• Clinical data are limited regarding drug interactions with inhaled zanamivir. (cdc.gov)
  • Limited clinical data are available regarding drug interactions with oral oseltamivir. (cdc.gov)
  • Few published data from clinical trials are available concerning the safety or efficacy of using combinations of different classes of influenza antiviral drugs. (cdc.gov)
  • It should also be remembered that there are interactions that, from a theoretical standpoint, may occur but in clinical practice have no important repercussions. (wikipedia.org)
  • Compactin and lovastatin, natural products with a powerful inhibitory effect on HMG-CoA reductase, were discovered in the 1970s, and taken into clinical development as potential drugs for lowering LDL cholesterol. (wikipedia.org)
  • CYP2C19 is a liver enzyme that acts on at least 10% of drugs in current clinical use, most notably the antiplatelet treatment clopidogrel (Plavix) also drugs that treat pain associated with ulcers, such as omeprazole, antiseizure drugs such as mephenytoin, the antimalarial proguanil, and the anxiolytic diazepam. (wikipedia.org)
  • Those in clinical use include: Epithelial sodium channel blockers Amiloride Triamterene Aldosterone antagonists (mostly spirolactones): Spironolactone Eplerenone While not classically considered potassium-sparing diuretics, ACE inhibitors (ACEi) and angiotensin receptor blockers (ARB) are anti-hypertensive drugs with diuretic effects that decrease renal excretion of potassium. (wikipedia.org)
  • On April 28, 2011, the FDA Antiviral Drugs Advisory Committee voted 18-0 to recommend approval telaprevir for people with genotype 1 chronic hepatitis C. The committee reviewed clinical trial data (including findings from the phase-III ADVANCE, ILLUMINATE, and REALIZE studies) showing that combining telaprevir with pegylated interferon and ribavirin produced a higher cure rate-and in less time-than standard therapy alone. (wikipedia.org)
  • Manufacturers warn in package inserts about an interaction with Ritonavir, but clinical interactions of Ritonavir with estazolam have not yet been described. (wikipedia.org)
  • The febuxostat drug labels already carry a warning and precaution about cardiovascular events because the clinical trials conducted before approval showed a higher rate of heart-related problems in patients treated with febuxostat compared to allopurinol. (wikipedia.org)
  • As a result, the FDA required an additional safety clinical trial after the drug was approved and on the market to better understand these differences, and that trial was finished recently. (wikipedia.org)
  • Handbook of Drug Interactions: A Clinical and Forensic Guide. (wikipedia.org)
  • For example, mixing a drug you take to help you sleep (a sedative) and a drug you take for allergies (an antihistamine) can slow your reactions and make driving a car or operating machinery dangerous. (fda.gov)
  • Such reactions are usually due to inappropriate dosage, especially when drug elimination is impaired. (wikipedia.org)
  • Pharmacogenomics is the study of the inherited basis for abnormal drug reactions. (wikipedia.org)
  • These proteins are monooxygenases that catalyze many reactions involved in drug metabolism and synthesis of cholesterol, steroids and other lipids. (wikipedia.org)
  • Because these reactions are reported voluntarily from a population of uncertain size, it is generally not possible to reliably estimate their frequency or establish a causal relationship to drug exposure. (wikipedia.org)
  • Rofecoxib (Vioxx) was shown to produce significantly fewer gastrointestinal adverse drug reactions (ADRs) compared with naproxen. (wikipedia.org)
  • Beyond adverse effects from the herb itself, "adulteration, inappropriate formulation, or lack of understanding of plant and drug interactions have led to adverse reactions that are sometimes life threatening or lethal. (wikipedia.org)
  • When the analytical concentration of methylamine is twice that of ethylenediamine and the concentration of copper is the same in both reactions, the concentration [Cu(en)] is much higher than the concentration [Cu(MeNH2)because β11 ≫ β12. (wikipedia.org)
  • After receiving reports of serious skin reactions, some fatal, in patients taking the hepatitis C drug Incivek (telaprevir) in combination with drugs peginterferon alfa and ribavirin (Incivek combination treatment), the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) has added a black box warning to the label of this Vertex Pharmaceutical Inc. product. (wikipedia.org)
  • The implication of this is that a large proportion of drugs, especially those that are lowly soluble and permeable ones, encounter the microbiome and are subject to reductive and hydrolytic reactions. (wikipedia.org)
  • These drug interactions result in increased or decreased drug effects, or produce other new unwanted effects and are serious problems for medical institutions and pharmaceutical companies. (nih.gov)
  • Japanese drug package inserts are stored in the JAPIC (Japan Pharmaceutical Information Center) database and GenomeNet provides the GenomeNet pharmaceutical products database, which integrate the JAPIC and KEGG databases. (nih.gov)
  • The pharmaceutical interactions that are of special interest to the practice of medicine are primarily those that have negative effects for an organism. (wikipedia.org)
  • Unlike many other categories, such as opiates, which are established according to pharmaceutical or chemical properties, club drugs are a "category of convenience", in which drugs are included due to the locations they are consumed and/or where the user goes while under the influence of the drugs. (wikipedia.org)
  • Some macrolides have antibiotic or antifungal activity and are used as pharmaceutical drugs. (wikipedia.org)
  • PBPK modeling is used in pharmaceutical research and drug development, and in health risk assessment for cosmetics or general chemicals. (wikipedia.org)
  • An active ingredient (AI) is the ingredient in a pharmaceutical drug that is biologically active. (wikipedia.org)
  • The dosage form for a pharmaceutical contains the active pharmaceutical ingredient (API), which is the drug itself, and excipients, which are the substances of the tablet, or the liquid the API is suspended in, or other material that is pharmaceutically inert. (wikipedia.org)
  • Telaprevir (VX-950), marketed under the brand names Incivek and Incivo, is a pharmaceutical drug for the treatment of hepatitis C co-developed by Vertex Pharmaceuticals and Johnson & Johnson. (wikipedia.org)
  • Common known pharmaceutical drugs which cause false positives in instant THC dip tests include:[citation needed] Efavirenz, Ibuprofen, Ketoprofen, Naproxen, Piroxicam, Promethazine, Proton pump inhibitors, Sulindac, Tolmetin The Duquenois-Levine test is a simple chemical color reaction test initially developed in the 1930s by Pierre Duquénois. (wikipedia.org)
  • Information on drugs is drawn from the manufacturers' product literature, medical and pharmaceutical literature, regulatory authorities and professional bodies. (wikipedia.org)
  • Unlike most anxiolytics, the pharmacology of buspirone is not related to that of benzodiazepines, barbiturates, or carbamates (it is not a GABA receptor agonist), and so buspirone does not carry the risk of physical dependence and withdrawal symptoms for which those drug classes are known. (wikipedia.org)
  • The drug has been shown to be similarly effective in the treatment of GAD to benzodiazepines including diazepam, alprazolam, lorazepam, and clorazepate. (wikipedia.org)
  • In this context, benzodiazepines are given either alone, or in combination with other first-line drugs such as lithium, haloperidol or risperidone. (wikipedia.org)
  • The effectiveness of taking benzodiazepines along with antipsychotic drugs is unknown, and more research is needed to determine if benzodiazepines are more effective than antipsychotic drugs when urgent sedation is required. (wikipedia.org)
  • However, quazepam causes significantly less drug tolerance and less withdrawal symptoms including less rebound insomnia upon discontinuation compared to other benzodiazepines. (wikipedia.org)
  • A review of the literature found that long-term use of benzodiazepines such as estazolam is associated with drug tolerance, drug dependence, rebound insomnia and CNS related adverse effects. (wikipedia.org)
  • Some drugs have serious side effects in combination with other medications. (cnn.com)
  • It generates oxygen radicals and activates many xenobiotics to toxic metabolites, thereby explaining the increased vulnerability of heavy drinkers to industrial solvents, anesthetics, commonly used drugs, over-the-counter medications and carcinogens. (nih.gov)
  • Over a third (36%) of older adults in the U.S. regularly use 5 or more medications or supplements and 15% are potentially at risk for a major drug-drug interaction. (wikipedia.org)
  • Both the use of medications and subsequent adverse drug interactions have increased significantly between 2005-2011. (wikipedia.org)
  • Specifically it is used to treat active drug resistant tuberculosis together with other antituberculosis medications. (wikipedia.org)
  • Butriptyline is closely related to amitriptyline, and produces similar effects as other TCAs, but its side effects like sedation are said to be reduced in severity and it has a lower risk of interactions with other medications. (wikipedia.org)
  • Another recent study showed that a triple-combination antiviral drug (TCAD) regimen consisting of oral doses of amantadine, oseltamivir, and ribavirin, had similar pharmacokinetics in healthy volunteers to each individual antiviral during monotherapy following a single oral dose, and that TCAD was administered safely in immunocompromised patients (Seo, 2013). (cdc.gov)
  • This material does not endorse drugs, diagnose patients, or recommend therapy. (drugs.com)
  • About half of all senior patients take several prescribed or over-the-counter (OTC) drugs simultaneously, and frequently over prolonged periods. (healthy.net)
  • Due to sickle-cell disease patients' being at increased risk for developing osteomyelitis from the Salmonella genus, fluoroquinolones are the "drugs of choice" due to their ability to enter bone tissue without chelating it, as tetracyclines are known to do. (wikipedia.org)
  • As of 2016, the U.S. FDA recommended that "serious side effects associated with fluoroquinolone antibacterial drugs generally outweigh the benefits for patients with acute sinusitis, acute bronchitis, and uncomplicated urinary tract infections who have other treatment options. (wikipedia.org)
  • Fomivirsen (brand name Vitravene) is an antisense antiviral drug that was used in the treatment of cytomegalovirus retinitis (CMV) in immunocompromised patients, including those with AIDS. (wikipedia.org)
  • It was recommended that the drug remain available only for patients with severe epilepsy for whom the benefits outweigh the risks, and that changes be made to the product's labelling to reflect the newly recognized risk. (wikipedia.org)
  • Many patients report increased alertness with the drug. (wikipedia.org)
  • The most severe reaction to gadobutrol is nephrogenic system fibrosis (NSF) among patients with impaired elimination of the drug. (wikipedia.org)
  • It is also used as a reassurance by those administering drugs, for example a nurse on a hospital ward, and even for patients and others seeking an authoritative source of advice on any aspect of pharmacotherapy. (wikipedia.org)
  • Demerol can have serious interactions with the class of antidepressants known as MAO inhibitors, with effects ranging from increased heart rate and higher blood pressure to cardiac arrest. (cnn.com)
  • Tricyclic antidepressants and sleep aids may also have these interactions with Demerol, said Dr. Eugene Viscusi, director of pain management at Thomas Jefferson University Hospital in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania. (cnn.com)
  • Xylazine is very similar to drugs such as phenothiazine, tricyclic antidepressants, and clonidine. (wikipedia.org)
  • Drug-resistant tuberculosis (TB) is a continuing threat that significantly complicates TB eradication efforts.The rising number of TB infections resistant to multiple drugs (MDR TB) in many. (merckmanuals.com)
  • Buspirone is not considered to be a drug-of-abuse, is safer in overdose than traditional anxiolytics, and is significantly less impairing at therapeutic doses. (wikipedia.org)
  • Since their introduction, proton-pump inhibitors (PPIs, especially omeprazole) have also been associated with several cases of acute interstitial nephritis, an inflammation of the kidneys that often occurs as an adverse drug reaction. (wikipedia.org)
  • The concomitant use of sibutramine and monoamine oxidase inhibitors (MAOIs, such as selegiline) is not indicated, as it may increase the risk of serotonin syndrome, a somewhat rare but serious adverse drug reaction. (wikipedia.org)
  • For example, the azole antifungals such as ketoconazole or itraconazole can be both substrates and inhibitors of the P-glycoprotein, which (among other functions) excretes toxins and drugs into the intestines. (wikipedia.org)
  • Many disulfiram-like drugs act as inhibitors of acetaldehyde dehydrogenase similarly to disulfiram. (wikipedia.org)
  • In 2016, Martin was appointed Director of the Eskitis Drug Discovery Institute at Griffith University, which hosts unique drug discovery resources including Compounds Australia and NatureBank Since returning to Australia and establishing her own research group, Martin has continued working on DSB proteins and is now developing inhibitors of these bacterial proteins as a potential means of combatting antibiotic resistance. (wikipedia.org)
  • It is a member of a class of antiviral drugs known as protease inhibitors. (wikipedia.org)
  • Nitrazepam (brand names Alodorm and Mogadon, among others) is a hypnotic drug of the benzodiazepine class used for short-term relief from severe, disabling anxiety and insomnia. (wikipedia.org)
  • In 1889, he reported on a case of acute illness provoked by the newly introduced hypnotic drug sulfonmethane, also known as sulfonal. (wikipedia.org)
  • It is an effective hypnotic drug showing efficacy in increasing the time spent asleep as well as reducing awakenings during the night. (wikipedia.org)
  • sɪtəˈɡlɪptɪn/ ( listen), previously identified as MK-0431 and marketed as the phosphate salt under the trade name Januvia) is an oral antihyperglycemic (antidiabetic drug) of the dipeptidyl peptidase-4 (DPP-4) inhibitor class. (wikipedia.org)
  • The prototypical drug of this group is disulfiram (brand name Antabuse), which acts as an acetaldehyde dehydrogenase inhibitor, preventing the metabolism of acetaldehyde into acetic acid, and is used in the treatment of alcoholism. (wikipedia.org)
  • The drug is described as an atypical or "second-generation" TCA because, unlike other TCAs, it seems to be a fairly weak monoamine reuptake inhibitor. (wikipedia.org)
  • The drug is characterized as a weak androgen and anabolic, a weak progestogen, a weak antigonadotropin, a weak steroidogenesis inhibitor, and a functional antiestrogen. (wikipedia.org)
  • Nitrazepam is commonly taken in overdose by drug abusers or suicidal individuals, sometimes leading to death. (wikipedia.org)
  • Buspirone appears to be relatively benign in cases of single-drug overdose, although no definitive data on this subject appear to be available. (wikipedia.org)
  • The drug proved better than streptomycin, which had nerve toxicity and to which TB could easily develop resistance. (wikipedia.org)
  • That is true for both toxicity risk assessment and therapeutic drug development. (wikipedia.org)
  • The term Pharmacomicrobiomics was born in 2010 and was defined as the effect of microbiome variations on drug disposition, action, and toxicity. (wikipedia.org)
  • Dietary supplements can affect the way your body processes prescription and over-the-counter drugs. (familydoctor.org)
  • Discuss all OTC and prescription drugs, dietary supplements, vitamins, botanicals, minerals and herbals you take, as well as the foods you eat. (fda.gov)
  • citation needed] In 2011, researchers at John Jay College of Criminal Justice reported that dietary zinc supplements can mask the presence of THC and other drugs in urine. (wikipedia.org)
  • It was developed, and is marketed, by Merck & Co. This enzyme-inhibiting drug is used either alone or in combination with other oral antihyperglycemic agents (such as metformin or a thiazolidinedione) for treatment of diabetes mellitus type 2. (wikipedia.org)
  • some of these drugs, such as diphenhydramine and doxylamine, are therefore used to treat insomnia. (wikipedia.org)
  • An extensive review of the medical literature regarding the management of insomnia and the elderly found that there is considerable evidence of the effectiveness and durability of non-drug treatments for insomnia in adults of all ages and that these interventions are underutilized. (wikipedia.org)
  • Long-term use of sedative-hypnotics for insomnia lacks an evidence base and has traditionally been discouraged for reasons that include concerns about such potential adverse drug effects as cognitive impairment (anterograde amnesia), daytime sedation, motor incoordination, and increased risk of motor vehicle accidents and falls. (wikipedia.org)
  • Also, a 2012 NIH study showed that zolpidem's effectiveness is nearly as much due to psychological effects as to the drug itself, so "increased attention should be directed at psychological intervention of insomnia. (wikipedia.org)
  • A review medical publication found long-term use of zolpidem is associated with drug tolerance, substance dependence, rebound insomnia, and CNS-related adverse effects. (wikipedia.org)
  • The low potential for drug interactions with zanamivir. (cdc.gov)
  • The first members of the quinolone antibacterial class were relatively low potency drugs such as nalidixic acid, used mainly in the treatment of urinary tract infections owing to their renal excretion and propensity to be concentrated in urine. (wikipedia.org)
  • Panda's cell biological research covered the fields of eukaryotic and prokaryotic cell division, dynamics of microtubules and FtsZ, chemotherapeutic treatment protocols, development of FtsZ-targeted antibacterial drugs as well as biomolecular spectroscopy. (wikipedia.org)
  • He holds one patent for the development of an antibacterial drug and has four other patent applications pending approval. (wikipedia.org)
  • Lovastatin (Merck's Mevacor) is a statin drug, used for lowering cholesterol in those with hypercholesterolemia to reduce risk of cardiovascular disease. (wikipedia.org)
  • MDMA is sometimes taken in conjunction with other psychoactive drugs, such as LSD, DMT, psilocybin mushrooms and 2C-B. Users sometimes use mentholated products while taking MDMA for its cooling sensation. (wikipedia.org)
  • In a 2013 study in a comparison of 15 antipsychotic drugs in effectiveness in treating schizophrenic symptoms, ziprasidone demonstrated mild-standard effectiveness. (wikipedia.org)
  • Blockade of the 5-HT2A receptor may also play a role in its effectiveness against positive symptoms, though the significance of this property in antipsychotic drugs is still debated among researchers. (wikipedia.org)
  • It was licensed by the FDA for CMV in Aug 1998, and was the first antisense drug that was approved. (wikipedia.org)
  • Alternatively, drug interactions may be the result of the pharmacodynamic properties of the drug, e.g. the co-administration of a receptor antagonist and an agonist for the same receptor. (wikipedia.org)
  • He made important contributions to the function of receptors and the mathematical description of ligand-receptor interactions (receptor theory). (wikipedia.org)
  • The drug is a naturally occurring progestogen and hence is an agonist of the progesterone receptor (PR), the biological target of progestogens like endogenous progesterone. (wikipedia.org)
  • When used in combination with antacids, it promotes local delivery of these drugs to the receptor of the parietal cell wall. (wikipedia.org)
  • Quazepam may cause less rebound effects than other type1 benzodiazepine receptor selective nonbenzodiazepine drugs due to its longer half-life. (wikipedia.org)
  • The drug is a naturally occurring androgen and anabolic steroid and hence is an agonist of the androgen receptor (AR), the biological target of androgens like testosterone and DHT. (wikipedia.org)
  • The drug can act as both an agonist and antagonist of the PR depending on the bioassay, indicating that it could be regarded as a selective progesterone receptor modulator. (wikipedia.org)
  • The 2017 American Academy of Sleep Medicine recommendations focused on treatment with drugs were similar. (wikipedia.org)
  • The researchers behind the trial hypothesized that the drug blocks a protein that interferes with the action of lysosomes which normally destroy harmful proteins in the brain. (wikipedia.org)
  • However, the pharmacokinetics of omeprazole molecule strongly suggest the safety of omeprazole use during breastfeeding: Omeprazole has a high plasma protein binding rate (95%), indicating that little amount of drug is transferred to the milk duct during breast milk formation. (wikipedia.org)
  • She is a former Australian Research Council Laureate Fellow at the Institute for Molecular Bioscience, University of Queensland, and her research expertise and interests lie in the areas of structural biology, protein crystallography, protein interactions and their applications in drug design and discovery. (wikipedia.org)
  • Disease relevance alone however is insufficient for a protein to become a drug target. (wikipedia.org)
  • This is an increasingly popular approach in addressing the druggability of protein-protein interactions. (wikipedia.org)
  • A potentially much larger percentage of proteins could be made druggable if protein-protein interactions could be disrupted by small molecules. (wikipedia.org)
  • The antibody will then react with the drug-protein conjugate and a visible colored line will show up in the test line region of the specific drug strip. (wikipedia.org)
  • Some protein-protein interactions result in covalent bonding, and some pharmaceuticals are irreversible antagonists that may or may not be covalently bound. (wikipedia.org)
  • Hence the types of complexes that form as a result of molecular binding include: protein-protein protein-DNA protein-hormone protein-drug Proteins that form stable complexes with other molecules are often referred to as receptors while their binding partners are called ligands. (wikipedia.org)
  • The Food and Drug Administration highlights several interactions between drugs and various substances on its Web site . (cnn.com)
  • The U.S Food and Drug Administration defines a serious adverse event as one when the patient outcome is one of the following: Death Life-threatening Hospitalization (initial or prolonged) Disability - significant, persistent, or permanent change, impairment, damage or disruption in the patient's body function/structure, physical activities or quality of life. (wikipedia.org)
  • The U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) approved Noroxin for distribution in the United States on October 31, 1986. (wikipedia.org)
  • citation needed] The initial approval by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) in 1986 encompassed the following indications: Uncomplicated urinary tract infections (including cystitis) Complicated urinary tract infections (restricted use) Uncomplicated urethral and cervical gonorrhea (however this indication is no longer considered to be effective by some experts due to bacterial resistance) Prostatitis due to Escherichia coli. (wikipedia.org)
  • Buspirone is approved in the United States by the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) for the short- or long-term treatment of anxiety disorders or can also be used for the short-term relief of the symptoms of anxiety. (wikipedia.org)
  • Sitagliptin was approved by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) on October 17, 2006, and is marketed in the US as Januvia by Merck & Co. On April 2, 2007, the FDA approved an oral combination of sitagliptin and metformin marketed in the US as Janumet. (wikipedia.org)
  • It was approved by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) in November 1997 for the treatment of obesity. (wikipedia.org)
  • Historically, cascara was used in traditional medicine as a laxative, and in the late 20th century, the United States Food and Drug Administration (FDA) approved its use for this purpose. (wikipedia.org)
  • Ziprasidone is approved by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) for the treatment of schizophrenia as well as acute mania and mixed states associated with bipolar disorder. (wikipedia.org)
  • The U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) approved this off-label use of certain brands of regular combined oral contraceptive pills in 1997. (wikipedia.org)
  • On April 23, 2007, the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) approved 13 generic versions of zolpidem tartrate. (wikipedia.org)
  • It was approved by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration in 1971 as the first drug in the country to specifically treat this condition. (wikipedia.org)