Loading...
  • 1955
  • He is known for introducing starch as a medium for gel electrophoresis in 1955, and for the discovery, simultaneously with Mario Capecchi and Martin Evans, of the technique of homologous recombination of transgenic DNA with genomic DNA, a much more reliable method of altering animal genomes than previously used, and the technique behind gene targeting and knockout mice. (wikipedia.org)
  • protein
  • To identify isozymes, a crude protein extract is made by grinding animal or plant tissue with an extraction buffer, and the components of extract are separated according to their charge by gel electrophoresis. (wikipedia.org)
  • 1979: Species relationships in Bulnesia as shown by seed protein electrophoresis. (springer.com)
  • Although the pH value (10.00) of the electrophoresis buffer does not correspond to a physiological pH value within a cell or tissue type, the separated ring-shaped protein bands are eluted continuously into a physiological buffer solution (pH 8.00) and isolated in different fractions (see figure Electropherogram). (wikipedia.org)
  • Gel electrophoresis and related techniques became the basis for a wide range of biochemical methods, such as protein fingerprinting, Southern blot and similar blotting procedures, DNA sequencing, and many more. (wikipedia.org)
  • The SDS-PAGE method is composed of gel preparation, sample preparation, electrophoresis, protein staining or western blotting and analysis of the generated banding pattern. (wikipedia.org)
  • enzyme
  • In particular, amino acid substitutions that change the electric charge of the enzyme (such as replacing aspartic acid with glutamic acid) are simple to identify by gel electrophoresis, and this forms the basis for the use of isozymes as molecular markers. (wikipedia.org)
  • Many different loci were tested for enzyme activity using a specific gel electrophoresis technique. (wikipedia.org)
  • The objectives of the present study were to quantify the genetic variability and genetic distance within sampled subpopulations using enzyme electrophoresis, to inform about some fishery strategies for the management of 'curimba' from the high Paraná river and to alert about the importance of heterogeneous environment preservation in foodplain ecosystems for the maintenance of high levels of genetic variability. (scielo.br)
  • Following electrophoresis, the SDS is removed from the gel (or zymogram) by incubation in unbuffered Triton X-100, followed by incubation in an appropriate digestion buffer, for an optimized length of time at 37 °C. The zymogram is subsequently stained (commonly with Amido Black or Coomassie Brilliant Blue), and areas of digestion appear as clear bands against a darkly stained background where the substrate has been degraded by the enzyme. (wikipedia.org)
  • Handbook of Enzyme Electrophoresis in Human Genetics (1976) Advances in Human Genetics (1965-1990). (wikipedia.org)
  • procedure
  • However, when charges are not all uniform then, the electrical field generated by the electrophoresis procedure will affect the species that have different charges and therefore will attract the species according to their charges being the opposite. (wikipedia.org)
  • chamber
  • Here, the same mechanism is accomplished in a commercially available electrophoresis chamber (see figure Equipment) for separating charged biomolecules, for example, superoxide dismutase (SOD) or allergens, at continuous pH conditions and different velocities of migration depending on different isoelectric points. (wikipedia.org)
  • The gel is placed in an electrophoresis chamber, which is then connected to a power source. (wikipedia.org)
  • behavior
  • Their long association with humans has led dogs to be uniquely attuned to human behavior and they are able to thrive on a starch-rich diet that would be inadequate for other canid species. (wikipedia.org)
  • method
  • This method combined with the theoretical and experimental methods for creating and analysing charged moving boundaries would form the basis of Tiselius's moving boundary electrophoresis method. (wikipedia.org)
  • Species
  • By placing the molecules in wells in the gel and applying an electric field, the molecules will move through the matrix at different rates, determined largely by their mass when the charge-to-mass ratio (Z) of all species is uniform. (wikipedia.org)
  • matrix
  • citation needed] The term "gel" in this instance refers to the matrix used to contain, then separate the target molecules. (wikipedia.org)
  • In both cases, the gel forms a solid, yet porous matrix. (wikipedia.org)
  • citation needed] Electrophoresis refers to the electromotive force (EMF) that is used to move the molecules through the gel matrix. (wikipedia.org)
  • IPGs are the acrylamide gel matrix co-polymerized with the pH gradient, which result in completely stable gradients except the most alkaline (>12) pH values. (wikipedia.org)
  • further
  • At this point the molecule no longer has a net electric charge (due to the protonation or deprotonation of the associated functional groups) and as such will not proceed any further within the gel. (wikipedia.org)
  • usually
  • citation needed] Bands in different lanes that end up at the same distance from the top contain molecules that passed through the gel with the same speed, which usually means they are approximately the same size. (wikipedia.org)
  • For pouring the gel solution, the plates are usually clamped in a stand which temporarily seals the otherwise open underside of the glass plates with the two spacers. (wikipedia.org)
  • For the gel solution, acrylamide is mixed as gel-former (usually 4% V/V in the stacking gel and 10-12 % in the separating gel), methylenebisacrylamide as a cross-linker, stacking or separating gel buffer, water and SDS. (wikipedia.org)
  • The lower gel (separating gel) is poured first and covered with a few drops of a barely water-soluble alcohol (usually buffer-saturated butanol or isopropanol), which eliminates bubbles from the meniscus and protects the gel solution of the radical scavenger oxygen. (wikipedia.org)
  • basic
  • Early work with the basic principle of electrophoresis dates to the early 19th century, based on Faraday's laws of electrolysis proposed in the late 18th century and other early electrochemistry. (wikipedia.org)
  • specific
  • In most cases, the gel is a crosslinked polymer whose composition and porosity is chosen based on the specific weight and composition of the target to be analyzed. (wikipedia.org)
  • time
  • All homogenates were centrifuged at 25,000 rpm for 30 min in a refrigerated centrifuge with temperature ranging from 1 to 5 o C, and stored at -20 o C until the time for electrophoresis. (scielo.br)
  • system
  • In this context, a multi-junction IEF system was developed to perform fast and gel-free IEF separations. (wikipedia.org)
  • activity
  • A common protocol used in the past for zymography of α-amylase activity was the so-called starch film protocol of W.W. Doane. (wikipedia.org)
  • buffer
  • For the gel solution, acrylamide is mixed as gel-former (usually 4% V/V in the stacking gel and 10-12 % in the separating gel), methylenebisacrylamide as a cross-linker, stacking or separating gel buffer, water and SDS. (wikipedia.org)
  • The lower gel (separating gel) is poured first and covered with a few drops of a barely water-soluble alcohol (usually buffer-saturated butanol or isopropanol), which eliminates bubbles from the meniscus and protects the gel solution of the radical scavenger oxygen. (wikipedia.org)
  • large
  • In contrast to the poor response rates for systemic chemotherapy, a large number of reports have shown promising response rates of 40-68 for a variety of agents which may be administered through the hepatic artery as a bolus injection, often with some agent such as lipiodol, microspheres, or starch which allows for arteriolar embolization. (euroformhealthcare.biz)
  • Healthy epidermal cells contain a large central vacuole surrounded by a thin cytoplasmic layer with endoplasmic reticulum, chloroplasts with well-developed grana, starch granules, and osmophilic globules. (wikipedia.org)
  • Chloroplasts become large and irregular with large starch granules inside of them as well as other internal alterations to the chloroplasts. (wikipedia.org)
  • different
  • In this chapter also the effects of different heat treatments on the electrophoretic behaviour of cashew nut allergens from various origins were studied, using both 1D and 2D electrophoresis. (wur.nl)
  • However, when charges are not all uniform then, the electrical field generated by the electrophoresis procedure will affect the species that have different charges and therefore will attract the species according to their charges being the opposite. (wikipedia.org)
  • individual
  • If several samples have been loaded into adjacent wells in the gel, they will run parallel in individual lanes. (wikipedia.org)