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  • regulate
  • Moreover, RalA specifically interacts with Exo84 and Sec5 to regulate transport of membrane proteins in polarized epithelial cells and GLUT4 to the plasma membrane, as well as mitochondrial fission for cell division. (wikipedia.org)
  • cancers
  • Ral proteins have been associated with the progression of several cancers, including bladder cancer and prostate cancer. (wikipedia.org)
  • oncogenic
  • Here we report the development of small molecules that irreversibly bind to a common oncogenic mutant, K-Ras(G12C). (nih.gov)
  • Based on our work in children with inherited predispositions, we hypothesized that an oncogenic RAS mutation could initiate myeloid leukemia, and recently showed that this was true in studies in which we induced the expression of a latent Kras oncogene in hematopoietic cells. (ucsf.edu)
  • A long term, goal of these studies is to understand how oncogenic Ras alterns the architecture of signaling networks. (ucsf.edu)
  • These results identify SHP2 as a direct activator of Ras and a potential therapeutic target for cancers driven by a previously 'undruggable' oncogenic or hyperactive Ras. (sigmaaldrich.com)
  • apoptosis
  • Activated oncogenes can cause those cells designated for apoptosis to survive and proliferate instead. (wikipedia.org)
  • However, in spite of the constitutive activation of mTOR and the abrogated autophagy activity in TSC1- or TSC2-deficient cells, the TSC mutant cells are defective in aggresome formation and undergo apoptosis upon misfolded protein accumulation both in vitro and in vivo. (pnas.org)
  • This work shows for the first time that the mechanism by which calphostin-C, a photoactivatable inhibitor of protein kinase C, induces apoptosis in cancer cells involves ER stress. (openthesis.org)
  • cellular
  • It affects a plethora of cellular processes including protein trafficking, stability and signalling and is therefore important for all cell types, and organisms from yeast to humans. (sheffield.ac.uk)
  • It is able to execute its myriad cellular operations via a host of effectors, including direct substrates such as tuberous sclerosis 2 (TSC2), glycogen synthase kinase 3 (GSK3), and the forkhead box transcription factors (FOXO). (aacrjournals.org)
  • Akt reduces cell cycle inhibitors p27 and p21, and promotes cell cycle proteins c-Myc and cyclin D1, resulting in enhanced cellular proliferation. (aacrjournals.org)
  • Influence extends to a host of proapoptotic and antiapoptotic proteins, such as the Bcl-2 family member Bad, limiting programmed cell death and boosting cellular survival. (aacrjournals.org)
  • Nucleotide
  • Binding of these inhibitors to K-Ras(G12C) disrupts both switch-I and switch-II, subverting the native nucleotide preference to favour GDP over GTP and impairing binding to Raf. (nih.gov)
  • MAPK
  • two different RTKs ( LET-23 /EGFR and EGL-15 /FGFR) are known to stimulate LET-60 /Ras and a MAPK cascade consisting of the kinases LIN-45 /Raf, MEK-2 /MEK and MPK-1 /ERK. (wormbook.org)
  • This Ras/MAPK cascade is required for multiple developmental events, including induction of vulval, uterine, spicule, P12 and excretory duct cell fates, control of sex myoblast migration and axon guidance, and promotion of germline meiosis. (wormbook.org)
  • lipid
  • In contrast to other glycosylphosphatidylinositol-anchored proteins, HM1.24 was internalized from lipid rafts on the cell surface by clathrin-mediated endocytosis. (genes2cognition.org)
  • Palmitoylation, the only known reversible lipid modification of proteins, is an important regulator of protein localisation and function. (sheffield.ac.uk)
  • family
  • This protein is one of two paralogs of the Ral protein, the other being RalB, and part of the Ras GTPase family. (wikipedia.org)
  • Palmitoylation is mediated by a family of 23 enzymes (protein acyl transferases (PATs)) in humans. (sheffield.ac.uk)
  • Rad: a member of the Ras family overexpressed in muscle of type II diabetic humans. (springer.com)
  • Ser/Thr protein kinases such as the Akt/Rac family, the beta-adrenergic receptor kinases, the mu isoform of PKC and the trypanosomal NrkA family. (ebi.ac.uk)
  • regulatory
  • Our data provide structure-based validation of a new allosteric regulatory site on Ras that is targetable in a mutant-specific manner. (nih.gov)
  • genes
  • The well-validated role of mutationally activated RAS genes in driving cancer development and growth has stimulated comprehensive efforts to develop therapeutic strategies to block mutant RAS function for cancer treatment. (sciencemag.org)
  • RAS genes have the distinct honor of being the first mutated genes identified in human cancer, ushering in the era of molecularly targeted anticancer drug discovery. (sciencemag.org)
  • The three human RAS genes are not mutated at equivalent frequencies in cancer. (sciencemag.org)
  • We have also launched a major effort to exploit retroviral insertional mutagenesis to uncover genes that regulate hematopoietic cell fates and cooperate with hyperactive Ras to promote transformation from chronic to acute leukemia. (ucsf.edu)
  • Recent studies have not only identified a large number of autophagy genes (ATGs) but also expanded the autophagic cargos from intracellular pathogens to misfolded proteins ( 15 - 18 ). (pnas.org)
  • hyperactive
  • In comparison to normal astrocytes, SHP2 activity is elevated in astrocytes isolated from glioblastoma multiforme (GBM)-prone H-Ras(12V) knock-in mice as well as in glioma cell lines and patient-derived GBM specimens exhibiting hyperactive Ras. (sigmaaldrich.com)
  • EGFR
  • The RTKs LET-23 (EGFR) and EGL-15 (FGFR) are activated by different ligands and control different sets of developmental processes. (wormbook.org)
  • intrinsic
  • Cytotoxic necrotizing factor 1 (CNF1), from uropathogenic Escherichia coli strains, deamidates Q63 of Rho into E63, thereby blocking the intrinsic or GAP-mediated GTPase of Rho. (nih.gov)
  • induces
  • We recently reported that the semaphorin 4D (Sema4D) receptor Plexin-B1 induces repulsion in axon and dendrites by functioning as a GTPase-activating protein (GAP) for R-Ras and M-Ras, respectively. (jneurosci.org)
  • In axons, Sema4D stimulation induces growth cone collapse, and downregulation of R-Ras activity by Plexin-B1-mediated GAP activity is required for the action. (jneurosci.org)
  • small
  • As in Volume 1, the book is written by international renowned scientists in the field of small G-proteins. (indigo.ca)
  • It is written for Graduates and Professors in Biochemistry and Cell Biology interested in the mechanism and function of small G-proteins but are extremely valuable for those who want to move into the field. (indigo.ca)
  • Bacterial toxins inhibiting or activating small GTP-binding proteins. (nih.gov)
  • mechanism
  • Perinuclear aggresome formation is a key mechanism to dispose of misfolded proteins that exceed the degradative capacity of ubiquitin-proteasome and autophagy-lysosome systems. (pnas.org)
  • viral
  • For the human and simian immunodeficiency viruses (HIV and SIV), sorting of the viral envelope proteins (Env) to assembly sites is directed by trafficking signals located in the cytoplasmic domain of the transmembrane protein gp41 (TM). (genes2cognition.org)
  • vivo
  • A detailed understanding of the biology of MAGUK proteins in vivo , and in particular their differential and specific functions, is lacking. (jneurosci.org)
  • processes
  • different processes have different requirements for these two KSR proteins. (wormbook.org)
  • Lpd was expressed in F-actin-rich distal dendritic processes and was required for both basal and M-Ras-mediated dendrite development. (jneurosci.org)
  • cytoplasmic
  • Indeed, an appendage domain of alpha-adaptin was identified as a protein interacting with the cytoplasmic tail of HM1.24. (genes2cognition.org)
  • Comprising NR1 and NR2 subunits that form a Ca 2+ channel, the NMDA receptor is physically linked to cytoplasmic proteins by C-terminal domains of its subunits forming multiprotein complexes, known as the NMDA receptor complex (NRC). (jneurosci.org)
  • conformation
  • The ligand orientation and conformation shows minimal changes, whereas switch-II of the protein appears disordered in the C 2 form and atypical in the P 2 1 2 1 2 1 form. (nih.gov)