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  • Addiction
  • The brain differences, detected using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI), are believed to represent an internal hard wiring that may make some people more prone to drug addiction later in life. (ucsd.edu)
  • Overeating and cocaine addiction may stem from the same place after a new study found that the same set of neurons that control hunger and lead to overeating are also linked to drug addiction. (medindia.net)
  • These are the most effective techniques to help drug users to return to good health, wean themselves off their addiction and reduce their risk to others, according to the papers, which were also published by the British journal The Lancet. (medindia.net)
  • infections
  • Worldwide, one in ten new HIV infections are thought to be caused by injecting drug use, but in some regions, such as eastern Europe and central Asia, rates are far higher, with up to four fifths (80%) of new HIV infections caused by injecting drug use. (elsevier.com)
  • Writing in a linked Comment, Professor Salim Karim, Director of the Centre for the AIDS Programme of Research in South Africa (CAPRISA), at the University of KwaZulu-Natal, pointed out that the reduction in HIV infections reported here may not be specifically attributable to a protective effect of the antivirals on people who become infected through injecting drugs. (elsevier.com)
  • Soft tissue infections (STIs), including abscesses and cellulitis, are a common complication of injection drug use. (cdc.gov)
  • Records with primary diagnoses of ICD-9 codes corresponding to infections of the fingers, toes, face, neck, or head were excluded because infections in these areas are less likely to be related to drug injection. (cdc.gov)
  • Misuse of antibiotics contributes to the spread of drug resistant infections. (rwjf.org)
  • addicts
  • We used to think that drug addicts just did not hold themselves back but this work suggests that the root of this is an impaired ability to anticipate a situation and to detect trends in when they need to stop," said Katia HarlĂ©, PhD, a postdoctoral researcher in the Paulus laboratory and the study's lead author. (ucsd.edu)
  • A study led by University of Queensland School of Psychology researcher Dr Courtney von Hippel found that recovering drug addicts who believe they are the target of stereotypes find it harder to function within society. (edu.au)
  • Dr von Hippel said the study's findings suggested that stereotype threat could help explain the impaired social functioning recovering drug addicts often experienced. (edu.au)
  • Drug detoxification (or drug detox) is a process that helps drug addicts to give up drugs with less or no withdrawal symptoms. (medindia.net)
  • 2017
  • On August 18, 2017, the President signed into law the Food and Drug Administration Reauthorization Act (FDARA) , which includes the reauthorization of the Generic Drug User Fee Amendments (GDUFA) through September 2022. (fda.gov)
  • tenofovir
  • In this study, over 2,000 injecting drug users were given either placebo tablets or the 'new' drug tenofovir - which has been used to treat HIV since 2006. (www.nhs.uk)
  • The trial found that daily oral tenofovir reduced the drug users' risk of catching HIV during the trial by about half: seven to eight per 1,000 would develop HIV per year without taking tenofovir, reducing to three to four per 1,000 per year if they did take tenofovir. (www.nhs.uk)
  • The trial assessed whether giving tenofovir to injecting drug users reduced their chances of getting HIV over an average of four years. (www.nhs.uk)
  • Even though questions remain about the extent to which PrEP can be effective in preventing either of the routes of transmission in this group, the overall result is that daily tenofovir does reduce HIV transmission in injecting drug users. (elsevier.com)
  • hepatitis
  • But what these measures have actually done is make our communities less safe, undermining a vital bridge to drug treatment, and hinder national efforts to prevent the spread of HIV, hepatitis and other blood-borne diseases. (thegrio.com)
  • UC San Francisco researchers are recommending a combination of six comprehensive measures to prevent the spread of hepatitis C, in an effort to address the estimated 31,000 young people who may be newly infected each year in the United States due to injection-drug use. (scienceblog.com)
  • The measures, which stem from a 16-year UCSF research project with injection-drug users, known as the "U Find Out" or UFO Study , build upon the successes of clean syringe programs and similar efforts, while recommending greater focus on the social issues behind drug use and further integration of the multiple approaches to combating hepatitis C. (scienceblog.com)
  • The purpose of this study is to determine if a 6-session motivational interviewing intervention is more effective than a 6-session educational intervention at reducing behaviors that may lead to infection, transmission, and progression of HIV and hepatitis C among out of treatment injecting drug users. (clinicaltrials.gov)
  • Needle Exchange
  • The introduction of PrEP for HIV prevention in injecting drug users should be considered as an additional component to accompany other proven prevention strategies like needle exchange programmes, methadone programmes, promotion of safer sex and injecting practices, condoms, and HIV counselling and testing. (elsevier.com)
  • FDA's
  • GDUFA aims to put FDA's generic drug program on a firm financial footing and ensure timely access to safe, high-quality, affordable generic drugs. (fda.gov)
  • GDUFA enables FDA to assess user fees to fund critical and measurable enhancements to the performance of FDA's generic drugs program, bringing greater predictability and timeliness to the review of generic drug applications. (fda.gov)
  • Past reauthorizations have improved the FDA's communication with product sponsors and patient advocacy groups, set faster performance goals for drug reviews and enhanced the review of safety information to monitor side effects of drugs already on the market. (rollcall.com)
  • The FDA's authority to collect user fees under PDUFA expires in October. (rollcall.com)
  • The agreement would also support drug development for rare diseases by enhancing the FDA's ability to review therapies for smaller patient populations. (rollcall.com)
  • prevention
  • While the obvious message in terms of HIV prevention is to stop injecting drugs, this type of pragmatic harm reduction approach could save many lives. (www.nhs.uk)
  • According to Dr Martin: "This study completes the picture of PrEP efficacy for all major HIV risk groups - we now know that pre-exposure prophylaxis can be a potentially vital option for HIV prevention in people at very high risk for infection, whether through sexual transmission or injecting drug use. (elsevier.com)
  • The pregnancy prevention program for isotretinoin users in Canada requires informed consent , two negative pregnancy tests before starting treatment, and two reliable birth control methods during treatment. (emedicinehealth.com)
  • They also serve as a vital bridge to services such as drug treatment, housing, employment and overdose prevention. (thegrio.com)
  • injectors
  • However, while injectors frequently fail cessation programs, the UFO Study showed that the more injectors try to quit, or "take breaks" from drugs, the more likely they eventually are to succeed. (scienceblog.com)
  • This is likely not the best tactic for reducing disease exposure risks and also may not be optimal for helping injectors end injection drug use. (scienceblog.com)
  • researchers
  • A team of researchers led by Dr. Kachit Choopanya, the trial's Principal Investigator, and Dr. Michael Martin, Chief of Clinical Research for the Thailand Ministry of Public Health-US CDC Collaboration, recruited over 2400 participants at 17 drug treatment clinics in Bangkok, Thailand. (elsevier.com)
  • Toward
  • The outcomes from the trials showed that occasional users have slightly faster reaction times, suggesting a tendency toward impulsivity. (ucsd.edu)
  • Participants
  • Participants were eligible if they were aged between 20 and 60 years, were HIV-negative, and reported injecting drugs during the previous year. (www.nhs.uk)
  • All trial participants were offered monthly HIV testing and risk-reduction counselling and services, plus access to drug rehabilitation treatment. (elsevier.com)
  • Participants who reported high levels of stereotype threat in relation to their drug history also reported poorer social function," Dr von Hippel said. (edu.au)
  • Many participants in the focus groups reported obtaining antibiotics from nonprovider sources including family, friends and other drug users. (rwjf.org)
  • Participants expressed concern that antibiotics would interact with their drug of choice, lessening the effects or causing undesirable complications. (rwjf.org)
  • assess
  • GDUFA enables FDA to assess industry user fees to bring greater predictability and timeliness to the review of generic drug applications. (fda.gov)
  • people
  • With a number of recreational users found on the West Shore, Cameron noted many are using drugs alone or with people who are not trained to respond. (mapinc.org)
  • Touraine said about a hundred people were expected to make use of the new injection room each day from when it opens to users on Friday. (reuters.com)
  • Besides, we should be helping these people get off drugs, not providing them with the tools they need to continue doing drugs. (mapinc.org)
  • Dr Vivian Hope, at the organisation, said increasing the diagnosis rate would help reduce the high level of infection he was seeing among people who injected drugs. (bbc.co.uk)
  • Use of the drug has recently increased, along with expanded usage among people with milder forms of acne . (emedicinehealth.com)
  • People with a history of drug abuse are often regarded as irresponsible, unreliable and less trustworthy," Dr von Hippel said. (edu.au)
  • Congress
  • Congress enacted GDUFA to ensure patients have access to safe, high-quality, and affordable generic drugs . (fda.gov)
  • Agreed upon recommendations were sent to Congress, and Congress held hearings on GDUFA that included testimony from FDA, the generic drug industry, and other interested parties. (fda.gov)
  • Congress confronted this problem in 1992 by passing the bipartisan Prescription Drug User Fee Act. (rollcall.com)
  • However, in a misguided effort to display toughness on drugs, Congress voted in 2011 to prohibit federal funding from being used to support this highly effective approach. (thegrio.com)
  • treatment
  • With a supply of naloxone on all the department's trucks, and all firefighters trained in how to administer the drug, "that's a massive departure from what our care and treatment model was," the chief said. (mapinc.org)
  • It enrolled 2,413 injecting drug users from 17 drug-treatment clinics in Bangkok, Thailand. (www.nhs.uk)
  • Although many of the drug users were prescribed drugs for their dependency, limited access to appropriate treatment, counselling, and health education may compound the situation. (bmj.com)
  • From November 1999 until June 2001, Philip Appel, PhD, and colleagues at the New York State Office of Alcoholism and Substance Abuse Services documented barriers to substance abuse treatment services for injection drug users in New York City and its northern suburbs. (rwjf.org)
  • Nationwide
  • Nationwide, African-Americans are eleven times and Latinos are five times more likely to become infected with HIV from injection drug use than Caucasians. (thegrio.com)
  • habit
  • Some injecting drug users engage in risky sexual behavior, such as selling sex to fund their drug habit, so it is possible that the protective effect observed in this trial is at least partly attributable to the already established positive effects of PrEP on sexual transmission of HIV. (elsevier.com)
  • By being marginalised and criminalised, this group can become a major vector for spreading HIV through shared use of syringes or through prostitution to feed a drug habit, it said. (medindia.net)
  • practices
  • A descriptive questionnaire survey in Karachi city was made to identify the socioeconomic profile and beliefs and practices of 500 drug users. (who.int)
  • found
  • Designer drugs have also found their way into the country in recent years. (thebody.com)
  • The report, issued every few years by the Department of Health and Human Services, found 7.7 percent of workers age 18 to 49 had used illegal drugs in the preceding month, a figure that has been steady since 1992. (mapinc.org)
  • effective
  • Effective October 1, 2018, generic drug applicants and their affiliates, or an authorized representative, can submit the list of all approved ANDAs via the CDER Direct NextGen Collaboration Portal. (fda.gov)
  • GDUFA is designed to speed the delivery of safe and effective generic drugs to the public and improve upon the predictability of the review process. (fda.gov)
  • This courageous decision will allow France to equip itself with an effective additional tool to reduce the risks" for drug users, he said in a statement. (medindia.net)
  • But in addressing the harms of drug abuse, we need to adopt approaches that are sound, effective and compassionate. (thegrio.com)
  • Dozens of studies have confirmed that syringe exchange programs represent the most effective tool available to prevent drug-related HIV transmission . (thegrio.com)
  • percent
  • And, not surprisingly, more than 70 percent of all new drugs were first made available in other countries. (rollcall.com)
  • Review times for new drugs have dropped more than 60 percent since its passage - from more than two years to just less than a year. (rollcall.com)
  • Still, 44 percent of drug users were working for small businesses -- those with fewer than 25 employees, down from 57 percent in 1994 but still the largest category. (mapinc.org)
  • Nineteen percent of food preparation workers, waiters, waitresses and bartenders used illegal drugs. (mapinc.org)
  • The Punjab city has overtaken Churchandpur district of Manipur which has 28 percent of HIV positive drug users in the country and was the highest when a survey was made previously. (medindia.net)
  • study
  • This study investigated tenofovir's effects and safety compared with inactive placebo in a large sample of injecting drug users. (www.nhs.uk)
  • Our study is telling us, it's not 'this is your brain on drugs,' it's 'this is the brain that does drugs. (ucsd.edu)
  • The study, a collaborative effort of the Canadian Network for Observational Drug Effect Studies, estimated that one or two children in Canada are born each year with birth defects related to isotretinoin use. (emedicinehealth.com)
  • abuse
  • Drug toxicity is an adverse reaction of the body towards a drug that results as a side effect of a drug, reaction to a drug or drug abuse. (medindia.net)
  • As a minister, I am acutely aware of the painful toll that drug abuse takes on our families and communities. (thegrio.com)
  • The use of Drugs for reasons other than its prescribed recommendation, is known as Drug abuse or substance abuse. (medindia.net)
  • Drug abuse or substance abuse is initiated by various biological and social factors. (medindia.net)
  • Workers
  • Workers in restaurants, bars, construction and transportation were more likely than others to use drugs. (mapinc.org)
  • Workers who used drugs were more likely to have worked for three or more employers, to have left a job in the past year and to have skipped a day or more of work in the past month. (mapinc.org)
  • harm reduction
  • This is especially true when it comes to support for harm reduction programs that prevent new cases of drug-related HIV transmission. (thegrio.com)
  • Thailand
  • The drug proved its worth in a large, well-conducted randomised control trial in Thailand. (www.nhs.uk)
  • patterns
  • The brain images of the occasional users showed consistent patterns of diminished neuronal activity in the parts of the brain associated with anticipatory functioning and updating anticipation based on past trials. (ucsd.edu)
  • research
  • With a backlog of drug applications piled up at the Food and Drug Administration, drug manufacturers looked to other countries to conduct research and development. (rollcall.com)
  • Also, our research identified the value of 'taking breaks' for both reducing the risks of exposure to the virus and helping end injection drug use. (scienceblog.com)
  • annually
  • GDUFA II includes a Generic Drug Applicant Program Fee, which is assessed annually. (fda.gov)
  • However
  • However, there are additional issues that may need to be considered before the drug is licensed for this use, which the Mail does not describe. (www.nhs.uk)
  • Food and Drug Admin
  • On July 9, 2012, GDUFA was signed into law by the President as part of the Food and Drug Administration Safety and Innovation Act (FDASIA). (fda.gov)
  • half
  • At the end of 2010, more than half of adult and teenage injection drug users living in the United States with HIV were African-American. (thegrio.com)
  • Most of these offenders continued to take drugs while in custody, and just over half not only injected drugs but shared equipment. (bmj.com)
  • years
  • PARIS (Reuters) - France inaugurated its first supervised injection facility for drug users on Tuesday, setting aside years of acrimonious debate over the merits of a strategy that has slowly gained traction since the Swiss embraced it three decades ago. (reuters.com)
  • available
  • More information about GDUFA II is available on the Generic Drug User Fee Amendments Implementation Activities page. (fda.gov)
  • pill
  • One of the issues we have is that naloxone has been touted as a great drug, and it is (But) it's not the magic pill everyone thinks (it is)," said Brad Cameron, B.C. Emergency Health Services district manager for Victoria. (mapinc.org)
  • public
  • Touraine said that the conditions of many hard drug users amounted to a public health emergency. (reuters.com)
  • Drug use has been identified as a major public health issue in Pakistan. (who.int)