• One of the earliest lineage restriction events in embryogenesis is the specification of the primary germ layers: ectoderm, mesoderm and endoderm. (mysciencework.com)
  • In this work, we show that VegT-depleted vegetal cells (prospective endoderm) behave like animal cells in sorting assays and ectopically express early markers of ectoderm. (mysciencework.com)
  • We show that overexpression of Xlim5 in prospective endoderm cells is sufficient to impair sorting of animal cells from vegetal cells but is not sufficient (at similar doses) to induce ectoderm-specific genes. (mysciencework.com)
  • To gain insight into how ectoderm is specified, we looked for candidate ectoderm-specific genes that are ectopically expressed in VegT-depleted embryos, and examined the role of one of these, the LIM homeobox gene Xlim5, in ectoderm development. (mysciencework.com)
  • Taken together, our results provide evidence that a primary role for Xlim5 is to specifically regulate differential cell adhesion behaviour of the ectoderm. (mysciencework.com)
  • The Xenopus LIM-homeodomain protein Xlim5 regulates the differential adhesion properties of early ectoderm cells. (mysciencework.com)
  • Inhibition of Xlim5 function using an Engrailed repressor construct or a morpholino oligonucleotide causes loss of animal cell adhesion or delay in neural fold morphogenesis, respectively, without significantly affecting early ectoderm gene expression. (mysciencework.com)
  • The epidermis of the skin originates from the less dorsal ectoderm which surrounds the neuroectoderm at the early gastrula stage of embryonic development. (wikipedia.org)
  • In contrast, expression of dermomyotomal markers can be caused by a contact-dependent signal from surface ectoderm and a diffusible signal from dorsal neural tube. (nih.gov)
  • Thus, in X. laevis embryos, the ectoderm is patterned by the secretion of BMP antagonists from the dorsal blastopore lip, or Spemann's organizer: BMP signalling is active ventrally, and induces the formation of surface ectoderm, whereas dorsal BMP signalling is inhibited, and the cells adopt a neural fate ( Hemmati-Brivanlou and Melton, 1997 ). (biologists.org)
  • These signals are initially expressed throughout the surface ectoderm, suggesting that another signal might be involved in patterning the optic vesicle initially into a dorsal RPE and ventral NR domain. (arvojournals.org)
  • During optic vesicle stages WNT-family members are expressed in the dorsal ectoderm and in the presumptive RPE. (arvojournals.org)
  • We propose a new model, where the optic vesicle is initially patterned into a dorsal RPE domain by both BMP and WNT signals released from the overlying ectoderm, while ventrally BMPs and FGFs are involved in NR specification. (arvojournals.org)
  • In contrast, Wnt7a expression is initiated and maintained in the dorsal ectoderm. (nih.gov)
  • In order to define the transcriptome of small groups of cells from a single germ layer and to retain spatial information, dorsal and ventral ectoderm was subdivided along the anterior-posterior and medial-lateral axes by microdissections. (edu.au)
  • This provides a genetic code to define positional information of any ectoderm sample along the anterior-posterior and dorsal-ventral axes directly from its transcriptome. (edu.au)
  • I propose that this direct activation of a set of regulatory genes enables a uniform regulatory response and a clear cut cell fate decision in the endoderm and in the dorsal ectoderm. (frontiersin.org)
  • En-1 blocks Wnt-7a expression, preventing expression of Lmx-1b there, and establishes the dorsal-ventral axis. (medscape.com)
  • The pre-placodal ectoderm (PPE) is a specialized ectodermal region which gives rise to the sensory organs and other systems. (biologists.org)
  • Our results suggest that rather than originating from separate ectodermal populations, cell-type heterogeneity is generated from overlapping pools of progenitors within the preplacodal ectoderm. (elifesciences.org)
  • In lower vertebrates, the formation of ectoderm proceeds via a bipotent intermediate, definitive ectoderm, which differentiates to form the two major ectodermal lineages: surface ectoderm and neurectoderm ( Hemmati-Brivanlou and Melton, 1997 ). (biologists.org)
  • The ability to progress via a definitive ectoderm intermediate will underpin the development of rational and efficient methodologies for the derivation of specific ectodermal cell populations from pluripotent cells in culture for use as experimental models or to produce cells with therapeutic applications. (biologists.org)
  • The surface ectoderm will give rise to the epidermis, external glands, hair, nails, anterior pituitary, and the apical ectodermal ridge amongst others. (statpearls.com)
  • The pathophysiology of ectodermal dysplasias involves a complex set of genes and gene products that result in alteration of pathways necessary for proper development of the ectoderm. (statpearls.com)
  • For instance, while ciliated sensory neurons arise from preplacodal ectoderm (PPE), previous lineage tracing studies suggest that both Gonadotropin releasing hormone 3 (Gnrh3) and microvillous sensory neurons derive from cranial neural crest (CNC). (elifesciences.org)
  • Using a previously established mouse ES-cell-based system that recapitulates the development of the ectoderm lineage we have identified a transient population that is consistent with definitive ectoderm. (biologists.org)
  • Bone morphogenetic proteins (BMPs) and FGFs are expressed in the surface ectoderm and are involved in RPE and NR specification respectively. (arvojournals.org)
  • One such gene us the EDA gene, which is a part of a group of genes that provide instructions for making proteins such as ectodysplasin A. Ectodysplasin A is part of a group of proteins that are important in signaling for the interactions between the ectoderm and the mesoderm. (statpearls.com)
  • Alphabetical list of anatomical structures derived from ectoderm . (edu.au)
  • These interactions are essential for the formation of several structures that arise from the ectoderm, including the skin, hair, nails, teeth and sweat glands. (statpearls.com)
  • Initially the entire ventral ectoderm expresses many genetic markers characteristic of the AER (en-1, fgf-8, msx-2, dlx-2, cd44, and cx-43). (nih.gov)
  • The word ectoderm comes from the Greek ektos meaning "outside", and derma, meaning "skin. (wikipedia.org)
  • The current model of optic vesicle patterning assumes, that distally Fibroblast Growth Factors (FGFs) released from the overlying surface ectoderm are involved in NR specification, while proximally signals released from the ocular mesenchyme are involved in RPE specification. (arvojournals.org)
  • Epidermis (integumentary, skin contribution) development will be briefly mentioned due to its ectoderm origin. (edu.au)
  • Ectoderm is one of the three primary germ layers in the very early embryo. (wikipedia.org)
  • The ectoderm forms many of the sensory organs (eye, ear, nose), and is also the source of Rathke's pouch , an invaginating diverticulum of the stomodeal roof which ultimately detaches from the stomodeum and becomes the adenohypophysis of the pituitary gland. (lifemapsc.com)
  • When the ectoderm is absent during this time, axons progress into the limb more slowly and, although a few sensory axons occasionally diverge a short distance from the plexus, they do not form a discrete nerve that travels to the skin. (elsevier.com)
  • These results demonstrate that the target ectoderm is necessary for normal sensory axon growth and guidance in the hindlimb. (elsevier.com)
  • Honig, M , Camilli, SJ & Xue, QS 2004, ' Ectoderm removal prevents cutaneous nerve formation and perturbs sensory axon growth in the chick hindlimb ', Developmental Biology , vol. 266, no. 1, pp. 27-42. (elsevier.com)
  • Patterning the embryonic ectoderm gives rise to defined domains of progenitors for cell types as diverse as neurons, neural crest, placodes and epidermis. (biologists.org)
  • First author George Britton and his supervisor Aryeh Warmflash discuss their new Development paper in which they apply advanced in vitro culturing techniques to investigate embryonic ectoderm patterning. (biologists.org)
  • Our findings are consistent with the need of XREST/NRSF function for the appropriate patterning of the ectoderm, at least in part through mechanisms that involve the modification of bone morphogenetic protein (BMP) signaling. (jneurosci.org)
  • The neuroectoderm (neural ectoderm) will form the retina, retinal pigment epithelium, the pigmented and non-pigmented layers of the ciliary and iris epithelium, the dilator and sphincter muscles of the iris and the optic nerve fibres. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • MBS9341948 is a ready-to-use microwell, strip plate ELISA (enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay) Kit for analyzing the presence of the embryonic ectoderm development (EED) ELISA Kit target analytes in biological samples. (mybiosource.com)
  • Novel regulatory interactions revealed by studies of murine limb pattern in Wnt-7a and En-1 mutants. (nih.gov)
  • The ectoderm in the dorsum of the developing limb bud secretes a protein called wingless-type mouse mammary tumor virus integration site 7a (Wnt-7a). (medscape.com)
  • In the ventral limb bud, the transcription factor engrailed-1 (En-1) is produced. (medscape.com)
  • Here we examined whether target ectoderm is necessary for the formation of cutaneous nerves, and for the normal growth and guidance of cutaneous axons as they first enter the limb plexus. (elsevier.com)