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  • overcome
  • In an effort to fully exploit the power of the lens system and overcome early embryonic lethality inherent to the established gene targeting approach, a genetic approach called Lens Complementation System (LCS) was developed which makes use of a fertile mouse strain (Ak) that harbors a mutation that results in a failure of lens formation. (yu.edu)
  • This obstacle has been recently overcome by Tuschl and colleagues ( 12 ) who found that gene-specific suppression in mammalian cells can be achieved by vitro -synthesized siRNA that are 21 nt in length, long enough to induce gene-specific suppression, but short enough to evade the host interferon response. (pnas.org)
  • tissues
  • We analyzed the pattern of X-inactivation in four tissues of distinct embryonic origin from Ocrl wt/−;Inpp5b −/− females to explore the timing and tissue distribution of the functional overlap. (deepdyve.com)
  • X-inactivation was strongly skewed against the disrupted Ocrl − allele being on the active X chromosome in all four tissues tested, indicating that there is early selection against cell lineages lacking both Ocrl and Inpp5b. (deepdyve.com)
  • Extraembryonic tissue was also involved in the lethality because there were never any live-born Ocrl wt/−;Inpp5b −/− females when the functional Ocrl wt allele was on the paternal X chromosome, which is preferentially inactivated in trophoblast-derived extraembryonic tissues. (deepdyve.com)
  • cell
  • Mechanistic studies, primarily in cell-free systems, have suggested a role for Get3 and the mammalian homolog Asna1 (also known as TRC40) in delivering tail-anchored (TA) proteins for posttranslational insertion into the ER through the CAML/WRB receptor complex ( 13 - 16 ). (diabetesjournals.org)
  • protein
  • Recent studies suggest that a Par-aPKC-Lgl1 signaling pathway and αSnap protein are involved in the establishment of the apical-basal polarity of mammalian NE, but the functions of the apical-basal polarity remain uncertain ( 5 - 8 ). (pnas.org)
  • functions
  • Several lines of evidence suggest that the Rho-family GTPase Cdc42 may have important functions for establishing the apical-basal polarity of the mammalian NE ( 14 - 16 ). (pnas.org)