• The excitatory potency of the acidic amino acids glutamate and aspartate in various regions of the central nervous system (CNS) has been recognized since the 1960 s. 1,2 Nevertheless, the earlier findings that these amino acids are ( 1 ) constituents of intermediary metabolism and are ( 2 ) located in the brain ubiquitously in high concentrations rendered them unlikely candidates as neurotransmitters. (springer.com)
  • Neurotoxicity of excitatory amino acids. (springer.com)
  • There is evidence to suggest that SP modulates neuronal membrane excitability by virtue of slow synaptic currents ( 19 ), raises intracellular Ca 2+ concentrations ( 20 ), and enhances responses to excitatory amino acids ( 21 ). (pnas.org)
  • To study potential molecular mechanisms of epileptogenesis in the neocortex, the motor cortex of rats was injected with tetanus toxin (TT), and gene expression for 67 kDa glutamic acid decarboxylase (GAD-67), type II calcium/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase (CaMKII), NMDA receptor subunit 1 (NR1), and AMPA receptor subunit 2 (GluR2) was investigated by in situ hybridization histochemistry. (jneurosci.org)
  • A majority of rats perfused 5-7 d after TT injection showed altered gene expression, but the changes varied in their areal extent, ranging from most neocortical areas on the injected side in some rats to mainly the frontoparietal cortex or the motor cortex in others. (jneurosci.org)
  • Epileptic rats perfused 14 d after TT injection showed a focus of increased GAD-67 and NR1, and of decreased α-CaMKII and GluR2 mRNA levels at the injection site. (jneurosci.org)
  • Corticosterone effects were studied in vivo by treating rats s.c. with 10 mg/kg corticosterone for 7 or 14 days. (sun.ac.za)
  • Bipolar electrodes were implanted into the CA1 pyramidal cells of the dorsal hippocampus and the effect of electrical stimulation of these cells on corticosterone secretion was investigated in freely moving rats. (sun.ac.za)
  • Rats receiving a single kainic acid injection experienced a single sustained episode of epileptic status with massive neuronal loss and mossy fiber sprouting, whereas rats receiving triple kainic acid injections experienced two priming episodes and one sustained episode of epileptic status with no detectable neuronal loss and mossy fiber sprouting. (jneurosci.org)
  • Eppler B, Dawson Jr R (1998) The effects of aging on taurine content and biosynthesis in different strains of rats. (springer.com)
  • We show here that intrahippocampal administration of SP triggers self-sustaining status epilepticus (SSSE) in response to stimulation of the perforant path for periods too brief to have any effect in control rats, and this SSSE generates a pattern of acute hippocampal damage resembling that known to occur in human epilepsy. (pnas.org)
  • Thus، this research study was conducted to assess the effect of metformin on learning and memory in diabetic rats. (magiran.com)
  • Corticosterone also did not appear to have a direct membrane effect on the NA terminals in the dorsal hippocampus of the rat. (sun.ac.za)
  • The aim of the present study was to investigate whether the hippocampus exerts a modulatory effect on the activity of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis. (sun.ac.za)
  • T. Kanamatsu, J. Obie, L. Grimes, J. F. McGinty, K. Yoshikawa, S. Sabol, and J. S. Hong, Kainic acid alters the metabolism of Met5-enkephalin and the level of dynorphin A in the rat hippocampus. (springer.com)
  • J. S. Hong, L. Grimes, T. Kanamatsu, and J. F. McGinty, Kainic acid as a tool to study the regulation and function of opioid peptides in the hippocampus. (springer.com)
  • GABA benzodiazepine and histamine-H1 receptors in the guinea pig cerebellum: effects of kainic acid injections studied by autoradiographic methods. (nih.gov)
  • By using kainic acid (KA) to perform chemical lesions in the guinea pig cerebellum, we have caused degeneration of Purkinje cells without affecting cell morphology. (nih.gov)
  • in this study, we examine the role of mild forced treadmill exercise and GABA-B agonist on locomotor activity and anxiety-behavior dysfunction of ibotenic acid injection in striatum. (aassjournal.com)
  • Garthwaite G, Garthwaite J. Amino acid neurotoxicity: intracellular sites of calcium accumulation associated with the onset of irreversible damage to rat cerebellar neurones in vitro. (springer.com)
  • Near the injection site we found a large decrease in autoradiographically labeled histamine-H1 and benzodiazepine receptors of the molecular layer while those receptors distant from the injection site were unaffected. (nih.gov)
  • We found that kainic acid not only induced neurodegeneration but also arouse several caspase 3-mediated molecular and cellular changes including dendritic plasticity, neurogenesis, and gliosis. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Bowers MB Jr, Hoffman FJ (1986) Homovanillic acid in caudate and pre-frontal cortex following acute and chronic neuroleptic administration. (springer.com)
  • 8. Montoya C, Astell S, Dunnett S. Effects of nigral and striatal grafts on skilled forelimb use in the rat. (aassjournal.com)
  • Keppra Injection is for intravenous use only as an alternative for patients when oral administration is temporarily not feasible. (drugs.com)
  • Keppra Injection is for intravenous use only and should be diluted in 100 mL of a compatible diluent prior to administration. (drugs.com)
  • When allowance was made for the withdrawal effects of antipsychotic drug administration, a genuine tolerance phenomenon was observed in all three areas examined. (springer.com)
  • Therefore, the most effective ablation studies are performed in comparison to a sham lesion that duplicates all the steps of producing a brain lesion except the one that actually causes the brain damage, that is, injection of kainic acid or administration of an electrical shock. (wikipedia.org)
  • We also determined that the messenger RNA of inducible nitric oxide synthase was downregulated by PFD treatment as measured 6 h after the KA injection. (sigmaaldrich.com)
  • Anderson GD, Rebec GV (1988) Clozapine and haloperidol in the amygdaloid complex: differential effects on dopamine transmission with long-term treatment. (springer.com)
  • The anti-excitotoxic effects of certain anesthetics, analgesics and sedative-hypnotics. (springer.com)
  • Watkins JC, Krogsgaard LP, Honore T. Structure-activity relationships in the development of excitatory amino acid receptor agonists and competitive antagonists. (springer.com)
  • Metformin is an anti-diabetic drug with antioxidant and memory-improving effects. (magiran.com)
  • Protective effects of repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation in a rat model of transient cerebral ischaemia: a microPET study," European Journal of Nuclear Medicine and Molecular Imaging , vol. 37, no. 5, pp. 954-961, 2010. (hindawi.com)
  • Kainic acid is commonly injected into laboratory animal models to study the effects of experimental ablation. (wikipedia.org)
  • Seizure-induced nonspecific pathological changes, such as surgical lesion, hypoxia, stress, and cell degeneration may also induce alterations in gene expression that may be difficult to separate from effects of hyperactivity. (jneurosci.org)
  • Three to seven days later, kainic acid (1.25 μg), picrotoxin (225 ng) or fluorocitrate (0.8 nmol) were injected intra-cortically in animals paralysed with succinylcholine, or anesthetised with pentobarbitone, urethane or fentanyl plus droperidol. (ox.ac.uk)
  • The effects of caspase 3 inhibition on these changes were detected during a period of 1 to 7 days post kainic acid injection. (biomedcentral.com)