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  • Ions
  • As electrons are passed through the chain by a series of oxidation-reduction reactions, energy is released, creating a gradient of hydrogen ions, or protons, across the membrane. (news-medical.net)
  • Why Do Some Atoms Gain or Lose Electrons to Form Ions? (reference.com)
  • This last electron, sorry the electron then gets past here to this last complex where again hydrogen ions are moved across the membrane and the used up energy electrons. (brightstorm.com)
  • Nevertheless, recent discoveries have revealed that many Geobacter species, such as G. uraniireducens, not only do not possess highly conductive pili, but also do not need direct physical contact in order to utilize the metal ions as TEAs, suggesting that there is a great variety of extracellular electron transport mechanisms among the Geobacter species. (wikipedia.org)
  • Provided with ethanol and sodium fumarate, G. metallireducens broke down the ethanol, generating an excess of electrons that were passed to G. sulfurreducens via "nanowires" grown between them, enabling G. sulfurreducens to break down the fumarate ions. (wikipedia.org)
  • In contrast to plants, green sulfur bacteria mainly use sulfide ions as electron donors. (wikipedia.org)
  • Green sulfur bacteria use sulfide ions, hydrogen or ferrous iron as electron donors and the process is mediated by the Type I reaction centre and Fenna-Matthews-Olson complex. (wikipedia.org)
  • acceptors
  • Geobacter was found to be the first organism with the ability to oxidize organic compounds and metals, including iron, radioactive metals, and petroleum compounds into environmentally benign carbon dioxide while using iron oxide or other available metals as electron acceptors. (wikipedia.org)
  • oxygen
  • But, if electrons were added directly to oxygen, the reaction probably would produce enough heat to damage the cells and result in too small an amount of captured energy to be a significant source for future energy needs. (cliffsnotes.com)
  • hydrogen
  • Each hydrogen atom is split into its constituent H + (hydrogen ion) and electron. (s-cool.co.uk)
  • These electrons flow through wires to the stainless steel electrode, where four of them react with four water molecules to form two molecules of hydrogen and 4 OH groups. (wikipedia.org)
  • thylakoid membrane
  • This form of photophosphorylation occurs on the thylakoid membrane .In cyclic photophosphorylation ,The high energy electron realsed from P700 to ps1 flow down in a cyclic pathway. (wikipedia.org)
  • membrane
  • The Transporter Classification Database (or TCDB) is an International Union of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology (IUBMB)-approved classification system for membrane transport proteins, including ion channels. (wikipedia.org)
  • Many transmembrane proteins function as gateways to permit the transport of specific substances across the biological membrane. (wikipedia.org)
  • molecule
  • VSEPR, or valence shell electron pair repulsion, is a model used to predict the geometry of a molecule. (reference.com)
  • In bacteria, the only electron chauffeur is a molecule called menaquinone (MK) that has species-specific variations in its structure. (medicalnewstoday.com)
  • The two electrons from the water molecule are kept in photosystem II, while the 2H+ and 1/2O2 are left out for further use. (wikipedia.org)
  • cytochromes
  • Cytochromes within the biofilm associate with pili to form extracellular structures called nanowires, which facilitate extracellular electron transfer throughout the biofilm. (wikipedia.org)
  • 1997
  • With Daniel Loss (at the University of Basel), he proposed the Loss-DiVincenzo quantum computer in 1997, which would use electron spins in quantum dots as qubits. (wikipedia.org)
  • moves
  • The E(k) relation describes how the particle moves inside the device, in addition to depicting useful information necessary for transport such as the density of states (DOS) and the particle velocity. (wikipedia.org)
  • transfer
  • Many Geobacter species, such as G. sulfureducens, are capable of creating thick networks of biofilms on microbial fuel cell anodes for extracellular electron transfer. (wikipedia.org)
  • semiconductors
  • The Boltzmann transport equation model has been the main tool used in the analysis of transport in semiconductors. (wikipedia.org)
  • Nag's work focused on semiconductors and it helped in widening our understanding of the electrical transport phenomena in those high electrical resistant solids. (wikipedia.org)
  • He contributed to the development of electron transport theory related to semiconductors and developed a Monte Carlo method for the computation of coefficients related to velocity correlation, diffusion and noise parameters. (wikipedia.org)
  • He authored three monographs, Theory of electrical transport in semiconductors, Physics of Quantum Well Devices and Electron Transport in Compound Semiconductors of which the last mentioned is reported to be a significant reference text for researchers. (wikipedia.org)
  • Theory of electrical transport in semiconductors. (wikipedia.org)
  • Electron Transport in Compound Semiconductors. (wikipedia.org)
  • energy
  • The semiclassical equation describing the motion of an electron is d r d t = 1 ℏ ∇ k E ( k ) {\displaystyle {\frac {dr}{dt}}={\frac {1}{\hbar }}\nabla _{k}E(k)} d k d t = q F ( r ) ℏ {\displaystyle {\frac {dk}{dt}}={\frac {qF(r)}{\hbar }}} where F is the electric field, E(k) is the energy dispersion relation, and k is the momentum wave vector. (wikipedia.org)
  • To make an electron configuration list, first find the atomic number, then count up the number of electrons and list them in the appropriate energy level a. (reference.com)
  • Now the electron transport system is this last step here, so we began with glycolsis breaking apart the glucose forming pyruvate and spitting off some high energy electrons in the form, are being carried on the electron carrier NADH. (brightstorm.com)
  • And what they do is they take the high energy electrons that are being carried by NADH or FADH2 and they pass them one to the next which is why collectively it's called an electron transport system. (brightstorm.com)
  • And so the electron loses a little bit of it's energy but it still has a fair amount of energy just when electrons go through a wire from a battery to a battery powered fan those electrons are losing some of their energy as they turn that fan. (brightstorm.com)
  • His studies revealed the non-parabolic nature of electron energy dispersion in narrow quantum wells and this modified the theory of interface roughness scattering limited mobility for Quantum Wells with finite barrier height and Well width. (wikipedia.org)
  • InSb is a narrow-gap semiconductor with an energy band gap of 0.17 eV at 300 K and 0.23 eV at 80 K. Undoped InSb possesses the largest ambient-temperature electron mobility (78000 cm2/(V*s)), electron drift velocity, and ballistic length (up to 0.7 μm at 300 K) of any known semiconductor, except for carbon nanotubes. (wikipedia.org)
  • mainly
  • Further analysis of these data yields the ratios ce/ci and ce/De, and their values are consistent with the picture that the electron transport is mainly induced by the short wavelength fluctuations in the plasma core where the long wavelength (kri {approximately} 1) fluctuations are absent. (unt.edu)
  • reaction
  • The reaction begins when NADH binds to Complex I, transferring two electrons to the flavin mononucleotide (FMN) prosthetic group, resulting in the formation of FMNH2. (news-medical.net)