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  • oxides
  • Hydrogenation also plays a minor role in most systems and iron surfaces will be covered with precipitates of oxides (or carbonates and sulfides) under most environmental conditions. (wikipedia.org)
  • Fresh iron surfaces appear lustrous silvery-gray, but oxidize in normal air to give hydrated iron oxides, commonly known as rust. (wikipedia.org)
  • Unlike the metals that form passivating oxide layers, iron oxides occupy more volume than the metal and thus flake off, exposing fresh surfaces for corrosion. (wikipedia.org)
  • Research on iron-arsenic chemistry in the local aquifer sands shows that ferric oxides are associated with low-arsenic groundwater, whereas ferrous oxides indicate higher arsenic concentrations. (wikipedia.org)
  • Other metal oxides can be used, such as chromium oxide, to generate the given metal in its elemental form. (wikipedia.org)
  • 2Pb3O4 → 6 PbO + O2 Nitric acid dissolves the lead(II) oxide component, leaving behind the insoluble lead(IV) oxide: Pb3O4 + 4 HNO3 → PbO2 + 2 Pb(NO3)2 + 2 H2O With iron oxides and with elemental iron, lead(II,IV) oxide forms insoluble iron(II) and iron(III) plumbates, which is the basis of the anti-corrosive properties of lead-based paints applied to iron objects. (wikipedia.org)
  • oxide
  • Black iron oxide. (wiley.com)
  • Red iron oxide. (wiley.com)
  • Yellow iron oxide. (wiley.com)
  • Iron oxide mixed with aluminium powder can be ignited to create a thermite reaction, used in welding and purifying ores. (wikipedia.org)
  • In exothermic welding, aluminium dust reduces the oxide of another metal, most commonly iron oxide, because aluminium is highly reactive. (wikipedia.org)
  • Iron(III) oxide is commonly used: F e 2 O 3 + 2 A l ⟶ 2 F e + A l 2 O 3 {\displaystyle \mathrm {Fe_{2}O_{3}+2\ Al\longrightarrow 2\ Fe+Al_{2}O_{3}} } The products are aluminium oxide, free elemental iron, and a large amount of heat. (wikipedia.org)
  • Commonly the reacting composition is five parts iron oxide red (rust) powder and three parts aluminium powder by weight, ignited at high temperatures. (wikipedia.org)
  • A strongly exothermic (heat-generating) reaction occurs that via reduction and oxidation produces a white hot mass of molten iron and a slag of refractory aluminium oxide. (wikipedia.org)
  • the aluminium oxide is much less dense than the liquid iron and so floats to the top of the reaction, so the set-up for welding must take into account that the actual molten metal is at the bottom of the crucible and covered by floating slag. (wikipedia.org)
  • citation needed] Iron is commonly found in the Earth's crust in the form of an ore, usually an iron oxide, such as magnetite, hematite, etc. (wikipedia.org)
  • dose
  • No studies have reported an efficacious iron dose that allows participants to remain blinded. (mdpi.com)
  • This pilot study aimed to determine a ferrous sulfate dose that improves iron stores, while minimising side effects and enabling blinding. (mdpi.com)
  • in persons with normal serum iron stores, 10% of an oral dose is absorbed, this is increased to 20% to 30% in persons with inadequate iron stores. (drugs.com)
  • salts
  • Baloxavir Marboxil: Iron Salts may decrease the serum concentration of Baloxavir Marboxil. (drugs.com)
  • Bictegravir: Iron Salts may decrease the serum concentration of Bictegravir. (drugs.com)
  • Management: Bictegravir, emtricitabine, and tenofovir alafenamide can be administered with iron salts under fed conditions, but coadministration with or 2 hours after an iron salt is not recommended under fasting conditions. (drugs.com)
  • Prolonged use of iron salts may produce iron storage disease. (bioportfolio.com)
  • alloys
  • Iron metal has been used since ancient times, although copper alloys, which have lower melting temperatures, were used even earlier in human history. (wikipedia.org)
  • Steels and iron alloys formed with other metals (alloy steels) are by far the most common industrial metals because they have a great range of desirable properties and iron-bearing rock is abundant. (wikipedia.org)
  • The mechanical properties of iron and its alloys can be evaluated using a variety of tests, including the Brinell test, Rockwell test and the Vickers hardness test. (wikipedia.org)
  • One such process, known as hydrogen roasting, is more commonly applied to metals such as tungsten and molybdenum, but can be used to produce iron-hydrogen alloys. (wikipedia.org)
  • Metallic Iron-hydrogen alloys. (wikipedia.org)
  • For example, atmospheric air is primarily a mixture of nitrogen, oxygen, and argon, and native solid elements occur in alloys, such as that of iron and nickel. (wikipedia.org)
  • carbon
  • Pure iron is relatively soft, but is unobtainable by smelting because it is significantly hardened and strengthened by impurities, in particular carbon, from the smelting process. (wikipedia.org)
  • A certain proportion of carbon (between 0.002% and 2.1%) produces steel, which may be up to 1000 times harder than pure iron. (wikipedia.org)
  • Crude iron metal is produced in blast furnaces, where ore is reduced by coke to pig iron, which has a high carbon content. (wikipedia.org)
  • An increase in the carbon content will cause a significant increase in the hardness and tensile strength of iron. (wikipedia.org)
  • One of the first railroads to evaluate the use of thermite welding was the Delaware and Hudson Railroad in the United States in 1935 The weld quality of chemically pure thermite is low due to the low heat penetration into the joining metals and the very low carbon and alloy content in the nearly pure molten iron. (wikipedia.org)
  • abundance
  • Its abundance in rocky planets like Earth is due to its abundant production by fusion in high-mass stars, where it is the last element to be produced with release of energy before the violent collapse of a supernova, which scatters the iron into space. (wikipedia.org)
  • The high abundance of oxygen, silicon, and iron on Earth reflects their common production in such stars. (wikipedia.org)
  • molten
  • As molten iron cools past its freezing point of 1538 °C, it crystallizes into its δ allotrope, which has a body-centered cubic (bcc) crystal structure. (wikipedia.org)
  • Small amounts of hydrogen (up to about 0.08% by weight) are absorbed into iron as it solidifies from molten state. (wikipedia.org)
  • Earth's
  • and iron-hydrogen phases that exist at extreme temperatures and pressures, such as might be found in the Earth's core. (wikipedia.org)
  • The two elements form a metallic alloy above 35000 atmospheres of pressure, that has been advanced as a possible explanation for the low density of Earth's "iron" core. (wikipedia.org)
  • Lava beds supply bacteria with ferrous iron straight from the Earth's mantle, but only newly formed igneous rocks have high enough levels of ferrous iron. (wikipedia.org)
  • Iron is the most abundant element (by mass) making up Earth, while oxygen is the most common element in the Earth's crust. (wikipedia.org)
  • folic
  • 3 Deficiencies of iron, vitamin B 12 and folic acid are among the most common causes. (aafp.org)
  • 1. A chewable prenatal nutritional supplement which comprises a prenatally relevant amount of folic acid, a prenatally relevant amount of iron, and an alkyl polysiloxane, wherein the supplement is substantially free of calcium. (google.com)
  • hemochromatosis
  • also, all iron compounds are contraindicated in patients with hemosiderosis, hemochromatosis, or hemolytic anemias. (drugs.com)
  • Zinc
  • Zinc has showed much higher reactivity toward pentachlorophenol than iron. (wikipedia.org)
  • 1-2.5 serves of lean meats and poultry, such as fish, chicken, lamb, beef as well as legumes and nuts are also essential in a daily diet in order to maintain stable zinc and iron levels within a developing body. (wikipedia.org)
  • hydride
  • An iron-hydrogen alloy, also known as an iron hydride, is an alloy of iron and hydrogen formed when hydrogen atoms dissolve in the crystal structure of metallic iron. (wikipedia.org)
  • It is a fairly soft metal that can dissolve only a very small concentration of hydrogen, no more than 0.0002% at 25 °C (77 °F) and 0.0004 wt% at 912 °C (1,674 °F). The inclusion of hydrogen in alpha iron is called ferritic iron hydride. (wikipedia.org)
  • The inclusion of hydrogen in gamma iron is called austenitic iron hydride. (wikipedia.org)
  • It can dissolve even more hydrogen, as much as 0.001% hydrogen at 1,538 °C (2,800 °F), which reflects the upper hydrogen content of iron hydride. (wikipedia.org)
  • Varying the amount of alloying elements-their formation in the iron hydride either as solute elements, or as precipitated phases-enables the movement of those dislocations that make iron so ductile and weak, and thus controls qualities such as the hardness, ductility, and tensile strength of the resulting iron hydride. (wikipedia.org)
  • However, iron hydride is metastable and subject to the rapid formation of a precipitated phase of gaseous dihydrogen, a process known as hydrogen embrittlement. (wikipedia.org)
  • Thus, the material properties of iron hydride are time-sensitive. (wikipedia.org)
  • One alloying element intentionally added to modify the characteristics of iron hydride is titanium. (wikipedia.org)
  • An iron hydride is a chemical system which contains iron and hydrogen in some associated form. (wikipedia.org)
  • Only a few compounds containing exclusively the two elements have been reported in technical literature, including: Molecular Iron(I) hydride (FeH). (wikipedia.org)
  • Molecular Iron(II) hydride or ferrous hydride (FeH 2). (wikipedia.org)
  • Complexes displaying iron-hydrogen bonds include, for example: iron tetracarbonyl hydride FeH2(CO)4, the first such compound to be synthesised (1931). (wikipedia.org)
  • J.V. Badding, R.J. Hemley, and H.K. Mao (1991), "High-pressure chemistry of hydrogen in metals: in situ study of iron hydride. (wikipedia.org)
  • scrap iron
  • Cast iron, consisting of scrap iron of construction grade, has been used as a reactive material for permeable reactive barriers for groundwater remediation. (wikipedia.org)
  • The company employs "hard-to-employ Cambodians" to manufacture the fish-shaped iron ingots using recycled scrap iron from a nearby factory. (wikipedia.org)
  • serum iron
  • Normal serum iron is between 60 and 170 micrograms per deciliter (μg/dL). (wikipedia.org)
  • In spite of an increased level of transferrin, serum iron level is decreased along with transferrin saturation. (wikipedia.org)
  • face-cente
  • As it cools further to 1394 °C, it changes to its γ-iron allotrope, a face-centered cubic (fcc) crystal structure, or austenite. (wikipedia.org)
  • Manganese
  • In the study area, tube well water has high concentrations of arsenic and manganese ions, which act as complexing agents in the presence of iron. (wikipedia.org)
  • Manganese is more scarce than iron oceanic crust, but is much easier for bacteria to extract from igneous glass. (wikipedia.org)
  • copper
  • Exothermic welding is usually used for welding copper conductors but is suitable for welding a wide range of metals, including stainless steel, cast iron, common steel, brass, bronze, and Monel. (wikipedia.org)
  • reactive
  • This technology uses ZVIs to form a permeable reactive barrier (PRB) which filters out contaminants in groundwater, leaving only decontaminated groundwater and dissolved iron on the other side of the PRB. (wikipedia.org)
  • Elemental iron occurs in meteoroids and other low oxygen environments, but is reactive to oxygen and water. (wikipedia.org)
  • Lunar dusts have a high content in the respirable size range, they have a high surface area that is chemically reactive, and elemental iron "nano-particles" are imbedded in the dust grains. (wikipedia.org)
  • atoms
  • As the iron passes through the Curie temperature there is no change in crystalline structure, but there is a change in "domain structure", where each domain contains iron atoms with a particular electronic spin. (wikipedia.org)
  • In all these phases the packing of iron atoms is less dense than in pure iron. (wikipedia.org)
  • cereal
  • The pediatrician told me that their main source of nutrition is still there formula up to age 1 but they do need the iron from the cereal. (justanswer.com)
  • Should I give him any iron supplements?The baby girl is doing fine with the cereal.Both babies are also eating 1-2 ounces of Gerber pureed fruits (pear and peach) per day. (justanswer.com)
  • could the iron supplements make him constipated as the oatmeal cereal with iron?Would giving him extra water help with constipation? (justanswer.com)
  • clinically
  • Occasionally pigs may show a reaction to injectable iron, clinically characterized by prostration with muscular weakness. (drugs.com)
  • stable
  • The form of iron that is stable under standard conditions can be subjected to pressures up to ca. 15 GPa before transforming into a high-pressure form, as described in the next section. (wikipedia.org)
  • At room temperature, the most stable form of pure iron is the body-centerd cubic (BCC) structure called alpha-iron or α-iron. (wikipedia.org)
  • Despite the fleeting nature of binary iron hydrides, there are many fairly stable complexes containing iron-hydrogen bonds (and other elements). (wikipedia.org)
  • metallic
  • The development of granular iron PRB technology was reliant on two advances: that metallic irons breaks down chlorinated organic compounds, and that reactions can proceed in situ under normal groundwater conditions. (wikipedia.org)
  • Starting at about 3.5 GPa of pressure, hydrogen H 2 rapidly diffuses into metallic iron (with diffusion length of about 500 mm per 10 s at 5 GPa) to form a crystalline solid with formula close to FeH. (wikipedia.org)
  • reaction
  • however, graphite inclusions have been shown can also serve as a reaction site for 2,4-Dinitrotoluene (DNT) High purity iron is another category that indicates commercial, granular iron for powder metallurgy, etc. (wikipedia.org)
  • This reaction, in which the iron expands significantly, was first inferred from the unexpected deformation of steel gaskets in diamond anvil cell experiments. (wikipedia.org)
  • oxygen
  • Most of the ocean is devoid of ferrous iron, due to both the oxidative effect of dissolved oxygen in the water and the tendency of bacteria to take up the iron. (wikipedia.org)
  • pressures
  • Because of its significance for planetary cores, the physical properties of iron at high pressures and temperatures have also been studied extensively. (wikipedia.org)
  • high
  • Since then the phase diagram of this high-pressure iron-hydrogen compound has been intensively investigated up to 70 GPa. (wikipedia.org)
  • In general, iron-oxidizing bacteria can exist only in areas with high ferrous iron concentrations, such as new lava beds or areas of hydrothermal activity. (wikipedia.org)
  • hydrogen
  • Alternatively, "electric batteries" could be located along the line, to power the train car electric motors via wire, such that elemental hydrogen is not stored aboard. (treehugger.com)
  • The gas is pumped through a container of hydrated iron(III) oxide, which combines with hydrogen sulfide. (wikipedia.org)
  • Though Earth's crust is also oxidized, with most of the iron in the form of rust in the Banded iron formations, it is not nearly as oxidized as Mars, which contains chlorides, sulfides, and no hydrogen peroxide. (wikipedia.org)
  • Oxide
  • What distinguishes MICs from traditional thermites is that the oxidizer and a reducing agent, normally iron oxide and aluminium, are in the form of extremely fine powders (nanoparticles). (wikipedia.org)
  • Some of them are: Aluminium-molybdenum(VI) oxide Aluminium-copper(II) oxide Aluminium-iron(II,III) oxide Antimony-potassium permanganate Aluminium-potassium permanganate Aluminium-bismuth(III) oxide Aluminium-tungsten(VI) oxide hydrate Aluminium-fluoropolymer (typically Viton) Titanium-boron (burns to titanium diboride) In military research, aluminium-molybdenum oxide, aluminium-Teflon and aluminium-copper(II) oxide have received considerable attention. (wikipedia.org)
  • Dietary supplements can be formulated to contain several different chemical elements (as compounds), a combination of vitamins and/or other chemical compounds, or a single element (as a compound or mixture of compounds), such as calcium (as calcium carbonate, calcium citrate, etc.) or magnesium (as magnesium oxide, etc.), or iron (as ferrous sulfate, iron bis-glycinate, etc. (wikipedia.org)
  • initially
  • Taking a systems approach, we develop and summarise the view that "serum ferritin" actually originates from damaged cells (and thus reflects cellular damage), that it contains some iron but has lost or liberated most of its normal content, and that since the protein part of ferritin is assumed to be benign, that it is this (initially) free iron that correlates with and is causative of disease. (rsc.org)
  • levels
  • The facts that serum ferritin levels can correlate with both disease and with body iron stores are thus expected on simple chemical kinetic grounds. (rsc.org)
  • In mammals (in contrast, for instance, to some functions in insects 1-4 ), ferritin is supposed to be a cellular means of storing iron, 5 not of transporting it, yet serum ferritin levels are widely measured as indicators of iron status. (rsc.org)
  • To evaluate fortification effectiveness with 5 or 10 mg of elemental iron/daily added to school meals by increasing hemoglobin levels in anemic children. (oup.com)
  • Both dosages of elemental iron were equally effective in increasing hemoglobin levels, and reducing anemia prevalence. (oup.com)
  • storage
  • Serum ferritin" presents a paradox, as the iron storage protein ferritin is not synthesised in serum yet is to be found there. (rsc.org)
  • method
  • A hydrated iron(III) fluoride (FeF 3 ·0.33 H 2 O) and hydrated multi-walled carbon nanotubes-iron(III) fluoride (MWCNT-FeF 3 ·0.33 H 2 O) composites were prepared by a simple two-step method. (springer.com)
  • However
  • However, offshore waters had lower iron concentrations and lower productivity despite macronutrient availability for phytoplankton growth. (wikipedia.org)
  • free
  • Iron is instrumental in the creation of free radicals, which cause cell damage and ageing, leading to cardiovascular conditions such as heart disease or stroke. (euyansang.com)