
  • division
  • By contrast, when the earlier of the second cleavage divisions occurs equatorially or obliquely and is followed by a meridional division (EM embryos), the orientation of the first cleavage is predictive of the orientation of the embryonic-abembryonic axis but not its polarity. (biologists.org)
  • preimplantation genetic d
  • On the other hand, embryo profiling for health prediction puts more focus on the genome, and where there is a risk of a genetic disorder it more often involves cell sampling from the embryo for preimplantation genetic diagnosis. (wikipedia.org)
  • Embryos which reach the day 3 cell stage can be tested for chromosomal or specific genetic defects prior to possible transfer by preimplantation genetic diagnosis (PGD). (wikipedia.org)
  • create embryos
  • The technologically more challenging but more flexible scenario calls for just carrying the biological means to create embryos, that is various samples of donated sperm and egg cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • euploid embryos
  • The principle behind it is that, since it is known that numerical chromosomal abnormalities explain most of the cases of pregnancy loss, and a large proportion of the human embryos are aneuploid, the selective replacement of euploid embryos should increase the chances of a successful IVF treatment. (wikipedia.org)
  • oocyte
  • Spare oocytes or embryos resulting from fertility treatments may be used for oocyte donation or embryo donation to another woman or couple, and embryos may be created, frozen and stored specifically for transfer and donation by using donor eggs and sperm. (wikipedia.org)
  • Oocyte age, survival proportion, and number of transferred embryos are predictors of pregnancy outcome. (wikipedia.org)
  • A study of more than 11,000 cryopreserved human embryos showed no significant effect of storage time on post-thaw survival for IVF or oocyte donation cycles, or for embryos frozen at the pronuclear or cleavage stages. (wikipedia.org)
  • A US study concluded that donating an embryo is approximately twice as cost-effective as oocyte donation in terms of cost per live birth, with a cost of $22,000 per live delivery compared to $41,000 for oocyte donation. (wikipedia.org)
  • Gene expression profiling of cumulus cells surrounding the oocyte and early embryo, or on granulosa cells, provides an alternative that does not involve sampling from the embryo itself. (wikipedia.org)
  • Profiling of cumulus cells can give valuable information regarding the efficiency of an ovarian hyperstimulation protocol, and may indirectly predict oocyte aneuploidy, embryo development and pregnancy outcomes, without having to perform any invasive procedure directly in the embryo. (wikipedia.org)
  • frozen
  • An egg may be fertilized in vitro and the resulting embryo may be frozen for later use. (wikipedia.org)
  • Embryos are prepared from superovulated female donors, loaded on a straw with medium and glycerol (serving as cryoprotectant) and will be frozen using a regulated freezer to -32 C. Afterwards the straws are plunged into LN2 and can be stored unlimited. (dkfz.de)
  • Direct Frozen Embryo Transfer: Embryos can be frozen by SPF in ethylene glycol freeze media and transfer directly to recipients immediately after water thawing without laboratory thawing process. (wikipedia.org)
  • The world's first crossbred bovine embryo transfer calf under tropical conditions was produced by such technique on 23 June 1996 by Dr. Binoy S Vettical of Kerala Livestock Development Board, Mattupatti World usage data is hard to come by but it was reported in a study of 23 countries that almost 42,000 frozen human embryo transfers were performed during 2001 in Europe. (wikipedia.org)
  • The outcome from using cryopreserved embryos has uniformly been positive with no increase in birth defects or development abnormalities, also between fresh versus frozen eggs used for intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI). (wikipedia.org)
  • In fact, pregnancy rates are increased following frozen embryo transfer, and perinatal outcomes are less affected, compared to embryo transfer in the same cycle as ovarian hyperstimulation was performed. (wikipedia.org)
  • As of May 2012, there were about 600,000 frozen embryos stored in laboratories and fertility clinics, costing the donor families about $72 million annually for storage fees. (wikipedia.org)
  • Although embryos can, theoretically, survive indefinitely in frozen storage, as a practical reality someone must eventually decide on a permanent disposition for them. (wikipedia.org)
  • In a stimulated or a cycle where a "frozen" embryo is transferred, the recipient woman could be given first estrogen preparations (about 2 weeks), then a combination of oestrogen and progesterone so that the lining becomes receptive for the embryo. (wikipedia.org)
  • A scientific review in 2013 came to the conclusion that it is not possible to identify one method of endometrium preparation in frozen embryo transfer as being more effective than another. (wikipedia.org)
  • Embryo space colonization is a theoretical interstellar space colonization concept that involves sending a robotic mission to a habitable terrestrial planet, dwarf planet, minor planet or natural satellite transporting frozen early-stage human embryos or the technological or biological means to create human embryos. (wikipedia.org)
  • deuterostome
  • It is characteristic of deuterostomes - when the original cell in a deuterostome embryo divides, the two resulting cells can be separated, and each one can individually develop into a whole organism. (wikipedia.org)
  • fertilization
  • In general, in organisms that reproduce sexually , an embryo develops from a zygote , the single cell resulting from the fertilization of the female egg cell by the male sperm cell. (wikipedia.org)
  • Nor does it detail how long the embryos were observed in culture before being transferred into the womb, instead indicating that they were "cultured until 5 or 6 days" after fertilization. (go.com)
  • In plants and animals, an embryo develops from a zygote, the single cell that results when an egg and sperm fuse during fertilization. (wikipedia.org)
  • Interspecific incompatibility in plants can occur for many reasons, but most often embryo abortion occurs In plant breeding, wide hybridization crosses can result in small shrunken seeds which indicate that fertilization has occurred, however the seed fails to develop. (wikipedia.org)
  • epigenetic
  • Because of increased female embryo mortality due to epigenetic modifications induced by extended culture, blastocyst transfer leads to more male births (56.1% male) versus 2 or 3 day transfer (a normal sex ratio of 51.5% male). (wikipedia.org)
  • embryonic development
  • Haeckel's embryo drawings are primarily intended to express his idiosyncratic theory of embryonic development, the Biogenetic Law, which in turn assumes (but is not crucial to) the evolutionary concept of common descent. (wikipedia.org)
  • Artificial
  • Culture of embryos can either be performed in an artificial culture medium or in an autologous endometrial coculture (on top of a layer of cells from the woman's own uterine lining). (wikipedia.org)
  • With artificial culture medium, there can either be the same culture medium throughout the period, or a sequential system can be used, in which the embryo is sequentially placed in different media. (wikipedia.org)
  • Artificial embryo culture media basically contain glucose, pyruvate, and energy-providing components, but the addition of amino acids, nucleotides, vitamins, and cholesterol improve the performance of embryonic growth and development. (wikipedia.org)
  • The embryos would need to develop in such artificial uteri until a large enough population existed to procreate by natural biological means. (wikipedia.org)
  • morphological
  • Embryologists have developed morphological parameters that indicate a good or bad prognosis for the developing embryo. (zeiss.com)
  • In current biology, fundamental research in developmental biology and evolutionary developmental biology is no longer driven by morphological comparisons between embryos, but more by molecular biology. (wikipedia.org)
  • Embryo quality is mainly evaluated by microscopy at certain time points using a morphological scoring system. (wikipedia.org)
  • developmental
  • A whole-embryo view of morphogenesis with subcellular resolution is essential to unravel the interconnected dynamics at the varying scales of development," wrote the other team, which was led by developmental biologist Lars Hufnagel of the European Molecular Biology Laboratory. (wired.com)
  • It results in the developmental fate of the cells being set early in the embryo development . (wikipedia.org)
  • Embryo drawing is the illustration of embryos in their developmental sequence. (wikipedia.org)
  • To this day, embryo drawings are made in undergraduate developmental biology lessons. (wikipedia.org)
  • The study of comparative embryology aims to prove or disprove that vertebrate embryos of different classes (e.g. mammals vs. fish) follow a similar developmental path due to their common ancestry. (wikipedia.org)
  • 18th century
  • Embryo rescue was first documented in the 18th century when Charles Bonnet excised Phaseolus and Fagopyrum embryos, planted them in soil and the cross resulted in dwarf plants. (wikipedia.org)
  • implant
  • Based on time-lapse imaging, the researchers were able to weed out embryos with an abnormal number of chromosomes - embryos that would likely fail to implant in the womb or result in a miscarriage. (go.com)
  • Eggs
  • For some patients, you might get 15 eggs, and maybe 13 will fertilize and you have enough embryos that look good on day 3 to go out to day 5 without a problem," said Goldfarb. (go.com)
  • in addition, There was a remarkable discovery of fossilized eggs and embryos which are believed to be the oldest metazoan fossils known in the fossil record. (wikipedia.org)
  • development
  • An embryo is called a fetus at a more advanced stage of development and up until birth or hatching. (wikipedia.org)
  • The structure and development of the rest of the embryo varies by group of plants. (wikipedia.org)
  • The large working distance offers ample space: you can conveniently control the development of the embryos. (zeiss.com)
  • The impressive stereoscopic image helps you to better observe the development of the embryos. (zeiss.com)
  • The types and frequencies of radiation effects, however, depend heavily on the stage of development of the embryo or fetus at the time it is exposed. (britannica.com)
  • Studying subunits is important, but, just as it's hard to hear a symphony by playing the scores of individual instruments, a subunit focus is limited when applied to complex processes like embryo development. (wired.com)
  • The Visible Embryo offers a detailed pictorial account of normal and abnormal development. (curriki.org)
  • Critics in the late 19th and early 20th centuries, Karl von Baer and Wilhelm His, did not believe that living embryos reproduce the evolutionary process and produced embryo drawings of their own which emphasized the differences in early embryological development. (wikipedia.org)
  • Haeckel proposes that all classes of vertebrates pass through an evolutionarily conserved "phylotypic" stage of development, a period of reduced phenotypic diversity among higher embryos. (wikipedia.org)
  • Embryo rescue is one of the earliest and successful forms of in-vitro culture techniques that is used to assist in the development of plant embryos that might not survive to become viable plants. (wikipedia.org)
  • Embryo rescue plays an important role in modern plant breeding, allowing the development of many interspecific and intergeneric food and ornamental plant crop hybrids. (wikipedia.org)
  • Breeding of incompatible interspecific and intergeneric species Overcoming seed dormancy Determination of seed viability Recovery of maternal haploids that develop as a result of chromosome elimination following interspecific hybridization Used in studies on the physiology of seed germination and development Depending on the organ cultured, it may be referred to as either embryo, ovule, or ovary culture. (wikipedia.org)
  • Nevertheless, due to difficulties involved with the rearing of young embryos compared to those that have reached the autotrophic phase of development, embryos are normally allowed to develop in vivo as long as possible. (wikipedia.org)
  • This will generally depend on the stage of development of the embryo. (wikipedia.org)
  • An embryo is an organism early in its development. (wikipedia.org)
  • depends
  • Like every proposal for interstellar colonization, embryo space colonization depends on solutions to still-unsolved technological problems. (wikipedia.org)
  • transfers
  • The pregnancy rate for women under 35 with day 5 embryo transfers is 69 percent, compared to 57 percent for women with day 3 transfers, according to data from the Cleveland Clinic's IVF Laboratory . (go.com)
  • Single embryo transfers in particular require accuracy and precision in placement within the uterine cavity. (wikipedia.org)
  • babies
  • The researchers then used an algorithm to spot the embryos most likely to grow into babies. (go.com)
  • develops
  • As the embryo develops, the cell layers fold over so that the endoderm forms a long tube surrounded by mesoderm, with an ectodermal layer around the whole. (britannica.com)
  • the blastula then develops into a hollow cuplike body of two layers of cells, the gastrula, from which the embryo ultimately is formed. (britannica.com)
  • in this group as the embryo sac, develops from the parent spore while it is still retained in the sporangium. (britannica.com)
  • pregnancy rates
  • In general, embryo profiling for prediction of pregnancy rates focuses mainly on visual profiles and short-term biomarkers including expression of RNA and proteins, preferably in the surroundings of embryos to avoid any damage to them. (wikipedia.org)
  • species
  • The position and arrangement of the germ layers are highly species-specific, however, depending on the type of embryo produced. (wikipedia.org)
  • Limb buds also appear, and by the end of the embryonic stage, the embryo is distinguishable as a representative of its species. (britannica.com)
  • Images of embryos provide a means of comparing embryos of different ages, and species. (wikipedia.org)
  • The temperature and light requirement is generally species specific and thus its usually regulated to be the within the same temperature requirement as that of its parent with embryos of cool-season crops requiring lower temperatures than those of warm-season crops. (wikipedia.org)
  • systematic
  • During the period of 1890 to 1904, systems for embryo rescue became systematic by applying nutrient solutions that contained salts and sugars and applying aseptic technique. (wikipedia.org)
  • microscopy
  • Citations: "Quantitative high-speed imaging of entire developing embryos with simultaneous multiview light-sheet microscopy. (wired.com)
  • Time-lapse microscopy is an expansion of microscopy wherein the morphology of embryos is studied over time. (wikipedia.org)
  • As of 2014, time-lapse microscopy for embryo quality assessment is emerging from the experimental stage to something with enough evidence for broader clinical use. (wikipedia.org)
  • gametophyte
  • In these plants, the embryo begins its existence attached to the inside of the archegonium on a parental gametophyte from which the egg cell was generated. (wikipedia.org)
  • this "foot" consists of a bulbous mass of cells at the base of the embryo which may receive nutrition from its parent gametophyte. (wikipedia.org)
  • donors
  • Re-genotyping makes no sense if non-transgenic females serve as embryo donors. (dkfz.de)
  • If the donors are not available to be screened, the embryos must be given a label that indicates that the required screening has not been done, and the recipients must agree to accept the associated risk. (wikipedia.org)
  • earliest
  • Markuelia fossils from Siberia, and Olivoodes from China are examples of embryos from the earliest Cambrian (541-485.4 million years ago). (wikipedia.org)
  • Spare
  • He reports that "Twenty-five per cent of patients want to donate their [spare] embryos - not as many as I'd like. (wikipedia.org)
  • normally
  • Embryo culture has been used to produce plants from embryos that would not normally develop within the fruit. (britannica.com)
  • Embryo rescue is most often used to create interspecific and intergeneric crosses that would normally produce seeds which are aborted. (wikipedia.org)