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  • socio-economic
  • Understanding the origins of the steam age, then, is crucial to understanding the way that socio-economic processes are welded to distinctive forms of energy use. (lse.ac.uk)
  • The country relies strongly on few sectors, such as construction, the financial sector and the activities of the Canal of Panama, which will be insufficient to sustain further socio-economic progress and inclusion. (oecd.org)
  • Informality continues to hold back job quality and aggravates socio-economic and territorial inequalities, especially among indigenous populations. (oecd.org)
  • total factor produ
  • Dual Economies and International Total Factor Productivity Differences ," EPRU Working Paper Series 03-09, Economic Policy Research Unit (EPRU), University of Copenhagen. (repec.org)
  • 2004). Time and effort have been devoted to developing a satisfactory understanding of the rationale and the mechanisms through which the benefits for the host of FDI take root, leading to theoretical support for a positive impact from FDI (for example, through increases in total factor productivity and accelerating capital accumulation). (voxeu.org)
  • 1998
  • This paper explores the view that the Asian currency and financial crises in 1997 and 1998 reflected structural and policy distortions in the countries of the region, even if market overreaction and herding caused the plunge of exchange rates, asset prices, and economic activity to be more severe than warranted by the initial weak economic conditions. (worldcat.org)
  • Globalisation
  • An important aspect of the globalisation process (Rodrik 2011) is foreign direct investment (FDI), which underlies the fragmentation of supply chains (Baldwin 2016) and the emergence of global companies (Navaretti et al. (voxeu.org)
  • 2002
  • Average annual economic losses caused by disasters were $75 billion in the 1960s, $138 billion in the 1970s, $213 billion in the 1980s, and more than $659 billion in the 1990s (Munich Re, 2002). (nap.edu)
  • spillover
  • These non-monotonic relations, which are polynomial in general, are determined by the base level of human capital spillover and the magnitude of the congestion e¤ect: a U shape relation can arise under low congestion factor, whereas a hump shape may present for high congestion factor. (repec.org)
  • theoretical
  • Before the war, the main target of theoretical discussions about human capital was not to define or to measure its contribution to economies [ 1 ]. (hindawi.com)
  • In his latest book, Carles Boix proposes to account for human history with a simple theoretical approach, where the interplay between warfare and production technologies determines the choice between production and violence. (booksandideas.net)
  • sustain
  • As noted in Chapter 1 , disaster risks are products of the disaster event and the degree of vulnerability of human communities that sustain losses from the event. (nap.edu)
  • transition
  • This research suggests that favorable geographical conditions, that were inherently associated with inequality in the distribution of land ownership, adversely affected the implementation of human capital promoting institutions (e.g., public schooling and child labor regulations), and thus the pace and the nature of the transition from an agricultural to an industrial economy, contributing to the emergence of the Great Divergence in income per capita across countries. (repec.org)
  • thereby
  • The invention of the steam-driven power loom allowed the creation of the 'combined factory': a new generation of mills that integrated the production process under one roof, thereby ending the role of the unruly cottage weavers. (lse.ac.uk)
  • This should not be surprising since Marx wrote little pertaining to the ways that capital limits itself by impairing its own social and environmental conditions hence increasing the costs and expenses of capital, thereby threatening capitals' ability to produce profits, i.e., threatening economic crisis. (libcom.org)
  • labour
  • Stock energy consists of the relics of solar energy from the distant past, residing outside the landscape, freely transported and stored, but requiring human labour to exploit. (lse.ac.uk)
  • Chapter 3 from Patriarchy and capital accumulation on a world scale: women in the international division of labour , 1986. (libcom.org)
  • Better jobs also require enforcement of labour regulation but also further competitiveness and productivity gains across economic sectors. (oecd.org)
  • patterns
  • In the wake of these patterns, rebuilding from disasters has been devastating to poor countries, as losses consume vast amounts of limited available capital, significantly reducing resources for new investment. (nap.edu)
  • Most of human history conforms to established patterns, forming the basis of modern statistical analysis. (zerohedge.com)
  • poverty
  • 1 The links between political rights and poverty reduction are similarly complicated, but there is evidence that democratic institutions are better at reducing economic volatility and provide a more consistent approach to poverty reduction than do autocratic regimes. (mcc.gov)
  • Many of those who escaped poverty in recent years remain vulnerable and an economic slowdown would make them slip back into poverty. (oecd.org)
  • The economic improvements of the last decade have contributed to reduce poverty, but they have not benefited all groups in society equally. (oecd.org)
  • Measures
  • This indicator measures country performance on the quality of the electoral process, political pluralism and participation, government corruption and transparency, and fair political treatment of ethnic groups. (mcc.gov)
  • institutional
  • Up to the present the heavy institutional costs of industrialization with a modernized political superstructure, occurring together with a backward economic infrastructure, have not been recognized. (monthlyreview.org)
  • Differences
  • Schultz [ 3 ] attributes the major explanation of national output differences among countries to investment in human capital. (hindawi.com)
  • This thesis examines differences between mothers and non-mothers in the relative disruption of careers and the process of earnings attainment. (nlsinfo.org)
  • factors
  • The risks that businesses might scale back their capital spending next year in response to these factors had also increased. (clevelandfed.org)
  • The Committee also emphasized that future policy actions would depend on how economic prospects were affected by evolving market developments and by other factors. (clevelandfed.org)
  • ideological
  • Just a little cautious look at what is happening around shows up the claims of a global order for what it is - a part of the ideological apparatus of global capital. (radicalnotes.org)
  • Governance
  • The committee then offers a definition of success in terms of disaster resiliency and reviews influences on achievement of this goal premised on theories of governance and social capital. (nap.edu)
  • wages
  • The capital intensive sector enjoying high ratios of capital to labor paid relatively high wages, and the labor intensive sector paid relatively low wages. (eh.net)
  • capital, wages in Adam Smith's idyllic land simply equaled the national income. (coursera.org)
  • crisis
  • The first part of the paper provides an overview of economic fundamentals in Asia on the eve of the crisis, with emphasis on current account imbalances, quantity and quality of financial overlending,' banking problems, and composition, maturity and size of capital inflows. (worldcat.org)
  • Education
  • He emphasizes that the main reason of wage differentials between workers is the human capital differentials which are gained by means of education and health. (hindawi.com)
  • estimates
  • I think it has become apparent that there is something rather amiss in the economic statistics of the past few years (to put it mildly in light of the massive downward revisions to economic estimates that come no sooner than six months after preliminary releases). (zerohedge.com)
  • world
  • Study of the combination of the two processes in the contemporary world may throw light on the decline of traditional labor and socialist movements and the rise of "new social movements" as agencies of social transformation. (libcom.org)
  • and urban movements and related topics are usually discussed in post-Marxist terms, the rhetoric deployed in this article is self-consciously Marxist and designed to appeal to Marxist theorists and fellow travelers whose work remains within a "scientific" discourse hence those who are least likely to be convinced by post-Marxist discussions of the problem of capital's use and abuse of nature (including human nature) in the modern world. (libcom.org)
  • With the triumph of globalised capital the whole world has accepted the economic, moral and ethical supremacy of a homogeneous world order based prominently on individualism and the ethics of the market. (radicalnotes.org)
  • Perhaps another reason for their rhapsodies about the world order is that with the ascendancy of global capital there has been a homogenisation of ruling cultures like never before. (radicalnotes.org)
  • These problems were also related to the impact of the East Asian financial turmoil in the late 1990s, at the same time as China was in the process of joining the World Trade Organization, and thus becoming increasingly integrated into the world competition of financial capital. (monthlyreview.org)
  • But, due to human nature intruding into this "scientific" process, all too often these human practitioners look to rationalize and fit the wider world into their models, rather than see the paradigm shift for what it is. (zerohedge.com)
  • Countries
  • Why Doesn't Capital Flow from Rich to Poor Countries? (repec.org)
  • This study aims to determine the long-run impact of physical and human capital on GDP by using the panel data set of 13 developed and 11 developing countries over the period 1970-2010. (hindawi.com)
  • But the problem for countries like Latvia is they do not have the latent human resources to really get the benefits from this "inputs accumulation" process. (blogspot.com)
  • However, economic transformation in low-income countries is changing as recent evidence suggests countries are running out of industrialization options much sooner than once expected. (worldbank.org)
  • The governments of almost all developing countries are facing the long-term twin problems of capital shortages and high fiscal debts, resulting from their attempts to modernize the state forms and economic and financial relations left by colonialism or copied from western political culture. (monthlyreview.org)
  • Hence in one stream, the overall effect of FDI is argued to depend upon whether recipient countries have attained minimum levels of human capital (Borensztein et al. (voxeu.org)