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  • regulate
  • Phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate (PMA) also induced the ERK activity, but pretreatment of the cultured cells with PMA to down-regulate protein kinase C did not abolish the activation of ERK by GnRHa. (aacrjournals.org)
  • In addition, P14ARF could down-regulate E2F-dependent transcription and plays a role in the control of the G1 to S phase transition as well. (wikipedia.org)
  • mutations
  • The study stated that copy number aberration, translocation, and point mutations of WWC2, as well as other genes, should be further investigated in human cancers. (wikipedia.org)
  • Somatic mutations of CDKN2A are common in the majority of human cancers, with estimates that CDKN2A is the second most commonly inactivated gene in cancer after p53. (wikipedia.org)
  • situ
  • We confirmed the microarray results for a selection of genes using in situ hybridization analysis. (biomedcentral.com)
  • However such models rely on transplantation of clonal tumour cell lines rather than tumours being induced in situ by asbestos. (beds.ac.uk)
  • Ink4
  • Because of its cell cycle inhibitory role, p16 Ink4a is frequently mutated or deleted in human cancer, whereas the other Ink4 genes are only occasionally altered in cancer. (diva-portal.org)
  • To gain insight into the role of Ink4 genes in early vertebrate development, the African clawed frog, Xenopus laevis , was analyzed for the presence of Ink4 homologs. (diva-portal.org)
  • molecular
  • This presented an ideal opportunity to analyse the molecular events associated with asbestos induced mesothelioma. (beds.ac.uk)