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  • refers
  • citation needed] Specifically, efficacy refers to "whether a drug demonstrates a health benefit over a placebo or other intervention when tested in an ideal situation, such as a tightly controlled clinical trial. (wikipedia.org)
  • citation needed] Effectiveness refers "how the drug works in a real-world situation," and is "often lower than efficacy because of interactions with other medications or health conditions of the patient, sufficient dose or duration of use not prescribed by the physician or followed by the patient, or use for an off-label condition that had not been tested. (wikipedia.org)
  • Glycemic efficacy refers to the capacity of regulated glycemic levels to produce an effect in people with diabetes and heart disease. (wikipedia.org)
  • Vaccine
  • Efficiency (disambiguation) Placebo (origins of technical term) Potency (pharmacology) Vaccine efficacy Holford NHG & Sheiner LB (1981). (wikipedia.org)
  • Vaccine efficacy is the percentage reduction of disease in a vaccinated group of people compared to an unvaccinated group, using the most favorable conditions. (wikipedia.org)
  • Vaccine efficacy was designed and calculated by Greenwood and Yule in 1915 for the cholera and typhoid vaccines. (wikipedia.org)
  • The outcome data (vaccine efficacy) generally are expressed as a proportionate reduction in disease attack rate (AR) between the unvaccinated (ARU) and vaccinated (ARV) studies can be calculated from the relative risk (RR) of disease among the vaccinated group with use of the following formulas. (wikipedia.org)
  • The basic formula is written as: V E = A R U − A R V A R U ( × 100 ) , {\displaystyle VE={\frac {ARU-ARV}{ARU}}\quad (\times 100),} with V E {\textstyle VE} = Vaccine efficacy, A R U {\displaystyle ARU} = Attack rate of unvaccinated people, A R V {\displaystyle ARV} = Attack rate of vaccinated people. (wikipedia.org)
  • An alternative, equivalent formulation of vaccine efficacy V E = 1 − R R , {\displaystyle VE=1-RR,} where R R {\displaystyle RR} is the relative risk of developing the disease for vaccinated people compared to unvaccinated people. (wikipedia.org)
  • Since vaccine efficacy is based on a population that are placed in certain controlled environment, this study becomes more effective. (wikipedia.org)
  • What makes the vaccine efficacy applicable is that it also shows the disease attack rates as well as a tracking of vaccination status. (wikipedia.org)
  • however, the vaccine efficacy is more expensive and very difficult to conduct. (wikipedia.org)
  • The advantages of a vaccine efficacy have control for all biases that would be found with randomization, as well as prospective, active monitoring for disease attack rates, and careful tracking of vaccination status for a study population there is normally a subset as well, laboratory confirmation of the infectious outcome of interest and a sampling of vaccine immunogenicity. (wikipedia.org)
  • Vaccine efficacy is calculated on a population basis. (wikipedia.org)
  • Absolute efficacy against both types of influenza, as measured by isolating the virus in culture, identifying it on real-time polymerase-chain-reaction assay, or both, was 68 percent (95 percent confidence interval [CI], 46 to 81) for the inactivated vaccine and 36 percent (95 percent CI, 0 to 59) for the live attenuated vaccine. (wikipedia.org)
  • In terms of relative efficacy, there was a 50 percent (95 percent CI, 20 to 69) reduction in laboratory-confirmed influenza among subjects who received inactivated vaccine as compared with those given live attenuated vaccine. (wikipedia.org)
  • Since 2004, clinical trials testing the efficacy of the influenza vaccine have been drifting in: 2058 people were vaccinated in October and November 2005. (wikipedia.org)
  • trials
  • The FDA Animal Efficacy Rule (also known as Animal Rule) applies to development and testing of drugs and biologicals to reduce or prevent serious/life-threatening conditions caused by exposure to lethal or permanently disabling toxic agents (chemical, biological, radiological, or nuclear substances), where human efficacy trials are not feasible or ethical. (wikipedia.org)
  • beliefs
  • It reviews in considerable detail the origins of efficacy beliefs, their structure, the processes through which they affect human well-being and accomplishments, and how these processes can be developed and enlisted for human betterment. (wikipedia.org)
  • In Contemporary Psychology, James E. Maddux wrote that "Bandura's aim is to 'document the many ways in which efficacy beliefs operate in concert with other socio-cognitive determinants in governing human adaptation and change' (p. vii). (wikipedia.org)
  • agonists
  • According to Zeev Vlodaver, Robert F. Wilson and Daniel J. Garry, "exenatide and liraglutide are synthetic GLP-1 agonists and have demonstrated glycemic efficacy (HbA1c reductions of between 0.7 and 2%) associated with mild weight loss. (wikipedia.org)
  • sufficient
  • The word efficacy is used in pharmacology and medicine to refer both to the maximum response achievable from a pharmaceutical drug in research settings, and to the capacity for sufficient therapeutic effect or beneficial change in clinical settings. (wikipedia.org)
  • 2002
  • The Association for Applied Psychophysiology has developed the following criteria for setting the level of evidence for efficacy (Moss and Gunkelman 2002, LaVaque et al 2002): It is very similar to the rating schemes developed by other organizations such as the American Psychological Association. (aapb.org)
  • The animal efficacy rule was finalized by the FDA and authorized by the United States Congress in 2002, following the September 11 attacks and concerns regarding bioterrorism. (wikipedia.org)
  • types
  • There are, of course, also certain types of prayer whose efficacy can not (by definition) be measured in the physical world, e.g. (wikipedia.org)
  • This book provides the information to choose the right methods for proving efficacy and/or safety of all types of cosmetics. (google.com)
  • Analyses of these data expanded the types of regulatory sites known to be effective in flies, expanded the mRNA regions with detectable targeting to include 5′ untranslated regions, and identified features of site context that correlate with targeting efficacy in fly cells. (springer.com)
  • belief
  • In political science, political efficacy is the citizens' faith and trust in government and their belief that they can understand and influence political affairs. (wikipedia.org)
  • study
  • The NEJM did a study on the A flu efficacy Influenza virus. (wikipedia.org)
  • Drug Efficacy Study Implementation (DESI) was a program begun by the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) in the 1960s after the requirement (in the Kefauver-Harris Drug Control Act) that all drugs be efficacious as well as safe, was made part of US law. (wikipedia.org)
  • The Drug Efficacy Study Implementation (DESI) evaluated over 3000 separate products and over 16,000 therapeutic claims. (wikipedia.org)
  • The Drug Efficacy Study of the National Research Council's Division of Medical Sciences, 1966-1969 Chhabra R, Kremzner ME, Kiliany BJ. (wikipedia.org)
  • human
  • The luminous efficacy of a source is the product of how well it converts energy to electromagnetic radiation, and how well the emitted radiation is detected by the human eye. (wikipedia.org)
  • evidence
  • In women with bicornuate uterus and in need of contraception, two IUDs are generally applied (one in each horn) due to lack of evidence of efficacy with only one IUD. (wikipedia.org)
  • possible
  • Luminous efficacy can be normalized by the maximum possible luminous efficacy to a dimensionless quantity called luminous efficiency. (wikipedia.org)
  • Photopic luminous efficacy of radiation has a maximum possible value of 683 lm/W, for the case of monochromatic light at a wavelength of 555 nm (green). (wikipedia.org)
  • When expressed in dimensionless form (for example, as a fraction of the maximum possible luminous efficacy), this value may be called luminous efficiency of a source, overall luminous efficiency or lighting efficiency. (wikipedia.org)
  • biological
  • It is the combined influence of both affinity and efficacy which will determine how effectively a drug will produced a biological effect, a property known as potency. (wikipedia.org)
  • work
  • How we rate the efficacy of our treatments or how to know if our treatments actually work. (aapb.org)
  • The implication of this work is that efficacy has to be defined by at least two equilibrium constants (or, more generally, by four rate constants). (wikipedia.org)
  • high
  • When citizens have high efficacy, they have faith in their government and believe that they have the ability to influence political leaders and affect the government. (wikipedia.org)
  • relative
  • citation needed] Establishment of the efficacy of an intervention is often done relative to other available interventions, with which it will have been compared. (wikipedia.org)
  • The efficacy against the influenza A virus was 72 percent and for the inactivated was 29 percent with a relative efficacy of 60 percent. (wikipedia.org)
  • difference
  • The main difference between the luminous efficacy of radiation and the luminous efficacy of a source is that the latter accounts for input energy that is lost as heat or otherwise exits the source as something other than electromagnetic radiation. (wikipedia.org)
  • 2013. Making a Difference: Political Efficacy and Policy Preference Construction. (wikipedia.org)
  • products
  • books.google.com - With the new Cosmetics Directive of the European Union, manufacturers and distributors of cosmetics are required to keep a dossier of products containing information on product safety and efficacy. (google.com)
  • control
  • Though both share similar antecedents, general efficacy is thought to be more resistant to ephemeral influences and more tied to other self-evaluation constructs such as self-esteem or locus of control. (wikipedia.org)
  • example
  • In medicine, efficacy is the capacity for beneficial change (or therapeutic effect) of a given intervention (for example a drug, medical device, surgical procedure, or a public health intervention). (wikipedia.org)
  • actions
  • When citizens have low efficacy, they do not have faith in their government and do not believe that their actions affect the government and the actions of their political leaders. (wikipedia.org)
  • greater
  • The maximum response, Emax, will be reduced if efficacy is sufficiently low, but any efficacy greater than 20 or so gives essentially the same maximum response. (wikipedia.org)
  • safety
  • Safety, Pharmacokinetics and Efficacy of an AT-III Concentrate. (clinicaltrials.gov)
  • To assess the safety, pharmacokinetics and efficacy of a plasma-derived AT-III concentrate in the treatment of subjects with congenital AT-III deficiency. (clinicaltrials.gov)
  • A Phase II/III Pivotal Trial Evaluating the Safety, Pharmacokinetic Properties and Efficacy of a Plasma-Derived Anti-thrombin III Concentrate With Administration in Surgery, Pregnancy and Thromboembolic or Thrombotic Events. (clinicaltrials.gov)