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  • lipids
  • 21 CELL WALL OF ACID-FAST BACTERIA Mycobacterium tuberculosis, Corynbacteria diptheriae, and Norcardia asteroides contain complex lipids in their cell walls ( mycolic acid, lipoarabinomanan, arabinogalactan). (businessdocbox.com)
  • They resist the action of acid alcohol due to their complex lipids (acid-fastness ) The complex glycolipid allows M. tuberculosis to survive the degradative effects of the phagolysosomes in unactivated macrophages. (businessdocbox.com)
  • viral
  • In viruses with a membrane envelope the nucleocapsid (capsid plus nucleic acid) enters the cell cytoplasm by a process in which the viral envelope merges with a host cell membrane, often the membrane delimiting an endocytic structure (see endocytosis endocytosis , in biology, process by which substances are taken into the cell. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • antibody
  • citation needed] In the US, the Food and Drug Administration requires that all donated blood be screened for several infectious diseases, including HIV-1 and HIV-2, using a combination of antibody testing (EIA) and more expeditious nucleic acid testing (NAT). (wikipedia.org)
  • relies
  • This relies on recombinant nucleic acid techniques to form new combinations of heritable genetic material followed by the incorporation of that material either indirectly through a vector system or directly through micro-injection, macro-injection or micro-encapsulation. (wikipedia.org)
  • alkaline phosphatase
  • 16. The kit of claim 14 , wherein the enzyme is selected from the group consisting of alkaline phosphatase and acid phosphatase and the redox-inactive reductive species is selected from the group consisting of hydroquinone mono- and di-phosphates, naphthohydroquinone mono- and di-phosphates, and anthrahydroquinone mono- and di-phosphates. (google.co.uk)
  • 17. The kit of claim 14 , wherein the enzyme is selected from the group consisting of alkaline phosphatase and acid phosphatase and the redox-inactive reductive species is selected from the group consisting of sesamol phosphate, eugenol phosphate and alpha-tocopherol phosphate. (google.co.uk)
  • tests
  • In 2012, molecular diagnostic techniques for Thalassemia use genetic hybridization tests to identify the specific single nucleotide polymorphism causing an individual's disease. (wikipedia.org)
  • detect
  • The methodology is able to detect even a single-copy of a specific nucleic. (google.com)
  • The invention is also provided in kit form for use in the clinical/diagnostic laboratory such that a relatively unskilled person can accurately and reproducibly detect even a single-copy of a specific nucleic acid of interest. (google.com)
  • tertiary
  • Tertiary structure denaturation involves the disruption of: Covalent interactions between amino acid side-chains (such as disulfide bridges between cysteine groups) Non-covalent dipole-dipole interactions between polar amino acid side-chains (and the surrounding solvent) Van der Waals (induced dipole) interactions between nonpolar amino acid side-chains. (wikipedia.org)
  • concentration
  • 11. The method according to claim 1, wherein the non-radioactively labelled fragments are present in the hybridization fluid at a concentration of not less than 0.2 μg/ml. (google.com)
  • temperature
  • Dynamic allele-specific hybridization (DASH) genotyping takes advantage of the differences in the melting temperature in DNA that results from the instability of mismatched base pairs. (wikipedia.org)
  • mixture
  • 13. The method according to claim 3, wherein the fixative is a mixture of methanol and acetic acid in a 3:1 volumetric ratio. (google.com)
  • wherein
  • 8. The kit of claim 7 wherein the redox-inactive reductive species is ascorbic acid phosphate. (google.co.uk)
  • further
  • Further, more exotic nucleic acid chemistries with oligonucleotide drugs may impact upon the activity of the ligase, which needs to be determined on a case-by-case basis. (wikipedia.org)
  • viruses
  • parasite with a noncellular structure composed mainly of nucleic acid nucleic acid, any of a group of organic substances found in the chromosomes of living cells and viruses that play a central role in the storage and replication of hereditary information and in the expression of this information through protein synthesis. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • in the other stage, however, viruses enter living plant, animal, or bacterial cells and make use of the host cell's chemical energy and its protein- and nucleic acid-synthesizing ability to replicate themselves. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • specific
  • A bacterial virus infects the cell by attaching fibers of its protein tail to a specific receptor site on the bacterial cell wall and then injecting the nucleic acid into the host, leaving the empty capsid outside. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • known
  • A protein is created by ribosomes that "read" RNA that is encoded by codons in the gene and assemble the requisite amino acid combination from the genetic instruction, in a process known as translation. (wikipedia.org)
  • example
  • For example, because cell-free nucleic acids exist in human plasma, a simple blood sample can be enough to sample genetic information from tumours, transplants or an unborn fetus. (wikipedia.org)
  • Techniques
  • Genetic engineering does not normally include traditional breeding, in vitro fertilisation, induction of polyploidy, mutagenesis and cell fusion techniques that do not use recombinant nucleic acids or a genetically modified organism in the process. (wikipedia.org)