Loading...
  • malaria parasites
  • Several factors influence the emergence and spread of drug resistant malaria parasites, including the number of parasites exposed to a drug, the drug concentration to which the parasites are exposed, and the simultaneous presence of other antimalarials in the blood to which the parasite is not resistant. (who.int)
  • Infection
  • That's potentially an even more serious problem, because when a UTI is not treated - or treated with drugs that do not work, which is effectively the same thing - the infection can climb up the urinary system to the kidneys, and from there cross to the bloodstream, and from there create a whole-body infection that can potentially be fatal. (wired.com)
  • Our findings show the importance of improving how we monitor drug resistance, and suggest we should review which drugs are included in first-line therapies," said the study's lead author, Professor Ravindra Gupta (UCL Infection & Immunity). (eurekalert.org)
  • Previously, the virus might become resistant to the drugs after a prolonged period of time, but now these mutated viruses that are resistant have been spread as a primary infection. (www.nhs.uk)
  • anticancer
  • In Cancer Drug Resistance, leading scientists from the best academic institutions and industrial laboratories summarize and synthesize the latest discoveries concerning the changes that occur in tumor cells as they develop resistance to a wide variety of anticancer therapeutics, as well as suggest new approaches to the biology of drug resistance that may afford new therapeutic opportunities. (springer.com)
  • genetic
  • The authors review physiological resistance based tumor architecture, cellular resistance based on drug transport, epigenetic changes that neutralize or bypass drug cytotoxicity, and genetic changes that alter drug target molecules by decreasing or eliminating drug binding and efficacy. (springer.com)
  • Finally, there is evidence that hypoxia can enhance genetic instability in tumor cells thus allowing more rapid development of drug resistance cells. (nih.gov)
  • This is called "selective pressure" because the drug "selects" and allows the proliferation of the genetic forms of the microorganism that are resistant to it. (labtestsonline.org)
  • This is more likely to happen when antimicrobial drugs are not taken for long enough, leaving enough organisms behind that can reproduce and have genetic changes by chance. (www.nhs.uk)
  • prevent drug resistance
  • There is nothing in evolutionary theory that says that the dogma of hitting infections hard with high doses of medication should be the best rule of thumb to prevent drug resistance," said Andrew Read, Evan Pugh Professor of Biology and Entomology and Eberly Professor in Biotechnology at Penn State University. (psu.edu)
  • Talk to your doctor about all of this, and figure out a plan together to get the most benefit from your drugs, prevent drug resistance, and let go of the fear. (thebody.com)
  • genes
  • A rapid process of sharing resistance exists among single-celled organisms, and is termed horizontal gene transfer in which there is a direct exchange of genes, particularly in the biofilm state. (wikipedia.org)
  • Highlights include new insights into resistance to antiangiogenic therapies, oncogenes and tumor suppressor genes in therapeutic resistance, cancer stem cells, and the development of more effective therapies. (springer.com)
  • This variation in the copy numbers of chromosomes and genes provides a new dimension to monitoring the evolution of drug resistance in these parasites. (medicalnewstoday.com)
  • There's a new paper out in the CDC's journal Emerging Infectious Diseases that makes a provocative claim: There is enough similarity between drug-resistance genes in E. coli carried by chickens and E. coli infecting humans that the chickens may be the source of it. (wired.com)
  • In each set of samples, they were looking at the E. coli to see whether they harbored genes for the type of resistance known as ESBL, for 'extended-spectrum beta-lactamase,' an enzyme that denatures a category of drugs used for serious infections that occur mostly in hospitals. (wired.com)
  • Small plasmids, which contain resistance genes against a single but important group of antibiotics known as carbapenems, lack their own distribution tools so they invade new bacteria by tagging along with the large plasmids. (news-medical.net)
  • NNRTIs
  • The study did not focus on high-income countries, but other studies have found that levels of drug resistance to NNRTIs in high-income countries were either plateauing or declining. (eurekalert.org)
  • Your question may be influenced by much recent good news on new ART drugs and regimens, including new classes of drugs (such as the integrase inhibitors (e.g. reltegravir) and the oral entry inhibitors (e.g. miraviroc)) and new forms of existing classes, such as the second generation NNRTIs ( etravirine and rilpivirine ) and newly approved third generation protease inhibitors (tipranivir and darunavir ). (thebody.com)
  • tumors
  • This can be seen in cancerous tumors where some cells may develop resistance to the drugs used in chemotherapy. (wikipedia.org)
  • The current review describes the effects of hypoxia on tumor response to a variety of anti-cancer agents and also describes progress toward therapeutically useful methods of delivering oxygen to tumors in an effort to overcome therapeutic resistance due to hypoxia. (nih.gov)
  • scientists
  • Scientists believe that the availability of fake malaria treatments in Cambodia, often containing small amounts of the real drug, is thought to be helping nurture resistance. (medindia.net)
  • At a meeting in Sydney last week, leading scientists and health experts flagged the need for tougher political leadership and regional coordination in Asia to combat malaria, with the drug-resistant strain a particular worry. (medindia.net)
  • Scientists found a 29% increase in drug resistance per year in East Africa, while Southern Africa saw a 14% increase, they say (compared to zero change in resistance levels in the rest of the continent and Latin America). (newser.com)
  • antibiotics
  • When people recklessly use antibiotics to fight a common cold, when farmers use antibiotics to boost livestock productivity, or when pharmacological factories emit antibiotics into the environment to cut production costs, the bacteria that the drugs are designed to kill become immune. (gulf-times.com)
  • The more antibiotics consumed and emitted, the faster resistance develops, leading to "superbugs" that jeopardise human health, both by raising the risk of massive deadly epidemics and by compromising medical services, such as surgery and cancer treatment, that rely on effective antibiotics. (gulf-times.com)
  • WHO reported huge gaps in the global knowledge of microbial resistance - only between 35 and 92 states were able to provide any data on the use of the nine antibiotics for the seven specific infections. (www.nhs.uk)
  • We can look for new antibiotics, but bacteria will always find a way to develop resistance again. (news-medical.net)
  • We need to find therapies that don't kill the bacteria but prevent it from becoming drug-resistant, so we can continue using our antibiotics into the future. (news-medical.net)
  • artemisinins
  • Countries where resistance to artemisinins or to ACT partner drugs is reported need to intensify malaria control in order to reduce the burden of the disease, and delay or prevent the spread of resistance. (who.int)
  • It is no exaggeration for me to say that the consequences of wide-spread resistance to artemisinins would be catastrophic," said Chan in her statement at the GPARC launch. (healthmap.org)
  • World Health Organ
  • Billions of dollars of investment and a decade of progress "will probably be hijacked" if the resistance spreads to malaria-ridden Africa, said World Health Organisation regional expert Charles Delacollette. (medindia.net)
  • Africa
  • Twice in the past, South East Asia has made a gift, unwittingly, of drug resistant parasites to the rest of the world, in particular to Africa," the Telegraph quoted the BBC as saying. (medindia.net)
  • The research team found that, from 2001-2016, the odds of drug resistance in low- to middle-income countries across Sub-Saharan Africa, Latin America and Asia were increasing. (eurekalert.org)
  • In particular, the yearly incremental increase in NNRTI resistance was greatest in Eastern Africa (29% annual increase) and in Southern Africa (23% annual increase, with an absolute increase of 1.8 percentage points from 2015 to 2016) and was the smallest in Asia (11% annual increase). (eurekalert.org)
  • Drug resistance is posing a growing problem in sub-Saharan Africa. (newser.com)
  • In Africa and India, close to 45 percent of available malaria drugs fail to meet quality standards. (worldpolicy.org)
  • treatments
  • For now the drug remains effective in most cases, and second-line treatments -- albeit less potent -- ensure deaths are still relatively rare in Thailand, which reported about 30,000 cases and 12 fatalities in 2011. (medindia.net)
  • Current treatments for metastatic cancers, by giving the same drug repeatedly at the maximum tolerated dose, can inadvertently increase the speed with which cancer cells can evolve effective counter measures and then regrow," said Robert A. Gatenby , M.D., co-director of Moffitt's Center of Excellence in Evolutionary Therapy, one of the leaders of this new line of research. (psa-rising.com)
  • spreads
  • If the resistance spreads there will be a surge in cases," warned Fatoumata Nafo-Traore, director of the Roll Back Malaria Partnership, which coordinates the global fight against the disease. (medindia.net)
  • Clinical Aspects
  • It covers both basic research and clinical aspects of drug resistance. (elsevier.com)
  • It covers both basic research and clinical aspects of drug resistance, and involves disciplines as diverse as molecular biology, biochemistry, cell biology, pharmacology, microbiology, preclinical therapeutics, oncology and clinical medicine. (elsevier.com)
  • develop
  • The chemicals contained in these preparations, besides harming beneficial organisms, may intentionally or inadvertently target organisms that have the potential to develop resistance. (wikipedia.org)
  • When patients develop resistence to certain drugs, will they ALWAYS be resistent to them from that point on? (thebody.com)
  • microbes
  • Read, and colleague Troy Day, professor of mathematics, statistics, and biology at Queen's University in Ontario, Canada, developed a very general mathematical model that quantifies the two main evolutionary forces at work in the evolution of drug resistance in disease-causing microbes. (psu.edu)
  • Killing all of the infecting microbes obviously stops any further evolution of drug resistance, but we can't do this in every case. (psu.edu)
  • One of the main reasons drug-resistant microbes are rare is that they are in direct competition for resources with their drug-sensitive neighbors," said Read. (psu.edu)
  • Regions
  • Regions for which there is evidence of resistance should consider adding more sentinel sites to facilitate early detection of new resistance foci. (who.int)
  • Using the available data, it found very high rates of resistance to these common bacteria to the drugs in all WHO regions. (www.nhs.uk)
  • National reports of 50% resistance or more to the drugs were found in two to six of the six WHO global regions. (www.nhs.uk)
  • Recognizing the disproportionate effect of counterfeits on the developing world, the CGD report includes a list of recommendations targeting the issue of drug resistance in poverty-stricken regions. (worldpolicy.org)
  • dose of a drug
  • We're extending that old rule of thumb to say that the best practice will either be the highest dose or the lowest dose of a drug," said Read. (psu.edu)
  • evolution
  • What dose of medication is best to prevent the evolution of drug resistance? (psu.edu)
  • By definition, both will make the patient better in the short term, but we don't know ahead of time which course of action will be best for preventing the evolution of resistance, which leads to more problems in the long term. (psu.edu)
  • Drug, toxin, or chemical resistance is a consequence of evolution and is a response to pressures imposed on any living organism. (wikipedia.org)