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  • atmospheric aerosols
  • In the United States, however, campaigns to improve air quality and reduce acid rain have led to a sharp decline in atmospheric aerosols. (nytimes.com)
  • In an article in the Atmospheric Environment journal, she and her colleagues projected that the elimination of atmospheric aerosols over the eastern United States would increase ground temperatures across the region by 0.4 to 0.6 degrees Celsius (0.7 to 1.1 degrees Fahrenheit) and increase the severity of heat waves by 1 to 2 degrees Celsius (1.8 to 3.6 degrees Fahrenheit). (nytimes.com)
  • organic
  • It should be noted that the sensitivity of the number of CCN to nucleation depends greatly on the amount of primary emissions and secondary organic aerosol ( SOA ) formed. (realclimate.org)
  • If more organic compounds partition to the aerosol phase (to form SOA), the growth to CCN sizes will be quicker. (realclimate.org)
  • The changes in photolysis rates due to aerosols lead to about 2-17 % surface ozone reduction during daytime in the urban area in Mexico City with generally larger reductions during early morning hours near the city center, resulting in a decrease of OH level by about 9 %, as well as a decrease in the daytime concentrations of nitrate and secondary organic aerosols by 5-6 % on average. (atmos-chem-phys.net)
  • The experimental design paid particular attention to three crosscutting issues: a) chemistry downwind of urban areas where there is high VOC reactivity (due to emissions from forests) and low NOx, b) understanding the full oxidation sequence and subsequent fate of biogenic VOC and c) the processes leading to formation and removal of biogenic secondary organic aerosol (SOA) and the associated physical, chemical and optical properties of SOA. (atmos-chem-phys.net)
  • In addition, natural organics and lower-reactivity organic compounds, particularly aromatic species and monoterpenes, can generate secondary organic aerosols, both of which contribute to the formation of PM-2.5. (unt.edu)
  • Atmospheric measurements of total organic aerosol (OA) and tracers of anthropogenic and biogenic emissions are used to quantify synergistic effects (A-B interactions) between two classes of precursors in the formation of OA. (atmos-chem-phys.net)
  • To investigate the effect of polymers on aerosol hygroscopicity, we used surrogates to mimic atmospherically relevant polymers, including glyoxal trimer dihydrate, methylglyoxal trimer dihydrate, sucrose, and organic-sulfuric acid mixtures. (confex.com)
  • Ge X, Setyan A, Sun Y, Zhang Q. Primary and secondary organic aerosols in Fresno, California during wintertime: results from high resolution aerosol mass spectrometry. (epa.gov)
  • interactions
  • S. S. Lee, G. Feingold, and P. Y. Chuang, "Effect of aerosol on cloud-environment interactions in trade cumulus," Journal of the Atmospheric Sciences , vol. 69, pp. 3607-3632, 2012. (hindawi.com)
  • We show that for different forcing agents (aerosols and greenhouse gases) the radiative forcings as traditionally defined agree rather well with estimates from a method, here referred to as radiative flux perturbations (RFP), that takes these fast feedbacks and interactions into account. (unt.edu)
  • The indirect effect is a significant source of uncertainty due to the complexity and number of the atmospheric interactions involved, as well as the wide range of scales on which these interactions occur. (pnnl.gov)
  • It is found that meteorological conditions during a pollution episode can mimic effects of A-B interactions. (atmos-chem-phys.net)
  • Precipitation
  • Flood or drought: how do aerosols affect precipitation? (hindawi.com)
  • Simulations with the urbanization effects reasonably reproduced the observed features of temperature and precipitation in the YRD region. (osti.gov)
  • The combined effects of the UHI and aerosols on precipitation depend on synoptic conditions. (osti.gov)
  • It is shown that the impact of urban land cover and aerosols on precipitation is not only determined by their influence on local convergence but also modulated by large-scale weather systems. (osti.gov)
  • Hence precipitation changes due to urbanization effects may offset each other under different synoptic conditions, resulting in little changes in mean precipitation at longer timescales. (osti.gov)
  • The overall increased precipitation and poleward heat transport reflect intensification of the Pacific storm track by anthropogenic aerosols. (pnas.org)
  • investigate
  • Also, we investigate the impact of aerosol types on the variation of cloud properties with AOD. (atmos-chem-phys.net)
  • To investigate whether aerosol-type fluticasone propionate/formoterol combination (FFC) controls residual eosinophilic inflammation in the distal airways of well-controlled asthmatic patients more effectively than salmeterol/fluticasone propionate combination (SFC). (ersjournals.com)
  • Therefore, many scholars have begun to use models to investigate dust aerosol climatic effects [ 13 - 15 ]. (hindawi.com)
  • observations
  • Calculated aerosol optical properties are in good agreement with the surface observations and aircraft and satellite measurements during daytime. (atmos-chem-phys.net)
  • These observations provide a basis for understanding dust aerosol particle properties, transport, and their climatic effects [ 9 - 11 ]. (hindawi.com)
  • volcanic
  • This phenomenon makes Antarctica during spring the most susceptible place on Earth to the scattering effect of volcanic aerosols, due to the combined effect of the spring ozone hole and the large solar zenith angles characteristic of this time of year. (caltech.edu)
  • Hence the effects of any significant destruction of ozone induced by volcanic aerosols will not be offset by aerosol scattering. (caltech.edu)
  • Thus after a volcanic eruption, life in Antarctica during spring will suffer the combined effects of the spring ozone hole and ozone destruction induced by volcanic aerosols, with the latter effect only slightly offset by aerosol scattering. (caltech.edu)
  • Zhang
  • Ge X, Zhang Q, Sun Y, Ruehl CR, Setyan A. Effect of aqueous-phase processing on aerosol chemistry and size distributions in Fresno, California, during wintertime. (epa.gov)
  • concentrations
  • with the dispersion effect considered can also be reduced substantially by a range of 0.10 to 0.21 W m -2 at the global scale and by a much bigger margin of 0.25 to 0.39 W m -2 for the Northern Hemisphere in comparison with that of fixed relative dispersion, mainly dependent on the change of relative dispersion and droplet concentrations (Δε/ΔN). (osti.gov)
  • interaction
  • In many cases, existing modeling frameworks reflect only a partial set of known aerosol-cloud interaction processes. (pnnl.gov)
  • The answer to the problem of incomplete specification of physical processes is the development of a unified framework in which all of the aerosol-cloud interaction processes can be treated in a physically consistent manner. (pnnl.gov)
  • surface
  • Urbanization over the YRD induces an urban heat island (UHI) effect, which increases the surface temperature by 0.53 °C in summer and increases the annual heat wave days at a rate of 3.7 d yr −1 in the major megacities in the YRD, accompanied by intensified heat stress. (osti.gov)
  • particle
  • Although the dominant source of global aerosol production is new particle formation, the growth mechanisms for the freshly nucleated nanoparticles remain largely uncertain. (confex.com)
  • relatively
  • For the case with a strong synoptic forcing associated with stronger winds and larger spatial convergence, the UHI and aerosol effects are relatively weak. (osti.gov)
  • Deodorant
  • Effect White Senses Aerosol Spray Deodorant provides 48 hours of effective antiperspirant protection, while ensuring the sensitive skin of your underarm looks and feels soft. (nivea.com.au)
  • Double Effect White Senses Aerosol Spray Deodorant has been scientifically formulated. (nivea.com.au)
  • Impact
  • In this post I'll discuss how changes in nucleation and ionization might impact the net effects. (realclimate.org)
  • In the present study, the impact of aerosols on the photochemistry in Mexico City is evaluated using the WRF-CHEM model for the period from 24 to 29 March during the MCMA-2006/MILAGRO campaign. (atmos-chem-phys.net)
  • sensitivity
  • Furthermore, in order to accurately evaluate the dispersion effect on AIF, the new complete cloud parameterizations of R e and Au explicitly accounting for ε are implemented into the CAM version 5.1 (CAM5.1), and a suite of sensitivity experiments is conducted with different representations of ε reported in the literature. (osti.gov)