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  • particles
  • It can also be used to separate large proteins, and it is the preferred matrix for the gel electrophoresis of particles with effective radii larger than 5-10 nm. (wikipedia.org)
  • Electrophoresis (from the Greek "Ηλεκτροφόρηση" meaning "to bear electrons") is the motion of dispersed particles relative to a fluid under the influence of a spatially uniform electric field. (wikipedia.org)
  • This electrokinetic phenomenon was observed for the first time in 1807 by Russian professors Peter Ivanovich Strakhov and Ferdinand Frederic Reuss (Moscow State University), who noticed that the application of a constant electric field caused clay particles dispersed in water to migrate. (wikipedia.org)
  • Suspended particles have an electric surface charge, strongly affected by surface adsorbed species, on which an external electric field exerts an electrostatic Coulomb force. (wikipedia.org)
  • Microbiology
  • As the field of microbiology becomes increasingly more centered on microbial community structure, exometabolomics has provided for rapid understanding of metabolic interactions between two or more species. (wikipedia.org)
  • voltage
  • As long as the alternating fields are equal with respect to the voltage and pulse duration, the DNA will migrate in a straight path down the gel (see below). (bio-rad.com)
  • Each vector (angle of pulse) can be assigned its own voltage (field intensity) and its own switch time (duration of pulse). (bio-rad.com)
  • Extended runs across a low voltage gel yield the most accurate resolution. (wikipedia.org)
  • Once the nucleic acid is properly prepared, the samples of the nucleic acid solution are placed in the wells of the gel and a voltage is applied across the gel for a specified amount of time. (wikipedia.org)
  • Citation
  • citation needed] The term "gel" in this instance refers to the matrix used to contain, then separate the target molecules. (wikipedia.org)
  • citation needed] Electrophoresis refers to the electromotive force (EMF) that is used to move the molecules through the gel matrix. (wikipedia.org)
  • citation needed] Bands in different lanes that end up at the same distance from the top contain molecules that passed through the gel with the same speed, which usually means they are approximately the same size. (wikipedia.org)
  • procedure
  • However, when charges are not all uniform then, the electrical field generated by the electrophoresis procedure will affect the species that have different charges and therefore will attract the species according to their charges being the opposite. (wikipedia.org)
  • 2017
  • Denise P. Barlow (31 January 1950 - 21 October 2017) was a British geneticist who worked in the field of epigenomics. (wikipedia.org)
  • species
  • By placing the molecules in wells in the gel and applying an electric field, the molecules will move through the matrix at different rates, determined largely by their mass when the charge-to-mass ratio (Z) of all species is uniform. (wikipedia.org)
  • electric field
  • When the orientation of the electric field is changed during electrophoresis, the DNA molecules must return to their elongated form prior to reorientation, thus affecting the migration rate. (bio-rad.com)
  • The electric field consists of a negative charge at one end which pushes the molecules through the gel, and a positive charge at the other end that pulls the molecules through the gel. (wikipedia.org)
  • The electric field also exerts a force on the ions in the diffuse layer which has direction opposite to that acting on the surface charge. (wikipedia.org)
  • wells
  • If several samples have been loaded into adjacent wells in the gel, they will run parallel in individual lanes. (wikipedia.org)
  • manipulation
  • The lower sulphate content of low EEO agarose, particularly low-melting point (LMP) agarose, is also beneficial in cases where the DNA extracted from gel is to be used for further manipulation as the presence of contaminating sulphates may affect some subsequent procedures, such as ligation and PCR. (wikipedia.org)
  • composition
  • In most cases, the gel is a crosslinked polymer whose composition and porosity is chosen based on the specific weight and composition of the target to be analyzed. (wikipedia.org)
  • angle
  • one that runs through the central axis of the gel and two that run at an angle of 60 degrees either side. (wikipedia.org)
  • However
  • However, with periodic changing of field direction, the various lengths of DNA react to the change at differing rates. (wikipedia.org)
  • Low-concentration gels (0.1 - 0.2%) however are fragile and therefore hard to handle. (wikipedia.org)
  • However, Debye length must be important for electrophoresis, as follows immediately from the Figure on the right. (wikipedia.org)
  • main
  • In a normal plasmid DNA preparation, multiple forms of DNA may be present, and gel from the electrophoresis of the plasmids would normally show a main band which would be the negatively supercoiled form, while other forms of DNA may appear as minor fainter bands. (wikipedia.org)
  • molecules
  • Rather than being immobilized within a gel matrix, DNA molecules were held in place by electrostatic interactions on a positively charged surface. (wikipedia.org)
  • ions
  • The ions are accelerated in the electric field of the mass spectrometer and fly towards an ion detector where their arrival is detected as an electric signal. (wikipedia.org)
  • Experiments by Johann Wilhelm Hittorf, Walther Nernst, and Friedrich Kohlrausch to measure the properties and behavior of small ions moving through aqueous solutions under the influence of an electric field led to general mathematical descriptions of the electrochemistry of aqueous solutions. (wikipedia.org)
  • laser
  • We report on the generation of harmonic-like photon upconversion in a LiNbO3-based nonlinear photonic crystal by mid-infrared (MIR) femtosecond laser pulses. (readbyqxmd.com)
  • Hillenkamp, Karas and their fellow researchers were able to ionize the amino acid alanine by mixing it with the amino acid tryptophan and irradiated with a pulse 266 nm laser. (wikipedia.org)