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  • electroreceptors
  • In order to get information about an object, the fish has to analyze the object's electric image by sampling its voltage distribution with the electroreceptors. (spie.org)
  • The mechanism for a change in tuning that has been established for electroreceptors in adult mormyrids and gymnotiforms, where the spectral properties of the EOD of a fish entrain its electroreceptors, is not found in the larvae of Pollimyrus isidori, which 'anticipate' the tuning necessary for the reception of their own, future adult EOD. (uni-regensburg.de)
  • genome
  • New research, which includes the first draft assembly of the complete genome of an electric fish, the South American electric eel, identifies the genetic factors the animals used to create an organ that can deliver a jolt several times more powerful than standard household current. (wisc.edu)
  • Thanks to the recent availability of electric fish genome sequences, Michigan State University researchers hope to harness the power of CRISPR/Cas9 gene editing in electric fish to make a new type of model for biology. (scienmag.com)
  • pulses
  • We applied the principles of active electrolocation to devices that produce electrical current pulses in water and simultaneously sense local current densities. (spie.org)
  • We developed an apparatus to allow realistic stimulation and simultaneous recording of electric pulses in freely moving Gymnotus carapo for very long periods-several days. (arxiv.org)
  • A stimulus fish was mimicked by a dipole electrode that reproduced the voltage time series of real conspecific pulses,but according to timestamp sequences previously recorded that could be chosen by the experimenter. (arxiv.org)
  • The pulses are spaced at just the right frequency to cause the fish to quickly become immobilized. (everythingselectric.com)
  • generate
  • An electric eel can generate enough current to stun its prey, just like a Taser. (nsf.gov)
  • Using CRISPR/Cas9 gene editing technologies, Gallant's team will be able to generate mutant lines of transgenic electric fish as well. (scienmag.com)
  • bats
  • As a means of communication and navigation in the dark, the generation of electric fields by fish works much the same as echolocation does for bats, says Albert. (wisc.edu)
  • lineages
  • Worldwide, there are hundreds of electric fish in six broad lineages. (wisc.edu)
  • We found that a sodium channel gene (Na(v)1.4a) that is expressed in muscle in nonelectric fishes has lost its expression in muscle and is expressed instead in the evolutionarily novel electric organ in both lineages of electric fishes. (ku.edu)
  • This gene appears to be evolving under positive selection in both lineages, facilitated by its restricted expression in the electric organ. (ku.edu)
  • fish's
  • When close to the fish, each object projects an 'electric image' onto the fish's skin. (spie.org)
  • Voltage time series from a 3dimensional array of sensitive dipoles that detects electric field in several positions underwater were digitized and home made real-time software allowed reliable recording of pulse timestamps,independently of the fish's position,and also to infer fish movement. (arxiv.org)
  • fields
  • They use these electric fields in social communication and to detect objects," explains Johns Hopkins University neuroethologist Eric Fortune. (nsf.gov)
  • They describe batch electrical systems deploying AC electric fields where several minutes of operation are required to ensure that every fish in the batch is dead. (aquafeed.co.uk)
  • In the world of wild fish management in freshwater environments, the generation of electric fields in water has long been a useful tool in the non-destructive capture of fish for scientific study or selective removal from water bodies (electrofishing equipment) and also in the blocking/guiding of upstream/downstream migrating fish and the exclusion of invasive fish species (electric fish barriers). (aquafeed.co.uk)
  • The deployment of AC electric fields in water has long been discontinued for such purposes in most parts of the world due to the danger posed to fish wellbeing and operator safety. (aquafeed.co.uk)
  • As the electric fields are controllable, the same device can be used at low settings for grading and vaccination purposes and at higher settings during harvest operations. (aquafeed.co.uk)
  • murky
  • The work establishes the genetic basis for the electric organ, an anatomical feature found only in fish and that evolved independently half a dozen times in environments ranging from the flooded forests of the Amazon to murky marine environments. (wisc.edu)
  • The electric organ is used by fish in murky environments to communicate with mates, navigate, stun prey and as a shocking defense, probably a reason why the muddy Amazon and its tributaries teem with electric fish, including the electric eel, the most potent of them. (wisc.edu)
  • The electric organ is used by fish in murky environments to communicate with mates, navigate, stun prey and as a shocking defense. (wisc.edu)
  • It allows them to analyse and distinguish the distance, form and electrical properties of objects and thus to 'see' these objects in conditions where vision is impaired (e.g. in murky waters or at night). (mapoflife.org)
  • shrimp
  • Our outdoor electric fryers are perfect for fish, shrimp, chicken, oysters or any other fried item you can think up-why not go State Fair-crazy and try something wacky like fried beer? (sausagemaker.com)
  • Animal protein is from fish meal, shrimp meal, crab meal, sleeve-fish meal and so on you can add other ingredient according to requirements andfeed any different animals (pets, poultries, fish livestocks, and so on). (digit-life.com)
  • electricity
  • Much of what Benjamin Franklin and other pioneering scientists learned about electricity came from studies of electric fish. (wisc.edu)
  • Fish have eyes, but they live in a much more complex sensory world, where even electricity plays a surprising - and convergent - role. (mapoflife.org)
  • It is well known, from a multitude of scientific papers, that AC electricity physically damages fish, internally and externally, yet in-water and dry-electric fish stunners still use this waveform during farmed fish harvest operations. (aquafeed.co.uk)
  • We took note of those academic papers, and, in particular, the wild fishery papers which plead for a ban on AC electric fishing and we, at Fish Management Systems, have produced a device which does not use AC electricity in the water. (aquafeed.co.uk)
  • stun
  • It is also known from those same sources that the fish must be maintained in the stun field for more than three seconds, more likely eight seconds for non-recovery, before being killed by another method e.g. bleeding. (aquafeed.co.uk)
  • Firstly, an in-line, in-water, stun-kill system (SKS) has been developed for the harvest of portion sized farmed fish. (aquafeed.co.uk)
  • prey
  • The electric eel ( Electrophorus electricus ) is probably the best-known representative of the strongly electric fish that produce electric shocks of up to several hundred volts mainly for stunning prey or predators. (mapoflife.org)
  • gene
  • A gene that is particularly important for electric cells is the voltage-gated sodium channel. (eurekalert.org)
  • Also, in an exciting discovery, they found this same Scn4aa gene expression pattern in a species of fish that uses sound to communicate, showing another extraordinary evolutionary adaption from the ancient gene duplication. (eurekalert.org)
  • Making this connection is an important goal across disciplines of biology, and we want to develop a robust, accessible and easily transferable gene manipulation toolbox to allow the electric fish model to help achieve that goal,' Gallant said. (scienmag.com)
  • They will work to create large colonies of electric fish at MSU and the University of Oklahoma, and develop new techniques for 'knocking down' gene function using morpholinos and introducing foreign genetic material using retroviruses. (scienmag.com)
  • Developing genetic tools for monitoring and manipulating gene activity in electric fish would revolutionize the field and enable a wave of new studies that exploit the unique features of these organisms for addressing central questions in biology at a level of resolution not possible in other vertebrate systems. (scienmag.com)
  • This view is reinforced by the lack of evidence for selection on this gene in one electric species in which expression of this gene is retained in muscle. (ku.edu)