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  • 2002
  • Well-known examples include convergent extension movements that are driven by cell intercalation during vertebrate gastrulation, in the ascidian notochord, during Drosophila germ band extension, and during echinoderm gut elongation ( Keller, 2002 ). (biologists.org)
  • eEF1A
  • Alternatively, apoptotic cells may secrete antigens, including eEF1A and other elongation factors, to induce an autoimmune response during cancer. (wikipedia.org)
  • It is postulated that high expression and secretion of elongation factors from tumor tissues, combined with altered levels of eEF1A-derived bacterial peptides in neoplastic disease, may lead to autoimmunity in breast cancer. (wikipedia.org)
  • Translation
  • Elongation factors are responsible for achieving accuracy of translation and both EF1A and EF2 are remarkably conserved throughout evolution. (ebi.ac.uk)
  • Elongation factors play a role in orchestrating the events of this process, and in ensuring the 99.99% accuracy of translation at this speed. (wikipedia.org)
  • Arabidopsis
  • Here, we report the identification and characterization of an auxin-mediated cell elongation growth response in Arabidopsis thaliana . (pnas.org)
  • When grown in the light at high temperature (29°C), Arabidopsis seedlings exhibit dramatic hypocotyl elongation compared with seedlings grown at 20°C. This temperature-dependent growth response is sharply reduced by mutations in the auxin response or transport pathways and in seedlings containing reduced levels of free IAA. (pnas.org)
  • Hypocotyl elongation in Arabidopsis is the result of regulated cell expansion that is under both environmental and hormonal controls ( 2 ). (pnas.org)
  • We find that high temperature promotes dramatic hypocotyl elongation in light-grown Arabidopsis seedlings. (pnas.org)
  • proteins
  • Elongation factors are a set of proteins that are used in protein synthesis in the process of cell cycle and elongation in some cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • In humans there are multiple forms of P-TEFb which contain Cdk9 and one of several cyclin subunits, cyclin T1, T2, and K. P-TEFb associates with other factors including the bromodomain protein BRD4, and is found associated with a large complex of proteins called the super elongation complex. (wikipedia.org)
  • regulation
  • Physiological studies with excised stem segments have implicated the plant hormone indole-3-acetic acid (IAA or auxin) in the regulation of cell elongation. (pnas.org)
  • Pseudomonas
  • The SS1P molecule is an ingenious example of protein engineering: the native Pseudomonas exotoxin protein consists of three domains: domain I targets cell surface receptors, domain II functions to translocate the molecule across a cell membrane and into the cell interior, and domain III catalyzes irreversible ADP ribosylation and inactivation of elongation factor 2 (EF2). (thefreedictionary.com)
  • Cell
  • These results strongly support the contention that endogenous auxin promotes cell elongation in intact plants. (pnas.org)
  • The ability of exogenous auxin to promote cell elongation in excised stem and hypocotyl segments has been studied extensively ( 9 ). (pnas.org)
  • The role of auxin in regulating cell expansion in intact plants is somewhat less clear, however, because application of exogenous auxin often does not stimulate elongation. (pnas.org)
  • The inability of exogenous auxin to stimulate prolonged cell expansion led to the suggestion that auxin plays little if any role in regulating plant growth by cell elongation ( 10 ). (pnas.org)
  • Little-studied examples of elongation by cell intercalation offer opportunities to study new aspects of this mode of elongation. (biologists.org)
  • Elongation by oriented cell division highlights the problem of mitotic spindle orientation and the maintenance of cell-packing patterns in anisotropic force environments. (biologists.org)
  • Here, other mechanisms of elongation, and less well-known examples of convergent extension by cell intercalation that are instructive and have not received adequate attention, are discussed with the goal of identifying important, unexplored questions. (biologists.org)
  • significantly
  • Elongation density indices (EdI) are significantly different between X (red bar) and autosomal genes (blue bar). (nih.gov)
  • For example, Pluto, whose orbit is highly inclined to the Earth's orbital plane, can have a maximum elongation significantly less than 180° at opposition. (wikipedia.org)